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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0232, 1946-01-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0964

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 964 Date: 27 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Notes on the General Election by YAMAURA, Kanichi - Magazine; Hikari (Monthly) - 1 Jan 46 Issue. Translators: T/4 Shiine, E. Noshikawa.
The coming general election carries with it considerable international and domestic significance. The 12th article of the POTSDAM Declaration states that "the Allied occupational forces will withdraw as soon as a responsible and peaceful government has been established by the freely expressed will of the people". This means the establishment of a democratic parliamentary government which will represent the majority of the people. The primary mission of the general election is to select the elements of this new Diet through the exercise of the free will of the people.
The SHIDEHARA Cabinet is merely an intermediate one. It appeared at the end of the war promising to remove the existing members of the Diet selected by the TOJO Cabinet. Therefore, the 89th Diet was opened only for the purpose of revising the Election Law. The farm land reforms, execution of the Labor Union Law, and passage of the woman's suffrage law must be undertaken by new men.
War Responsibility of Diet Members
The Progressive party is influenced by both the former Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association and the JAPAN Political Association, created to support the TOJO Cabinet. Almost 270 members of this party are official members of the Diet.
The, independent Club, similar in character to the Progressive Party, declared, "we members of the Diet should all resign because of our responsibility in the war". This remark makes us curious for it really suggests that their temporary retirement now will make them eligible for the coming election. They should have said "we should surrender the coming election and relinquish our posts to new men".
Both the Liberal party and the Social-Democrat Party consists almost entirely of persons who kept silent during the war. But does this free them from war responsibility? At first they expressed themselves as being opposed to war, however, inasmuch as they were statesmen they should be blamed for neglecting to do their utmost to stop it. Such criticism should greatly influence the people, especially toward the social-Democrat Party of which there were more members connected with the war than there were in the Liberal Party. If the Communist Party adopts this war cry and discloses it to the public, the Social-Democrats will be hard hit. Since the Social-Democrats changed their attitude toward supporting the Emperor System and rejected a united front with the communists, they are now in opposition.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 232 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Party Members and Platforms
The JAPAN Progressive Party's General Affairs Committee - ICHINOMIYA, Fusataro; IMAI, Kenhiko; KATO, Ryogoro; SAKUTA, Kotaro; SAITO, Takao; TABE, Shichiroku; TAKAHASHI, Morihei; YOGO, Minoru; NAKAGAWA, Hiroshi; YASUMI, Saburo. Chief Parliament, Counsellor—KAWASAKI, Katsu; Director - TSURUMI, Yusuke. Chief of Political Investigations, OTA, Seiko. Chief of the Representative Association - IKEDA, Hideo. Accounts Inspectors - KOYANAGI, Makiei; KISHIDA, Masaki; YOKOKAWA, Shigeji; MIYAZAWA, Yutaka.
The members said to have been military Inspectors of the Political Association are: MACHIDA, Chuji; NAKA[illegible]IMA, Chikuhei; MAEDA, Yonozo; OASA, Tadao; YAMAZ[illegible]KI, Tatsunosuke; KANAMITSU, Yofu; SHIMADA, Toshio; OKADA, Tadahiko.
The JAPAN Liberal Party, President - HATOYAMA, I chiro; Assistants - OZAKI, Yukio; MINOBE Tatsukichi; ARITA, Hachiro; OGUCHI, Kiroku. General Affairs Committee - MATSUNO, Tsuruhei; ANDO, Masazumi; SHIYASU, Shinkuro; KUWAKI, Ganyoku; MAKINO, Ryozo; UYEHARA, Etsujiro; HOSHIJIMA, Jiro; HIRATSUKA, Tsunejiro, KIKUCHI, Ken; GO, Bunhei; SHIMANAKA, Yusaku; MATSUOKA, Toshizo; KITA, Reikichi; BANDO, Kotaro; FUJIFU, Yasutaro; OKUBO, Tomejiro. Secretary General - KONO, Hajime.
