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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0188, 1946-01-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0784

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 784 Date: 16 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 188

ITEM 1 The Reorganization of the Cabinet Again Stalemated. Installation of New Ministers Put Off - Yomiuri Hochi - 14 January 1946. Translator: J. Naoji.
Summary:
The reorganization of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet, which seemed almost completed on 13 January, before the Imperial installation ceremony for the new Cabinet members, has again come to a standstill. The Prime Minister decided to reorganize the Cabinet by five ministore: Home Minister HORIKIRI; Education Minister MAEDA; Agricultural and Forestry Minister MATSUMURA, Transportation Minister TANAKA and Minister of State TSUGITA, who came within the scope of the latest purge directive from SCAP.
Minister of State MATSUMOTO was retained. However, this reorganization of the Cabinet was impeded on 13 January because of its failure to meet present-day political requirements. Consequently, the Imperial installation ceremony for the three new Ministers of the Cabinet, namely, Home Minister (concurrently Transportation Minister) MITSUCHI, Education Minister ABE, and Agriculture and Forestry Minister SOEJIMA, who were decided on unofficially, was put off for some time.
ITEM 2 Postponement of Election Advantageous - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 January 1946. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Summary:
The date of the general election, which had been unsown for some time, was made certain by General MacARTHUR's directive, issued on 13 January. The parties have all proceeded to carry out their plans for the election. Bringing the news of the date of the election, we sounded out the parties to see how they were planning for the coming election.
The Social Democratic and the Communist Parties were most active, with the Liberal and Progressive Parties coming next. This plainly shoved what influence the "house cleaning" directive, issued on January by MacARTHUR's Headquarters, has exerted on the parties. Of course, the Progressive Party is not in a state of immobility. Only its first line [illegible]politicians have been swept away by the whirl-wind directive; its new second-line men and women candidates are expected to turn the table and win back its former position as a majority party. The Liberal Party, taking advantage of the weakness of the Progressive Party and of the lack of technical skill in the election of the part of the two left-wing parties, is raking strenuous efforts to appeal to the masses. The following is the present condition of the parties as they face the forthcoming general election.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Social Democratic Party: Chief of the Planning Committee HIRANO said that the standard of recommending candidates has changed to the whirlwind directive issued by MacARTHUR's Headquarters, but that he has not given up his intention of gaining a majority. He added that, at present, "we have 172 recommended candidates. We intend to increase the number to about 300 and expect to have 250 elected. But the candidates shall be determined by the executive committees, throughout the country, after conditions in the provincial constituencies are reported in detail. We need not put up a new party slogan, As to the food problem, we will appeal to the Farmers' Association after we have investigated the extent of deliveries. Concerning the reconstruction of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet, the attitude of our party has not changed. We still insist that the Cabinet resign in a body".
Communist Party: This party has been advocating the postponement of the general election for a month, thinking that, if the election should be carried out with the political situation as it is now, it would be advantageous to the old parties, which include war criminals. Now that the election is scheduled to be held in the latter part of March, the party considers this most advantageous to itself. The party holds four slogans, which are, "overthrow of the Emperor System", "Arrest of War Criminals", "Relief of the National Food Shortage", and "Enlargement of Labor Unions and their Unification". It aims to expand the structure of the party and strive to establish a popular front, and it is determined to get rid of the reactionary SHIDEHARA Cabinet, even if it is in the midst of the general election. The party expects to run as candidates, half the number of seats in the Diet in consideration of its advantageous position due to the issuance of MacARTHUR's directive. It will of course ask NOZAKA, Sanji, who has just returned home to run in TOKYO. TOKUDA, Kyuchi, and KUROKI, Shigenori, are to be run as candidates and, in the first and second constituencies each, one woman candidate is to be nominated. SHIGA, Yoshio, who was expected to run in OSAKA, is not yet a certain choice as he is too busy with business affairs of the party. For the benefit of the party, promotion committees are being established by the rank and file of the party. Those will make speeches of encouragement on one hand, and will endeavor to extend the popular front on the other. On 13 January, a committee meeting was held at the headquarters at YOYOGI and election tactics were discussed.
Liberal Party: Two or three managers and advisors of this party are to be expelled as a result of MacARTEUR's directive. But this party also, taking advantage of the serious blow which the Progressive Party suffered, is trying to expand its influence, strengthening its branch offices throughout the country. As the date of the general election is not known, it will announce the names of candidates as soon as possible. It expects that, with the exception of several Kens, it is sure to gain half the seats of the rest of the kens. In anticipation of the collapse of the Progressive Party, the Liberal Party has decided to increase the number of its candidates from 230 to 50. It has formed a women's department, and is to run as candidates, TAKEUCH, Moyo (from the first constituency in TOKYO) and KUFUSHIRO, Ochimi (from the second constituency in TOKYO).
Progressive Party: The general election has been postponed to a later period than was first expected, but this party will enter the election with the plan that has already been decided upon. Who will be expelled by MacARTHUR's directive not yet determined, as the final decision has not yet been made. We will leave that problem to be settled on an individual basis. Approved candidates number, roughly, 400. Of this, number, upwards of 200 are expected to be women. Our woman's department is also discussing election measures with YOSHIOKA, Yayoi, and MURAOKA, Hanako, as its leaders and we shall be able to present a promising number of female candidates. We are to hold a discussion on 14 January, with NAKAMURA (Umo), NAKAIGAWA, and TAKAHASHI as leaders and a conference on 15 January of members of the Lower House residing in TOKYO.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 3 NOZAMA Interview: For a Democratic Front - Asahi Shimbun - 14 January 1946. Translator: Paasche.
