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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0212, 1946-01-22.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0873

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 873 Date: 22 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Two Fundamental Problems of the Democratic Reformation by Sano. Goku - Magazine: Koron - Dac 45. Translators: H. Shine. E. Moshikawa
Full Translation:
Substantial Development from Democracy to Socialism
It is well known that the greatest reforms in JAPAN have already begun, but they are merely the beginning. Remaining feudalistic influences in the bureaucracy, the Parliament, the ZAIBATSU, the great land owners and corrupt elements in the Emperor's .Court, still cling: to their position, are visibly present, as [illegible]in the policies and character of 6 both the HIGASHIKUNI and SHIDEHARA Cabinots. The HIGASHIKUNI Cabinet represented the ZAIBATSU and corrupt elements. The purpose of their feudalistic politics is to divide the people. Real democratic reform can not be accomplished by the elimination of these systematized feudalistic influences, but only, through the disbanding of such fundamental social and economic influences as the ZAIBATSU and the great landowners.
That political revolution cannot be attained unless accompanied by social revolution, is clearly shown in history. Democratic revolutions have heretofore been used as measures favorable to the development of capitalism, but in JAPAN today, those clamoring for real democratization are not only the capitalists and the more learned classes, but also the laborers, farmers, and the common people, JAPAN's present vital problems cannot be solved by the more development of capitalism.
Today's democratic revolution must make progress towards socialism, by crossing the capitalists line. The realization of the POTSDAM Declarati[illegible]ration will be a major step toward the establishment of socialism. Socialistic reformations alone during the comming democratic campaign, will save JAPAN from her impending downfall. Democratization should be the first step, and Socialism the second step of the political revolution.
Democratic reform consists primarily of awakening the individual. Socialism can progress only when established on a foundation of individual consciousness.
The party cabinet which is expected to appear after the general election, will represent nothing more than a partial reform in the comming democratic revolution, since it will be unable to cope with the present political situation. At first, in the party cabinet, all parties will compromise and co-operate with each other, But later the competition among the parties will become severe and the parties will be unable to get along. As a consequence, the revolutionary party which will be able to spur the populace to action will gain the upper hand. In this manner, the final objective of the socialist revolution will be carried out. Thus JAPAN will again become one of the world's leading nations.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
II. Joining a Political Party, Freedom of Campaigns Among Parites, and Establishment of Party Government.
There are many problems connected with political democracy. Here, I should like to voice my own opinion about two of the fundamental ones, namely, the recognition of the importance of the political party, and the establishment of freedom, in order to realize the development of such parties. Freedom of speech should precede freedom of political association.
Heretofore, this freedom of criticism of the national structure, the war, the political system, capitalism, and the great land owners, has been denied. But, fortunately, we are now, apparently, released from this suppression of freedom of speech.
The two most influential people's associations are the political party and the labor union. The former is clearer in its political character. A political party is not a more group of people assembled about a political platform; in fact, it represents the political will of all classes, which forms the basis of the party's platform and political action. The platform is form; class feeling is substance. For example, we find bourgeois elements in the liberal party, and element of labor and agriculture in the Communist Party. This factor of class character of a political party does not mean the forwarding of class egoism. The political party, in the true sense of the word, is based on the characteristics of a class, but still, it represents the will of all classes.
The political party is worthy of existence because it actually represents the harmony of all classes and the national character. More class struggle is contrary to the actual social truth. In society, all classes touch, and either strive for supremacy or co-operate with each other. The more actively the classes tough, the more progressively [illegible]the society a vance, and there is nothing which represents the intermingling of classes core vigorously than the relations of political parties. The Pacific-war was never based upon the public will, and the spiritual and material calibre of all things was substantially lowered during the war. Even today, since there are no fundamental reforms to arouse the people's emotions, general social despair has set in. Then, how are the people to be rejuvenated and spurred on to overcome their present desperation, and pour their productive activities into the present social situation?
To solve this problem, it is of extreme importance to arouse the people and to connect them to some political party. Belonging to a certain party and taking part with activities means engaging in politics In the broad sense of the word, even if it does not me[illegible]taking part in the actual political control. The consciousness of joining in politics strengthens the people's sense of social responsibility.
Speaking of political parties we are apt to recall the now defunct SEIYUKAI and MINSEITO. But such evil parties, which respected their own private interests rather than the public's interests, cannot be permitted to exist. Only that party which represents the interests of the people, based on class feeling, can assume a position of leadership, in this historical period of transition from democracy to socialism.
The political party is equipped with miraculous medicinal powers. It is the most active representative of all classes, and all politics should be centered about political [illegible]. The parliament is more than a mere legislature body. The Diet is worthy of its existence only when composed of parties. A cabinet can be said to be a rational one only when it has been formed largely from the party which takes the most active part in the Diet. A party cabinet must be established along these lines. Naturally we should not limit the parties represented in the Parliament. A party which is supported by the public should be granted representation if it does not already have representatives in the Diet.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
After the general election, the appearance of a party cabinet is a strong possibility. It will be a bi-partisan cabinet, centering about the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party. Its political actions will be confered mostly to temporary reforms. Though Mr. HATOYAKA, president of the Liberal Party, says that he opposed the war, secrstly he was chief secretary in the Cabinet of Baron TANAKA, Giichi, when the Public Peace Regulations came into being and the SHANTUNG expedition was dispatched. His dismissal of Professor TARIGAWA, and his suppression of liberalism in the KYOTO Imperial University, when he was Minister of Education, are still fresh In our memory.