Social-Democratic Party. Secretary General - KATAYAMA, Jitsu; Inspectors of Accounts - MATSUMOTO, Haruichiro; YONEKUBO, Michisuke; SUNAGA, Konomu. chief of Organization Section - ASANUMA, Imajiro; Chief of Information Section - MIZUTANI, Chosaburo; chief of Education Section - KONO, Mitsu; Chief of Investigation Section - HARA, Hyo; Chief of [illegible]onth Section - NAKAMURA, Koichi; chief of Woman's Section - KURODA, Toshio; chief of International Section - TABARU, Haruji; chief of Labor Liaison Section - KATO, Kanju; chief of Farm village Liaison section - NOMIZO, Katsu; Chief of Co-oerative Union Liaison Section - SUGIYAMA, Motojiro; Chief of Commercial and Industrial Section - SUZUKI, Shigesaburo; Chief of Diet Section - NISHIO, Suehiro; Chief of Election Section - HIRANO, Rikizo; Assistants - ABE, Isoo; TAKANO, Iwasaburo; KAGAWA, Toyohiko; YACI, Hideji; BABA, Tsunezo; SUZUKI, Bunji; TOKUGAWA, Yoshichika; KAWAKAMI, Jyotaro; MATSUOKA, Komekichi.
Platform of JAPAN Progressive Party
Protection of a national constitution and establishment of a responsible parliamentary government based on true democracy.
Cultivation of individual character based on co-operation and self-government, by respecting the individual's freedom and by striving to establish universal peace.
Planning of active production and of a fair supply through an independent work-for-all system and an adjustment of industry (balance of power among the industries).
Urgent measure to combat starvation, inflation, unemployment and war suffering, to rescue Japanese overseas and to reform the judicial system.
Platform of The Liberal Party
The execution of the POTSDAM Declaration, eliminate militaristic elements and establish a new JAPAN based on universal justice.
Protection of the national Constitution, establishment of a democratic responsible governmental system and development of thought, speech and action through freedom of learning, art, education and religion.
Acceleration of free economic activity with a firm financial foundation and the execution of a plan for the aggrandizement of the

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POLITICAL SERIES: 232 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)

national economy through the reconstruction of such industries as agriculture, manual arts, commerce, etc.
Enlightment of national life with higher political, social and moral standards.
Respect of human rights, improvement of women's social standing, and establishment of basic security and happiness; draft measures in preparation for joining the United Rations Organization to restore confidence throughout the Nation.
Fundamental corrections of the errors in our policy toward CHINA.
Establishment of post-war extraordinary trial court to investigate responsibility for the war.
Platforms of The Social Democrat Party
National political freedom and establishment of a democratic system.
Exclusion of capitalism and the establishment of socialism.
Ejection of militaristic doctrines, ideas, and actions, and the realization of everlasting world peace through co-operation.
Adoption of a larger electorate and a proportional representation system giving suffrage to women as well as men over 18 years of age.
Abolition of the peerage system.
State management of important industries - (iron, steel, coal, etc, as well as banks, trusts, and insurance companies.
Establishment of a labor department, and public recognition of labor unions.
Democratization of the constitution based on the people's will.
On 14 December 1945, the Social Democratic Party expressed its views as follows: "We expect the realization of social democracy under the Emperor system and are adopting the principle of national sovereignty as our constitutional theory. We have no intention of establishing a united front with the Communist Party."
By that statement they clarified the fact that with the exception of their socialistic policies they were in accordance with the other parties of parliament.
Communist Party officials; Staff Secretary - TOKUDA, Kyuichi; KUROKI, Shigenori; SHIGA, Yoshio; HAKAMADA, Satomi; MIYAMOTO, Akiji.
Platform of the Communist Party
Abolition of the Emperor system and establishment of a people's republic.
Disbanding of all anti-democratic organs and severe punishment of all war criminals and those who infringed upon the people's rights
Abolition of the constitution and the establishment of a new constitution of the people.
Establishment of a democratic unicameral legislature.
Abolition of "offense to a member of the Imperial Family" in the criminal code.
Establishment of the peoples' front.
Confiscation of idle land and redistribution to the farmers without cost.
All banks under state management, administered by the people.
