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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0204, 1946-01-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0848

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 848 Date: 20 Jan 46.

POLITICAL SERIES: 204

ITEM 1 Communists and Social-Democrats Reach a Compromise, Say the Latter Asahi Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
MIZUTANI, Chozaburo, spoke on 17 January in behalf of the Social- Democrat Party to connection with the counter-charge of the Communist Party in the Social-Democrat's recent statements. MIZUTANI explained that, "Our Party recognized the Communist attitude on the return of NOZAKA from the Continent, just as our Party changed its attitude enough to make a compromise "
This fact evidently shows that they have found a clue to a mutual understanding and friendship which were so far lacking. The time for the formation of a common front, as pointed out in the statement, is shown by reading the drafted plan of the Party's policy. However, the Communists misinterpret the statement, "At the earliest possible time when the subjective and objective conditions have become ripe." It proves that the maturing of "the subjective conditions" is taking place, because in various localities a popular unified front is being formed in a spirit of friendship.
The Social-Democrat Party, according to MIZUTANI, advocated the proposal of YAMKAWA veteran leader of the proletarian movement, for the formation of a popular front. Our Party intended to say that the Communists did not make their fundamental principles clear, but kept them a strict secret. The latest statement of the Communists shows that both Parties have reached a compromise for a united front.
ITEM 2 Explanation of the Emperor System (8) by NOGUCHI Hachiro - Mainichi. Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: J. Weiller.
Summary:
Exploitation of the tenant farmers by the landowners assumed a more or less systematic form in the KAMAKURA Period (TN: 12th-13th centuries), when feudalism came close to perfection in both form and substance. This was maintained by the MEIJI Government even after emancipation of the peasants from their feudalistic status. The exploitation resulted in further development because the absolutism of the Emperor System is based on semi-serfdom. The landowners, while inheriting the old feudalistic system, were permitted a free hand in their exploitation by the newly established Emperor System. By subsequent protective policies for landowners, especially by gradual reductions in the land tax, the Emperor System has completely aligned itself with the land proprietorship, and feudalistic exploitation of the tenants was strengthened by being delegated to the landowners. It was not only true economically but politically as well. Local autonomy was organized to suit the landowners and was absorbed into the bureaucratic system. Also, by strengthening the landed

