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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0239, 1946-01-28.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0991

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADUQARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 991 Date: 28 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 239

ITEM 1 Shrine Duties To Be Transferred To Education Ministry - Mainichi Shimbun - 26 Jan 46. Translator: H. Naoji.
Full Translation:
It was decided in the Cabinet to transfer various duties concerning the Great Shrines and other shrines, which will henceforth be treated in the same manner as other religions, in compliance with a SCAP directive. An Imperial ordinance was issued regarding the management of the Great Shrine and other shrines at the Cabinet meeting held on 25 January. It was explained by Education Minister ABE that the Great Shrine and other shrines henceforth would be dealt with under the category of religion and will be managed by the Ministry of Education. This will take effect from the day the revision of the juridical law of religion is put into force. The rest of the business coming under the Shrines Affairs Board and the Bureau of the Construction of Great Shrines will be transferred to the Home Ministry for readjustment.
ITEM 2 "An International Military Tribunal For the Far East" By YOKOTA, Kisaburo.- Mainichi Shimbun - 26 Jan 46. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
General Douglas MacARTHUR on 23 January issued an order establishing an International Military Tribunal for the FAR EAST and the Charter implemented thereto, according to which former Prime Minister TOJO, Hideki, and other major war criminals will be put on trial. The Tribunal, which will be permanently located in TOKYO, as well as the first tribunal at NUERNBERG, where Reichsmarshal GOERING and other Nazi war criminals are being tried, will exert a revolutionary effect on international law. In this regard, YOKOTA, Kisaburo, professor at TOKYO Imperial University, an authority on international law, commented as follows: In the light of Article 1 of the Anti-War Pact concluded in 1928, reading "It is illegal to settle a conflict by arms and the waging of war as a State policy should be eschewed", the charter of the tribunal will provide for a trial of the Japanese political leaders because they waged a war in violation of this international treaty. The conception of "an illegal war of aggression" is quite important for the definition of the charter on which the order is based. The trial afforded by the terms of this charter, which is marked in the privisions - Article 5 (a) Crimes against peace, Article 6 responsibility of accused, differs from the conventional legal trial. General YAMASHITA and Corporal TSUCHIYA were put on trial and charged with conventional war crimes or crimes against humanity within specified-territories. However, the new trials by this charter concern primarily those responsible in politics or those charged with offenses which include crimes against peace. This principle is likewise applied at the NUERNBERG trials of GOERING and other war criminals.
Still more, provisions concerning the responsibility of the accused - Article 6 reading, "Neither the official position, at any time, of an accused, nor the fact that an accused acted pursuant to orders of