The Independent Club officials: Chief of the Representative Association, OKADA, Tadahiko. Agents of the following districts, HOKKAIDO - KITA, Katsutaro; TOHOKU - IKEDA, Masanosuke; KANTO - KAWASHIMA, Masatsugu; TOKAI - MITAMURA, Takeo; KYUSHU - MAZAKI, Katsuji; SHIKOKU - MIKI, Takeo; SHINETSU - ONO, Hideichi; KINKI - NAKATANI, Takeyo; CHUGOKU - NAGANO, Mamoru. Liaison men in the diet - KITA, Katsutaro; MITAMURA, Takeo; NAKATANI, Takeyo; HAMADA, Naotomo; KOYAMA, Ryo; MIKESHI, Torao.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 232 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Total Number of voters in the county. Total, (excluding OKINAWA) - 39,089,090 of which 20,917,593 are women. The women outnumber men by more than 2,700,000. Total figures show an increase of 24,000,000 over those participating in the election of 1942.
Policies of Each Party Evaluated
Generally speaking, both the Liberal and the Progressive Parties have similar patterns. They are liberal and progressive in name only. We can compare the former to the Liberals and the latter to conservatives in ENGLAND.
At first the Social Democrat Party did not classify its attitude towards the Emperor System but on 4 December 1945 after evaluating public opinion they released their declaration of supporting the system and rejected a united front with the Communists.
The elemental organization of the Social Democratic Party is not a simple one, for it has in its midst the former Liberal KATAYA, Leftists ARAHATA, Kanson; YAMAKAWA, Hitoshi, and others.
The Communist Party is extremely radical in its claims. It openly cries out, "Abolish the Emperor System and establish a government of the people". These remarks and speeches are rather radical and the proposed destruction of the Status quo as compared with programs suggested by the other parties which are lukewarm, and favorable to the Status quo are violent in their nature. Therefore, it would be premature to think that the country will easily come under the control of the communists. Since the peace Regulations, the Secret Police and the Gendarmerie have been abolished, the communists who had been forced underground have now been recognized as a legal party by SCAP. They have joined the ranks of the people which has made their position less glamorous in the eyes of the people, and, as a result, more difficult. We hope they prove worthy of the confidence given them and their political leadership.
Since the Communist Party is composed of highly educated men, its weakness of not having vigorous campaigners will be remedied if the party gains the support of the intellectuals of JAPAN(40-50 year olds) who had once before been imbued with the principles of marxism in their school days. Once this group takes part in the Communistic movement, they are sure to be a considerable menace to old Diet influences.
The representation of the parties in the Diet now (8 December 45) is as follows:
Progressive Party 273 members
Liberal Party 46 members
Independent Club 79 members
Social Democratic Party l6 members
Absent 50 members
Undecided 2 members
Total 466 members

Progressive Party Power
The Progressive Party commands an absolute majority in the House. However, it is a party composed of many war criminal suspects. It also seems to be in constant confusion because of internal conflict and struggles for power, as well as the problem of the party presidency. Besides that, the arrest of leaders such as NAKAJIMA, Chikuhei; OTA, Seiko; SAKURAI, Hyogoro; etc, by SCAP as war crime suspects, added confusion to the internal turmoil. Because of the
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POLITICAL SERIES: 232 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
numerous war criminal suspects in the party, it will depend en the Americans rather than the Japanese whether or not this party will participate in the coming general election.
Liberal Party Picture
The aspect of the Liberal Party in the coming election is not necessarily pessimistic. This party is in unison and centers about its president, HATOYAMA. Most of its members are pacifists and are not subject to the fate that may befall the progressive Party. The more arrests SCAP makes the greater the Liberal Party will benefit.
Social Democratic Party Hopes
The above mentioned factors are also present in the case of the Social Democrat Party. The Communists will serve as an obstacle to this Party because of the socialists' more moderate and sensible revolutionary ideas. They are in good standing with labor and with the women of the country, and in addition to this, they seem to be in good standing with SCAP.
Communist Party Chances
Communism is far from becoming a reality in JAPAN. Although it may be popular among the distressed, it would be hard for them to expect the farmers who are now extremely well off to desert the social Democratic Party.
We cannot overlook the fact that such a statement as "the aboliton of the Emperor System" will cause bad feeling among the Japanese people. Thus their election campaign will merely be an object of strong propaganda.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0232, 1946-01-27.
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