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POLITICAL SERIES: 204 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued
proprietor elements in the Diet System, the relationship between the two has been consolidated.
The laborers, upon whom the bourgeoisie depend, consist of the lower classes severed from the agrarian communities by the plunder of the Emperor System. The plundering of JAPAN's Capital has made the two inseparable. The political power of the Emperor System itself operated many industries in the colonies and CHINA. Along with the monopolistic capitalists, it exploited people abroad.
As stated above, the structure composed of the Emperor, the bureaucrats and militarists, having combined with the landowners and bourgeoisie, have discovered common interests among them in exploiting and oppressing the laborers, farmers and colonials, and, as capitalism developed they had rot the slightest intention of reforming it under the name of "defending" the polity.
In spite of its militaristic characteristics, Japanese capitalism has been forced to make up for the deficiency of development in heavy industry with experts by light industry. Thereupon, the necessity for overseas markets was felt since early times, and the acquisition of colonies was regarded as a supreme mission.
In this respect the policies of the militaristic Emperor System and the monopolistic capitalists were in accord. In spite of considerable development in the colonies, they utilized the came feudalistic methods, exploiting conditions for capitalism in order to augment their profits. The laborers' wages were as low as in the colonies, their hours were long and they were required to live in dormitories or "prison rooms" (KANGOKU BEYA). As a guardian of this system of exploitation, the Emperor System forced the laborers into this slavish forfeiture. It looked as though it reigned independently of the landowning and capitalistic classes, but all the evils of the feudalistic exploitation and reactionary oppression lay in the Emperor System itself.
By virtue of the MEIJI Restoration the new Government under the absolute Emperor System, succeeding the defunct Shogunate, took into its possession all the feudalistic territories, and by the abolition of clans and establishment of prefectures (HAlBAN CHIKEN) unified the feudalistic territorial system on a Nation-wide scale. Not content with this, it incorporated into the State-owned land the mountains, forests, and so forth, where the inhabitants had free access to firewood, and consequently, deprived them of the right of entrance to such places. The area involved amounted to between five and eight million chobu.
However, the clannish Government, preseed by the free people's movements, was obliged to disguise its true colors by assuming pseudo-constitutionalism. The Emperor System, in response, divided a good part of the State property and placed it into the Imperial Household's ossession, with the view of keeping the property thus acquired outside of the Diet's debates, thereby strengthening its position. The Imperial Household Law has systematized the property and restricted the disposal of specially important bloc as they are Imperial hereditary estates.
Under the TOKUGAKA Shogunate, the Emperor's fief allowed by the Shogun was no more than 30,000 koku of rice, but since the Restoration his estate was gradually increased from 600 chobu in 1883 to 1,413,303 chobu in December 1937 not including 1778 chobu surrounding the Imperial Palace in TOKYO and detatched palaces; the income from timber, rent, and so forth, is said to be 10,000,000 yen per year.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 204 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
When JAPAN received from CHINA 255,000,000 taels as an indemnity after the Sino-Japanese War, 20,000,000 taels was paid into the Imperial Household Treasury. Along with the development of capitalistic industries the Imperial Household has become a large shareholder in various principal concerns and the income derived in dividends amounts to five million yen a year. Furthermore, 4,500,000 yen are annually appropriated from State finance for the Imperial Household expenses.
What is actually the monetary value of this property? According to the report recently submitted to SCAP it is valued at 1,590,000,000 yen, but, excluding jewelry and precicus metals, it is said to be worth about 2,500,000,000 yen. However, in considering land of over 1,400,000 chobu, especially the world famous structures such as the Imperial Palace, KYOTO Palace, KATSURA Detatched Palace, SHOSOIN, and co forth, the appraisal in the report does not reach 38 sen per tsubo. Do they think that in this way they can keep the Allied Governments deceived?
I At any rate, the possession of such vast property by the Emperor as an individual is mainly to strengthen his dignity and perpetuate the Emperor System. Then, as a great landowner and shareholder he represents the interests of the landowning class while he is also a faithful executor of the policies of militaristic and monopolistic capitalism. Not only does he hold the above position but he is the head of Imperialistic JAPAN and is supported in his position by oppressing and exploiting the working masses and colonial people. Herein lie the economic and political foundations of the Emperor System. The SCAP directive opposes the oppressions of the Emperor System; therefore, when the entire Nation wholeheartedly supports this directive, building life and politics by its own hands and establishing democracy along the lines of the Potsdam Declaration, the foundation of the System will automatically be overthrown. This is why the bureaucratic government sabotages the directive and this is why the people, who are struggling with cold and starvation, are standing up to fight for democracy.
ITEM 3 Official Circles Go Slow Strict Enforcement of Discipline To Be Stressed - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: A. Kido.
Full Translation:
The inertia of Government officials has been recently criticized from all sides, and as a result, the subject was taken up at yesterday's vice-ministers' meeting, when Chief Secretary NARAHASHI expressed his views as follows:
"In view of some relaxation recently on the part of officials of each department in discharging their duties, all vice-ministers are requested to supervise the strict enforcement of official discipline. Furthermore, the administrative readjustments for each department, as fixed by the Government, shall be completed by January, as has been scheduled."
ITEM 4 Democratic Popular Front and the Working Masses. By HOSOKAWA, Karoku - Tokyo Shimbun - 18 Jan 46 Translator: R. Ochiai.
Summary:
The formation of a democratic popular front is what all the people now desire, regardless of the great disaster which has befallen them. Every Cabinet since that of Prince HIGASHIKUNI has supported
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POLITICAL SERIES: 204 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
the privileged classes which have teen greatly responsible for the war and the defeat. How can we expect such a Government to meet the situation properly? Give the sovereignty to the people! If the people are allowed to take part in politics, hardship will cease, and a new country will be rebuilt in the future. This idea is gradually developing among the people, since political power has not developed as yet. A strongly united political power, however, should be quickly organized in order to carry out a national revolution and to fulfill our international duty.
Even now some people misunderstand General MacARTHUR's directives, saying that they are nothing but manifestations of imperialism or that there is a possibility of colonization, but such propaganda is being made by crafty schemers. There is no doubt, however, that every order aims at democratizing ouw kind of democracy - a democracy that gives personal liberty and equality legally and politically, and that also means economic and social freedom, advocated by the proletariat since the end of the first World War.
In spite of our great appreciation of the political parties' activities in forming a democratic popular front, we are very sorry for their lack of understanding of the Chinese situation. Unfortunately, most of our people have had no chance to know about the people's movement there. It is worthy of note that China, too, is going to unite with the great power of a new democracy which is considered to be her international duty, a goal which the workers have sought for the past 30 years. We must grasp the .meaning of this great task which rests in the hands of four hundred Million people.
What connection is there between our democratic movement and theirs? The Progressive Party, the Liberal Party, and the leaders of the Social-Democrat Party feel uneasy about our future industry, after our loss of territories with resources, and even find themselves falling into the dangers of a new kind of militaristic nationalism. I However, it is this attitude that will isolate us economically. The more thoroughly and boldly we carry out the international duty of democratization, the greater sympathy and understanding we will get from the Chinese working masses, who are also performing.a great work. There is enough evidence for us even to expect resources from her if we are only earnest in our duty. This connection between JAPAN and CHINA will naturally lead on to connections with INDIA. Therefore, the complete realization of our democratic revolution has a universal meaning.
Moreover, some maintain that there is a crisis between AMERICA, ENGLAND, and RUSSIA. Though these countries have differing points of view, the earnest desire for world peace and the realization of a complete democracy can be clearly shown in the working masses of these countries.
The difference between Russian democracy and others is that in RUSSIA any sort of democratic right is based on economics. Since others, too, are trying to do so, and since this movement is being quickly and powerfully developed by the people, we need not expect a crisis to arise between them.
Facing the two difficulties before us in JAPAN - that is, non-existence of a great political power, and the reactionary influences for preventing democratization - we also have a duty to carry out our democratic revolution, and that, of course, requires a strong popular front.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0204, 1946-01-20.
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