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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0201, 1946-01-19.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0836

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 836 Date: 19 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 201

ITEE 1 Intentional of SCAP - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
Does Not Support Special Parties - Damage to Conservative Parties is due to an Historical Accident.
The directives of General Headquarters have given a great shock to the Progressive Party and other existing political parties. On the other hand, it is an undeniable fact that the Social Democratic Party, the Communist Party, and some of the others, have been given advantageous conditions.
The policy of SCAP does not support or exclude any special political parties. It is only a chance of history that various conservative political parties have had a great schock by the purge directives which ordered, the removal of war guilty persons from their posts. The spokesman added that "The Supreme Commander for Allied Powers does not support any special parties. It is the duty of the Japanese people to choose JAPAN's political leaders. The Japanese people have been given freedom to elect their own political parties. However, it is natural that those who were in any powerful position before or during the war, should be unable to avoid their responsibility for the war. Therefore, it is only a chance of history that many conservative political parties have been made up of those who lost their candidacy due to the purge directives of SCAP. Such a situation does not indicate the support of political parties by SCAP. General Headquarters intends to deal with all political parties similary. It is only necessary that these political parties should be democratic."
The group of correspondents put the question "Does General Headquarters support American democracy rather than the democracy of the SOVIET UNION?" The spokesman replied as follows:-
"As I stated previously in the interview, the American people admit various sorts of democracy. It is natural that Americans should think American democracy the best and that the British and the Russian should think the democracy of their own country the best. General Headquarters is composed mainly of American people. However, at the same time, it represents the Allied forces. Therefore, it is needless to say that Headquarters of such a character expresses the type to which Japanese democracy should conform."
ITEM 2 "Abolition of Emperor System" by TOKUDA, Kyuichi - Mimpo - 18 Jan 46. Translator: Paasche.
Summary:
While it seemed that the last SCAP directives would kick the props from under the SHIDEHARA setup, the fact is that it is carrying on

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POLITICAL SERIES: 201 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
as strongly as ever. This shows that the Emperor System, inspite of its tottering on the brink of collapse, is under the illusion that it can go on wielding power in it's own hands. This attitude is the offshoot of the disunity of the people. YAMAKAWA, Hitoshi's appeal for the immediate formation of a popular front is hitting the weakest spot in JAPAN's democratic revolution and this is whole heartedly approved by us. As a matter of fact, the masses are already effecting the alliance and common struggle of Communists and Social Democrats. This union of the lower structures of both parties, always proclaimed by us Communists, is sabotaged by the right-wing Social Democrats; in other words, the Social Fascists, They are really the representatives of monopolistic capitalism, and even in questions concerning the labor movement they first consult the clerks of MITSUI and MITSUBISHI to insure that, before action is started, the interests of those concerns are safeguarded.
It is evident that we cannot join up with these reactionary elements. But if they submit to a purification of the party's spirit, and if this leads to a Party decision to wage a common fight with us, we will not pay any more heed to them, we Intend to respect the views of revived Social Democratic Party, of the left-wing Socialists as well as of all other democratic elements making up the popular front. The only aim of such a people's front is the abolition of monarchy. We mast, however, differentiate between the present Emperor HIROHITO, the Imperial Family and the Emperor System as such European fascism and our Emperor system are similar, but the latter is at the same tine endowed with a certain mysticism, so that a section of the people is mistakenly looking for Japanese Fascism apart from the Emperor System. This error is consciously exploited by the right-wing Socialists and Liberals who spread demagogy to the effect that this belief is useful for the popular front.
This is the attitude we Communists are fighting against. All democratic elements now agree that the ultimate aim of democratic union is the abolition of monarchy. The methods proposed by the different groups vary, but this does not preclude unity, and all groups are at liberty to act as they see fit.
ITEM 3 HONDA's Trial Will Begin - Mainichi Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: S. Sano.
Extracts:
According to the announcement of the Public Relations Office of the American Eighth Array on 17 January, the trial of war criminal suspect HONDA, Hiroji, former captain and chief of KONAHAMA Camp, IMIYAGI-Ken, will be opened at 0900, on 18 January, at the first court of the YOKOHAMA local court.
He was accused on a charge that his subordinates beat the prisoner SCOTT to death, stole relief goods and failed to provide food, clothing, or medicine.
ITEM 4 New Precedent. Disregard of an Item in War Criminal's Trial - Mainichi Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: S. Sanot.
Full Translation:
On the fourth day of the HIRATE trial, which was opened at 0900 on 17 January, Mr. MICHIKAWA, Mitsuo, was called, as a witness for the prosecution, by Chief Judge TRECHTER. He was questioned whether he had heard the complaints of prisoners regarding the illtreatment or
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POLITICAL SERIES: 201 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
death from illtreatment during his time in the camp. He was also questioned by Major SATATA and other judges.
He stated, that he had once seen each of the prisoners slapped by the guard WATAMABE and Sergeant ARAKI, and that he saw in the press that comforts of prisoners were occasionally taken away by the Japanese. But this was not so at that time, as far as he knew. They had sufficient comforts by comparison with the Japanese and their working time was certainly short. Although prompt judgement was requested by the Counsel regarding the second item of the charge, which was concerned with the forgery of the death certificate, the Chief judge announced only the deletion of this item after a decision of a secret session, making this a precedent in the present trial.
The speech in defense of the accused was delivered by Major EMMONS and it lasted over 30 minutes. He requested the deletion of number three, four, five, six and eight items in view of the insufficiency of verbal statements and evidence by Mr. MICHIKAWA. These items deal with cases of atrocities on the prisoner D. RATCLIFFE, of striking A. WAYNES and other prisoners, and giving no comforts to the soldiers in sick bed.
However, Major EVANS, the Chief prosecutor, requested that the verbal statements be regarded as sufficient evidence, and he rejected the request by the Counsel after a second secret session. Thus, the items of charges are to be retained until judgement is given.
Mr. EMOTO, Shigeo, former Commander and Chief of the HAKODATE Camp, defended himself in fluent English stating that everything improved after he took command over the accused.
The trial was closed at 1620.
ITEM 5 Present Emperor Mill Be Accused As War Criminal, explains Mr. SHIGA - Tokyo Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: H. Naoji,
Full Translation:
The people in general are of the impression that the attitude of the Communist Party toward the Emperor System has been amended after the return of Mr. NOSAKA, Sanzo, Mr. SHIGA, Yoshio, who is one of the leaders of the same party, clarified the party's attitude toward this problem saying that it was unchanged since the end of hostilities:
The Emperor System as a political system will be abolished;
The problems of the Imperial household will be solved by the general poll at the time when democracy has reached at the people of JAPAN; 3. The present Emperor will be accused as a war criminal.