Setting aside the common people for a moment, we cannot feel secure about the new political leaders, who now pretend innocence, nor can we absolve them of their past responsibilities.
It will be the same members of all of the other parties who ardently co-operated with the policies of the Government during the war. New cabinets, which so often appear, cannot help but resign since they cannot cope with the acute situation in JAPAN, today, with its complicated food shortages, general distress, unemployment, reparations, etc. Consequently, the bi-partisan cabinet mentioned above will pass nothing more than partial reforms through which Japanese welfare can never be restored.
Then a severe campaign for political hegemony will take place among the parties represented in the cabinet. This campaign should be fought most freely. As a result of the struggle, the revolutionary political party should and will gain the upper hand and will set public activity into [illegible]uniting the people's will, feelings and desires. Through the efforts of such a party along will JAPAN be reborn.
Such a party does not appear as yet but it should be brought into being by advance-guard elements composed of sincere people. This potential advance-guard is scattered all over the towns and villages of JAPAN and, as yet, remains silent. These people must be awakened to activity; they should not remain dormant forever.
III. A Assembly of all the Japanese People as the Highest Democratic Organ.
I do not think that the Diet is the most suitable democratic organ for the direct representation of the actual will of the people. Then what is to be the highest democratic body! It should be a national assembly of the people, consisiting of representatives elected by the general public with representation based on productive areas containing villages and factories, As you can see, the Government authorities are now in a quandary ever acute problems concerned with general distress, unemployment, food shortages, inflation, etc. Since these problems cannot be left in the hands of such an incapable Government, the people should meet and solve these serious problems, themselves, by organizing a committee of the people. The natural and spontaneous generation of a people's government, in opposition to existing governmental influences, is inevitable. When this democratic tendency, originating from and supported by the masses, is systematized and driven toward its objectives, the democratization of politics in JAPAN will be realized completely.
The election of representatives to the national assembly of the people should be based on units of the farmer's committees in villages, the labor committees in factories, and the public committees established in every business office, public office, school, town and city. The methods of election should be adopted on a wider sphere than those of the Diet election. For example, the electorial franchise should be given to all men and woman over 18. Thus the direct and substancial representation of the actual will of the general public will be made possible.
That the public committee and its electoral system have not yet been formed goes without saying, but it is only the actual establishment of that system, representing the people themselves over and above existing Govern
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POLITICAL SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
ment influence, which will solve the problem of JAPAN today. The people of Russia did not establish the SOVIET UNION in opposition to the KERENSKY government with the same idealogy in mind, they had one idea in common with ours, namely, that the people themselves, in utter disgust of the uncompetent authority in power, established a government of their own.
The public committee in the villages should take the form of a committee of farmers, previously mentioned. There I should like to elaborate on this particular point. The villages in JAPAN, with their tradition and training of over 1,000 years, represent the most original system of social co-operation in the country. This tradition training must be utilized as a foundation for which the development of democracy on a national scale is to be based. The inhabitants of the villages consist of landowners, rich farmers, middle and lower class small-holders, tenant farmers, small-merchants and tradesmen, physicians, and priests. All of these inhabitants who are over 18 should be permitted to vote for their representatives, thereby forming the farmer's committee. The farmers committee will then elect a village mayor, villages officers, and civil policemen. The committee should have the right to discharge all officers below the village mayor. The village is thereby to be completely self-governed, with no interference from the national Government. The democratic traditions of the villages make them capable of achieving such a reformation.
The duties of the farmers committee would be as follows:
(1) Administration of the land revolution, (the land revolution itself will be ordered by the state government), namely, redistribution of the land to small free-holders, and establishment of collective farms in villages which will be part of the larger state collective farms.
(2) Administration of productive management, namely, co-operative, farming, co-operative control of machines, point control of farm, products, and co-operative reclamation of waste land.
(3) Control of villages government.
(4) Supervision of farmer's associations.
(5) Its Important political function as an electoral body from which representatives to the national assembly are to be elected.

Hence the village, as well as the factory, will be an important basic unit of the national assembly. The national assembly of the people should leave broader powers than those of the Diet. The reshuffling of the Cabinet, the recommendation of candidates for Prime Minister, the power of trying political leaders who misdirect the State into disaster, the dismissal of Diet representatives, and certain legislative powers should all come within the scope of the natural assembly.
The first national assembly should be convened as early as possible. Investigation of war criminals, a vote on the abolition of the Emperor Syster and the prompt solution of unemployment, food, and other distressing post war problems should be subjects of discussion at that meeting.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0212, 1946-01-22.
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