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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0224, 1946-01-25.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0932

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 932 Date: 25 Jan. 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 224

ITEM 1 Epoch making Revision of Government Officials' System-Tokyo Shimbun 24 January 1946. Translator: S. KAWASAKI.
Full Translation:
In accordance with the new situation at the end of the war, the Government has decided to establish a new system for Government officials so that they can accomplish their duties as real public servants. Prior to this, the Government studied the basic reforms of various fundamental laws and regulations and the machinery of the Government which includes the present Governmental Grade Salary Ordinance (KANTO HOKYU REI), Civil Service Appointment Ordinance (BUNKAN NINYO REI) the Civil Service Limitation Ordinance (BUNKAN BUNGEN REI), the Higher Civil Service Examination Ordinance, etc.
As consequence, basic plans were laid at the Cabinet meeting held last November. Subsequently, on the Cabinet's recommendation, the Bureau of Legislation began to formulate written ordinances, and has now completed this task. After the necessary formalities these will be made public on 24 January.
Their provisions are as follows: (1) unification of official titles; (2) separation of Government posts from Government services; (3) simplification of the system of official ranks by the abolition of distinctions between higher officials and officials of junior rank; (4) unification of the salary system.
In addition, the following matters always have been subject to criticism: (1) the examination system for the control and transfer of Government officials under selection for appointments; (2) establishment of a system to investigate into the education of Government officials (KYOIKU KENSHII SEIDO); (3) strict enforcement of the granting of rewards and imposing of penalties by a system of inspection, a state examination list system etc.
Such items are the root structure for the epock making reforms of the present official system.
ITEM 2 The Magazines "IE NO HIKARI" spread the War Spirit Among Rural Young People-Mimpo-24 January 1946. Translator: PAASCHE.
Summary:
Although the prosecution of war criminals by General MacARTHUR' s Headquarters has been extended to publishers. The Democratic Publishers League has spontaneously started it's own prosecution campaign against war mongering publishers. The League's first action was the exposing of a group of four publishing companies which have erred on the side of

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POLITICAL SERIES: 224 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
militarism. These are: "Lecture Society" (KODANSHA); "Friend of the Women Society" (SHUFU NO TOMO SHA); "Flourishing Culture Society" (OBUNSHA); "Fast Public Discussion Society" (DAIICHI KORONSHA); "Japanese Society" KOA NIPPON); "Hall of Delicacies" (ANKAIDO); and "Light of the House Association" (IE NO HIKARI KYOKAI). The League has requiested the authorities to expel these firms from the association of Japanese Publishers.
This common knowledge that the "Lecture Society" (KODANSHA) is guilty of war crimes but curiously little is known in the big cities of the war guilt of "Light of the House"(IE NO HIKARI). The fact must be stressed that this magazine had the greatest circulation of all publications and, also used the distribution facilities of the former Industrial Guilds. Therefore it has played a leading role in thought control and has even reached the children in rural communities all over the country. 'At first it appeared as a semi-popular magazine edited by the central Board of the Industrial Guilds and was chiefly read by farmers' children; but with the growth of the Guilds, the paper expanded until it reached a circulation of two millions. Even after the war circulation did not drop below the one million line. Therefore the magazine is still in a leading position.
This great circulation enabled the magazine to take the lead in indoctrinating village youth with imperialism and militarism; in the clubs for boys and girls it was read and studied. However, owing to it's special distribution facilities it did not appear in the show windows. It was also used as a gift to farmers, along with fertilizer, agricultural tools, and the like.
In June 1945, the aforesaid Central Board amalgamated into the "All JAPAN Agricultural Association" with seven other similar organs; but the "Light of the House" magazine was kept alive as a separate business and financed by one of the Agricultural Association's special accounts. It continued making its power felt in the villages by its special distribution system.
The magazine has not only contributed to the mental formation of village youth, but has also influenced their emotions; it not only propagandized for bigger crops but very definitely helped in boosting the war spirit.
ITEM 3 International Far Eastern Military Court to be Established-Asahi Shimbun 24 January 1946. Translator: S. Sano.
Full Translation:
General MacARTHUR issued an order on 22 January regarding the establishment of the International Far Eastern Military Court in which the war criminal suspects are to be tried.
The preparations for the trial of General TOJO and other suspects have rapidly progressed since the arrival of Chief prosecutor KEENAN, and the former War Ministry building has been decided on as the place of the trial. War-criminal suspects are expected to be tried there starting in March.
The trial of war criminals is carried out based on the POTSDAM stipulation that all war criminals, including the persons who have commited atrocities against allied war prisoners, will be tried.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 224 (Contined)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The types of war cirminals who are to be put on trial are peace opposers, ordinary war criminals, and the foes of humanity.
The trials carried out up to now have been cases of ordinary crimes, and the trials of General YAMASHITA, TSUCHIYA, and YURI came under this heading. These were trials of persons who violated the laws and customs of war. The other two types; that is, "foes of peace and humanity" represent a new idea which has been asserted since the recent war broke out. There are no international or national laws as yet for the punishment of these criminals.
"Foe of peace" moans "One who schemes or prepares for the launching of a declared or undeclared war of aggression, wiolation against various international treaties aid agreements on security, and participation in order to carry out the scheme or plot. General TOJO, Minister of TOJO's first Cabinet, and other war criminal suspects will fell under this category.
The "foe of humanity" was applied mainly to the moiestence of the Jewish race in GERMANY, but some civil and military police are also affected. All atrocities, ill treatment, banishments, and other unhumane actions during or before the war, or prosecutions for political or racial reasons will be judged without questioning whether or not they run counter to national law. Those who led, instigated, or planned these crimes must be held responsible.
Further, Article Six, which provides for the responsibility of the accused; namely the fact that the accused was obliged to carry out a certain action because of his official position in order to accomplish the directive of the Government or his superior, is an insufficient excuse.
All sentences at the military Court will be reported to General MacARTHUR, who has the power to change or reduce them.
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