ITEM 6 Policy of Concession and Mutual Help is Indispensable to Promote Formation, of United Front for Democratic Campaign - Minpo - 18 Jan 46. Translator: 3. Ono.
Summary:
The united popular front for the promoting of democratization requires the inclusion of a wide range of social classes, such as laborers, farmers, middle class people, and even a few small and medium class entrepreneurs, under the leadership of Communists, Social Democrats and all others of democratic tendency. No doubt, the Communists, most stubborn advocates of peace and liberty throghout the war days,
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POLITICAL SERIES: 201 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
are best qualified to assume leadership. However, we must not neglect to notice the importance of the role which the Social Democrates take as a buffer to mitigate the conflicting interests of various classes, when, as at present, there exists no proper organ for uniting them on the grounds of their common interests.
Meanwhile, the fact that the popular front does necessarily include the various classes of society leads to the necessity of establishing a policy of mutual help and concession. We have a fine example in a similar case when the labor class and the anti-nazi capitalists of France grasped hands to fight against the HITLER regime. The coalition was made possible through the temporary withdrawal of the "down with capital" program of the labor class and the pledge of the capitalists for the realization of democratization after the war. Another example is the one third poling of the Chinese Communist Party, which they declared and literally practised during the war days, limiting the expansion of their influence to one third of the governmental institutions. This gave equal opportunity to the development of other parties which resulted in contributing towards the consolidation of a united front.
We must, at the same time, however, emphasize the necessity of free criticism, because the united front, in its true sense, is impossible if it lacks freedom of criticism. Discussion and persuasion are the only means of bringing about a united front.
A moment of reflection on the recent trend of the democratic movement of our country will show us that we are still far from the ideal. Each party, too eager to claim the righteousness of its own program rather than admit the strong points of other parties, has exhausted its strength by vainly struggling against the other. What it aimed at was solely the expansion of its sphere of influence at the cost of other parties. This is truly regretable for the promotion of democracy. We wish, therefore, to advise all the parties concerned to direct their efforts towards mutual assistance, making concessions if necessary, towards the formation of a unified front, so as to contribute to the democratization of the country.
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