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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0240, 1946-01-28.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0993

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSALTOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 993 Date: 28 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 240

ITEM 1 The Government Hurries Up to Revise the Constitution in Order to Maintain Old Elements - Mimpo - 27 Jan 46. Translator: K. Murakami.
Full Translation:
Since Mr. NOZAKA returned home recently, the advance towards the democratic united front, led by the Communist and the Social-Democrat Parties, has been developing daily; it is apparently seen only from the speeches made by the famous Socialists in JAPAN, who attended the welcome meeting for Mr. NOZAKA held on 25 January.
However, we must seriously regard the fact that, in contrast with such a democratic situation, the recent policies of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet have become more reactionary. For instance, we have two clear proofs of it, one, the compulsory measure for rice administration, and the other, the conservative selection of new prefectural governors after the recent sweeping change of governors due to the political purge directive issued by SCAP. Such an attitude by the Cabinet is derived from its positive political plot to strengthen the forces against democratization or from the ooposition of old bureaucratic and financial elements.
From such a point of view, we cannot but notice the recent action of the Government for the revision of the Constitution. At first, the SHIDEHARA Cabinet did not wish to revise the Constitution at all. We can illustrate this fact from the words of Premier SHIDEHARA and Minister without portfolio MATSUMOTO or from the fact that the Cabinet preferred Dr. MONOBE's opinion on the needlesness of revising the Constitution.
What does it mean when a cabinet which was so inactive as has been shown above, is now in a hurry to reform the Constitution? Since it is apparent from the answer of the Government at the last Diet session, that the Cabinet's bill is nothing but a partial reform of the present Constitution still maintaining the sovereignty of the Emperor, it can be safely said that the Government intends to take a strong defensives policy against the above-mentioned systematic progress of the democratic elements
The Government had revealed the contents of the draft on the reform of the Constitution to the people before the general election, and suggested that it be submitted to an extraordinary session of the diet. The later the date of the Diet session, the stronger becomes the power of the public, as we have often pointed out. In the same way, the later the Constitutional reform, the harder it becomes to revise it conservatively. We know that, recognizing this fact, the SHIDEHARA Cabinet, which is so obstinate as to have reshuffled itself and remained in office in spite of the uproarious criticism, wants to revise the Constitution before a strong popular front is formed, with a view to establishing a base, there by maintaining the authority of the old reactionary elements.
We as a Nation must always keep the fact in mind that we have no method of defeating political plots of old elements except by forming a solid democratic popular front.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 240 (Continued)
ITEM 2 NOZAKA Lays Emphasis on a New Patriotic Front - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Jan 46. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full Translation:
On the occasion of the welcoming mass meeting for his return home, held at HIBIYA on the 26th, NOZAKA, Sanzo, of the Communist Party deliberated the following speech to the assembled crowd:
"In order to extricate myself from police persecution and continue activities abroad, I left JAPAN following the resolution of the JAPAN Communist Party; l6 years have elapsed since then. During the whole period not a day was passed by me without thinking of the country and its future, nor did I cease activities for the emancipation of our people. The reason for my present return is for the sole purpose of dedicating the rest of my life for the emancipation and reconstruction of JAPAN. The first impression I gained on my return is that the destruction this country has suffered is far more disastrous than I imagined, and after the elapse of nearly half a year even the debris has not yet been cleaned up. Still more surprising is that the Government has no definite plan for reconstruction. So long as such a Government continues to exist not only can the Country never rise up from ruin, but it is in danger of falling into a semi-colonial state, both economically and politically. In this sense alone, we must demand in the people's name the immediate resignation of the present Government.
"The second impression since my return home is that the lives of the masses are more strained than anticipated. The masses are starving. Millions of war sufferers are shivering with cold because there are no houses in which to live. Several million unemployed and demobilized soldiers are wandering about in the streets without jobs. This is the present state of the working masses who occupy the majoity of our population. There is, however, an entirely different aspect in this country, that is high class restaurants, where one can spend thousands of yen in one night, are doing routing business.