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POLITICAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
his Government or of a superior shall, of itself, he sufficient to free such accused from responsibility for any crime with which he is charged", - represent a most significant development in the deletion of the old idea that "an accused, acting pursuant to orders of a superior, is not responsible for any crimes". Just before the outbreak of war some political leaders may have attempted to prevent the war, but it is predicated in Article 6 that all the members of the TOJO Cabinet are to be put on trial. The noted provisional clause of Article 6, reading "Such circumstances may be considered in mitigation of punishment if the tribunal determines that justice so requires", is not stipulated in the general provisions of the trial for the Nazi war criminals. Considering the differences of conditions in JAPAN and GERMANY, it must be admitted that there is good reason for this provision.
ITEM 3 Dr. MINOBE Made Member of the Privy Council - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ono.
Full Translation:
The Government yesterday announced the appointment of Dr. MINORE as member of the Privy Council. His nomination ceremony took place early in the evening of the same day, following that of the Minister of Transportation. Four seats on the Privy Council are still vacant.
ITEM 4 MURAKAMI, Giichi named Minister of Transportation - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ono.
Extracts:
The nomination ceremony of MURAKAMI, to the post of Minister of Transportation, a post temporarily occupied by MITSUCHI, Home Minister, was held 26 January at the Imperial Palace.
The new minister is a veteran of the railways. Immediately after his graduation from the Imperial University of TOKYO in 1912, he entered the National Railways Department to stay there until 1930, when he accepted a post as director of the South Manchurian Railway. He was, in 1937, nominated as the vice-president of the NIPPON Express Co. Ltd. of which he later became president. He was, prior to his nomination, the president of the NIPPON Railways Association.
There is a rumor that he is a kinsman to admiral NOMURA, a colleague of MITSUCHI as member of the Privy Council, the fact that MITSUCHI, former Minister of Railways, being acquainted with MURAKAMI, may also have had much to do with the selection.
His long experience in the railroad services no doubt qualifies him for the new post, although his lack of knowledge of maritime transportation will be a great disadvantage. Meanwhile, his ability as chief-administrator to effect a timely reformation in the railroad management at a period of transition like the present still remains to be seen.
At a press interview, after his nomination ceremony, he stated that his first effort would he directed to the early rehabilitation of war-torn railway services, and that he would strive at the same time improve the working conditions of railway employees.
ITEM 5 People's Mass Meeting to Welcome Home Mr. NOZAKA - Demands Cabinet's Prompt Resignation. - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Jan 46. Translator: K.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Full Translation:
Mr. YAMAKAWA, Hitoshi, and others sponsored a people's mass meeting at HIBIYA PARK on 26 January to welcome Mr. NOZAKA, Sanzo, on his return from 16 years of exile. The staffs of the Social Democratic and Communist Parties were present including such men of culture as MUROBUSHI, Koshin, KAMICHIKA, Ichiko, and others, representatives of the laborers' and farmers' unions, women's and students' associations, and the people in all at about 30,000. Mr. ASAU, Juiichi, opened the meeting, and a wreath of flowers was presented to Mr. NOZAKA by Miss HATORI, Toshiko (representative of All-JAPAN Cinema Workers' Union). Following the addresses of Mr. YAMAKAWA, Hitoshi (Chief of the committee for the mass meeting), Mr. ARAHATA, Kanson (the Chairman), Mr. SHIMAKAMI, Zengoro and Mr. KUROKI, Shigenori (the Vice-Chairmen), speeches were delivered in turn by Mr. MIZUTANI, Chozaburo (Social Democratic Party), Mr. SUSUKIDA, Kenji (reciting his welcome poem), Mrs. KAMICHIKA, Ichiko, Mr. KIN, Kun (representative of Korean groups), Mr. TOYAMA, Kagehisa (representing demobilized soldiers), Mr. FUJITA, Susumu (reading a message representing All-JAPAN Cinema Workers' Union), Mr. HOSOKAWA, Karoku, and Mr. MUROBUSHI, Koshin, unanimously stressing the graft significances of welcoming Mr. NOZAKA home at this moment, and the necessity of forming a democratic front based on the spirit of fraternity. Then following the message of Mr. OZAKI, Yukio, (read by Mr. ISA, Hideo), Mr. NOZAKA took the rostrum in response to a storm of cheers, and disguising his fierce fighting spirit in his condescending attitude and meek tone he expressed his gratitude for the people's good will, stressed the significance of forming a democratic front, and revealed his decision as follows: 1. Whereas the present Cabinet has no ability to overthrow the devastation of our land and the people's indigence resulting from the war, we demand its prompt withdrawal in the name of the people. 2. True democracy is attained only by establishing a people's government where workers and farmers grasp the power of leadership. 3. The cause of delay in the realization of this democracy lies in the dispersion and disunion of the democratic elements, and their combination is indeed the most pressing head. 4. The conditions for forming a democratic front are now nature. Especially with the forthcoming general election we must join hands with the Social Democratic Party and develop a joint action in the election as well. 5. A united democratic front is a world trend, a trend in history, 6. The men who fight for the cause of establishing democracy are patriots. Therefore, the democratic front can be said to be a patriotic front in a new sense.
Further, Mr. KATAYAMA, Tetsu (Social Democratic Party), Mr. SHIGEMORI, Juji (TOKYO Transport Workers' Union), Mr. KATO, Kanju (JAPAN Federation of Labor Unions), and Mr. TOKUDA, Kyuichin (Communist Party) respectively cried for the formation of a strong democratic front, and lastly Mr. ARAHATA, Kanson addressed the Meeting in closing. Mr. YAMAKAWA them led the people in three cheers for the democratic front and the mass meeting ended.
In spite of the complicated and delicate atmosphere existing between the Social Democratic and Communist Parties, the problem of a united front has been gradually making progress. That this mass meeting of the people was held at this juncture and fallowing a friendly meeting for welcoming Mr. NOZAKA held by men of proletarian movements on 25 January, is considered to put spurs to the trend toward a strong comprehensive popular front by all democratic camps. Its future transitions will be interesting. After the meeting was closed the supporters of various bodies who were present opened a friendly meeting at the SEIYOKEN in the MURUNOUCHI Building.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 6 Demonstration By 3,000 Metropolitan People - Yomiuri Hochi - 27 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Summary:
About 3,000 members of the TOKYO Communication Council (TOKO) and the Metropolitan Electric Tramway Employees' Union visited the Director of the TOKYO Metropolis Communications' Bureau. They went to the Home Office in an orderly demonstration, and asked to interview Home Minister MITSUCHI. Both the Home Minister and Vice-Minister were away. Consequently, several representatives had an interview with Director TANIGAWA of the Police Bureau, and stated that a threefold increase in employee's salaries has been decided by the TOKYO Metropolis Employee Treatment Improvement Committee.
All the staffs are Government and public officials, so are liable under the Government official ordinance; therefore, it is requested that a solution be found to this problem. The Director of the Bureau promised, "AS I also have held a post in the TOKYO Metropolitan Office, I can understand what you say. I intend to do the best I can as soon as possible." All the people than proceeded to the Grand meeting to welcome Mr. NOZAKA at HIBIYA Park.
ITEM 7 Constitution Revision Investigation Committee - Mainichi Shimbun - 27 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Full Translation:
The investigation committee for the revision of the Constitution met at the official residence of the Premier on 26 January. At the meeting were present Chief of the Committee MATSUMOTO and other commissioners, and they investigated the revision draft, which was the result of the investigations made at the seventh minority conference after the general conference on 26 December 1945. They achieved satisfactory results for the revision. They are to hold a general meeting on 2 February, at which they will make further investigations of the draft.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0239, 1946-01-28.
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