"Here we can point out two conflicting aspects of the problem facing JAPAN; the majority of the Nation are unpropertied and poor, but a greater part of our wealth is grasped and accumulated in the hands of a small number of ZAIBATSU, and big landowners. However, here is hidden a key for the reconstruction of our country and the stabilization of the people's lives. It is that the wealth, consisting of capital and land, now in hands of a minority, should be turned to the reconstruction and stabilization by the power of the Nations, which may be called economic democracy. The material foundation necessary for the reconstruction of our country, for example the capital, is abundant in the Country, but it is now in the minority's hands and is employed for personal gains. Therefore, we people demand that this capital be employed for the benefit of the country and the people; in other words we demand that our key industries be nationalized end the monopolistic capital be powerfully controlled by a democratic Government. If we made such a demand here the millionaires would never accept it, nor would the present Government attempt to realize it, because to put such a demand to Premier SHIDEHARA, who is a son-in-law of the MITSUBISHI ZAIBATSU, is tantamount to asking an armed bandit for his weapon. In this sense we must demand the immediate retirement of the present Government.
"My third impression is that in spite of frequent cries for democracy' or 'Construction of a new JAPAN', actually democracy is being distorted or not realized at all. For example the influence of the militaristic War Criminals, who guided this country into this ruin, has not been
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POLITICAL SERIES: 240 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
completely liquidated. They are simply thrown down to the ground, but are still breathing and are watching for a chance to stand up again, either secretly or under the guise of democracy. Furthermore, the Government offices are filled with reactionary bureaucrats who are obstructing the democratization of the countries by every conceivable means. In compiling a new Constitution the Government, without taking up a democratic method of asking the people's opinion, is adopting an anti-democratic and bureaucratic method. In the case of the purchase of rice, without awaiting the farmers' spontaneous supplies, it is going to have recourse to compulsory measures. What the present Government is actually doing is sabotaging or obstructing our democratization in the name of democracy and sabotaging the fulfillment of the POTSDAM Declaration in its very name. That is why we demand the immediate resignation of the Government.
"Then, why is such Government still functioning, and why is the realization of democracy delayed? One of the fundamental causes is disruption of the various democratic influences in our Country. To put it in plain words, there is no unity among the democratic influences in the JAPAN Communist Party, the Social Democrat Party, the Liberal Party, and others, and all the other democratic organizations, such as Labor Unions, Farmers Unions, the middle and small commercial and industrial corporations, cultural associations etc. This split of democratic camps is responsible for allowing the reactionary influence and advantageous ground and for the continued existence of such undemocratic government. Therefore, a day's delay in the unification of the whole democratic influence or in the formation of a democratic front means a day's delay in our political and economic reform, so the misery of the people continues.
'Now then, what kind of democracy do we demand? To my view, there are two different kinds of democracies under the identical name. One kind of democracy is that which is being demanded by the present Government and capitalistic political parties, the leadership of which is in the hands of the bureaucrats, capitalists, and landowners. Under this democracy our revival is hopeless, and the stabilization of the people's lives is impossible. What we require is the other newer kind of democracy, the leadership of which must be in the hands of the laborers, farmers, working intellectuals, and medium and small commercial and industrial classes. Our crisis will be overcome and our lives mill be made happier by the realization of this type of democracy. When I speak in this way, I do not mean to propose to realize socialism at this very moment by overthrowing the present capitalism. I mean to say that by the authority of a working mens' Government and by keeping up the present capitalistic system, repressing the tyranny of the big capitalists, we must put a limit to their avaricious exploitation.
"The prevailing condition is becoming decidedly advantageous to the formation of a democratic front, and the opportunity is now ripening. In my opinion, we ought to adopt the following measures to form a democratic front, overcoming difficulties and obstacles: (1) Irrespective of labels all democrats should fully recognize the importance of the front (2) The masses themselves should act in concert. (3) The leaders of the various parties should exert themselves to the utmost for the formation of this front, and for that purpose the leaders should understand and trust one another. (4) In order to solve the problem which are most important to the people at the moment, a united action must be formed including all parties, and this is the, most important point.
"The democratic united front is a world current and a historical current, and JAPAN alone cannot be excluded from it. I can declare that should
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POLITICAL SERIES: 240 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
an attempt be made to exclude and isolate JAPAN from this current, such an attempt, will lead the Country into ruin. The current is now running in this country in that the people have begun requiring the immediate formation of a democratic front. If our political leaders try to advance against this current, the peoples' requirement, such men would be overwhelmed by the current of the times and be buried away. I hope that our democratic politician may not be doomed to such a fate. The Communists are not the only patriots, but all those who fight to breaking up the crisis and establish democracy are patriots. They are patriots, who positively support the democratic front which we are going to form; therefore, our democratic front can also be called a patriotic front;"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0240, 1946-01-28.
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