Summary:
NOZAKA, Lanji's return to JAPAN is an event of great importance and has attracted much attention. During an interview with the great communist leader on the train, he stated that there was no difference between his opinion on the Emperor System and that of the leaders of the Communist Party of JAPAN. To bring about democracy, a democration front must be formed through intimate co-operation with the basic organizations of all the other democratic movements.
"I do not intend to make a political declaration now, but I wish to say that the reported divergencies or the Emperor issue between myself and the Party are non-existent as far as principle is concerned, though in the past there were different views on questions of party tactics. For instance, when I represented the Japanese Communists at the 78th general meeting in April of last year at YEANA. I took the stand that on principle, the Emperor System should be destroyed, but if the Japanese people desired to continue regarding the Emperor as an object of religious worship, the fact, though unfortunate for the people, must be faced as such, and policy must be shaped accordingly. However, since the war's end, the people's attitude toward the Emperor has undergone a quick change; furthermore, the Emperor himself is likely to eschew sovereignty. These are new facts which must now be the basis of our attitude and policy. I intend to discuss these questions with Party leaders and will yield unconditionally to their decision.
"JAPAN is now in a critical state. If JAPAN is to overcome these difficulties, there must be a drastic political and social revolution. We communists do not think of a socialist revolution in this country; we rather plan to revolutionize the present capitalist setup, both politically and economically on a large scale. In other words, we propose the comsummation of Democratic revolution. The people have so far taken only the first steps along this road. The power of the militarists has suffered a great setback, but is still rather strong.
"As for the economic revolution envisaged by us, it aims at security for 95 per cent of JAPAN'S population, i.e. the working masses, by the following measures: 1. Reform of the land system by transferring the property of the big absentee and non-working landowners to the State, and giving it over to the peasants; 2. Confiscation by the State of all war profits as well as of the property of these responsible for the war, and introduction of high graduated taxation; and 3. Taking over by the State of all means of communication, and electric and mining industries, and strict control of capital by a Democratic government.
"All those who agree on the direction which this process of Democratization ought to take must unite. In other words, all sincere democrats from among the Communists, Social Democrats, or other political groups must get together for a common front under a common program. As for individual problems forming part of the democratization schedule, there may be divergencies of view such as those between the Communists and the other parties, but I believe the rank and file of the various organizations will be able to find common grounds. All must now strive together to reach the only way out of the impasse - a United Front. The attempt to keep JAPAN's Communists out of this merger is nothing but a treacherous betrayal of true democratization. All thoughts of fraternization with the old gang in order to keep the communists out must be got rid of. Politicians
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POLITICAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
harboring such schemes will, in the end, be brushed aside by the masses. The groundwork for the common front is the united activity of the rank and file of the peasant and workers organization in the various districts. Equally necessary are discussions by the leaders of the various groups in order to get the common front under way by disposing of all sorts of misconceptions and private views."
ITEM 4 Onward With the Common Flag Flying. Co-operation Including all Wage-earners - Mimpo - 14 January 1946. Translator: A. Kido.
Extracts:
Mr. NOZAKA, Sanji, Chief leader of JAPAN Communist Party since its formation, and recently supreme leader of the Japanese Emancipation League (YENAN), together with Messrs. MORI, Ken, YAMADA, Iohiro, and UMEDA, Terufumi arrived here at noon of 12 January.
Sixteen years ago he left JAJPAN, as a representative of the JAPAN Communist party, for MOSCOW. On the opening of hostilities with CHINA he went to YENAN and formed a Japanese Emancipation League, engaging himself vigorously in anti-war movements. His home coming will give an impetus to the emancipation movement in JAPAN. Upon arrival at HAKATA harbor he was interviewed by one of our reporters.
Q: What is your view on republican government under the TENNO System?
A: I have spoken to Japanese officers and men in CHINA on this subject previous to the war's end, yet now, with post-war circumstances being different, their attitude must, of course, be altered. Since I have to work as a member of the Communist Party in JAPAN, I must also listen to the Party's opinion on the Emperor System.
Q: What about your relations with Messrs. SHIGA and TOKUHA?
A: I worked with Mr. SHIGA at the Industrial Labor Investigation Board from 1925 to the time when I was arrested on a charge of being involved in the incident of 15 March. Mr. TOKUDA and I were arrested and imprisoned together. Messrs. MORI, YAMADA and UMEDA have graduated from the YENAN Agricultural College and are enshrined at YASUKUNI Shrine in JAPAN.
Q: When did you leave YENAN?
A: Early in September by an American plane. I then went on foot and by horseback to CHOKAKO, from where I went by Russian plane to CHOSHUN, finally reaching SEOUL.
Q: What is your view on the Japanese Emancipation League?
A: The Headquarters is at YENAN and it has 23 branches throughout CHINA. In YENAN there are about 250 party member; all graduated from the Agricultural Collage, all anti-war and [illegible], calling cut to Japanese ex-servicemen with a slogan for the establishment of a democratic JAPAN. Japanese servicemen; desiring to be returned home, were sent back to the Japanese occupation area.
It was January 9 when I left SEOUL, where Mr. TOKU, Tsunen, secretary of the Communist Party, took charge of ma. I was then told of the Japanese communities there which were all enraged against the local Japanese military class and authorities.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Q: What do you think of the people's front?
A: A peoples' front, composed of all communist and social democratic parties, seems to me to be too small. To effect a break in the present crisis we must organize a bigger one, including the whole of the Japanese wage-earners, or at least 95 per cent of them.
In JAPAN, some militaristic political parties still remain since democratizm has just been introduced. The people's living conditions are most depressing, and earnestly democratic party men must colloborate in order to be able to cope successfully with the situation. For that there will be, of course, many obstacles and difficulties which must be removed, at any cost. As a member of the Communist Party, I am going to follow the opinion of the Party, On this subject I will say a few words, after consulting Messrs TOKUDA and SHIGA, when I am in TOKYO.
Mr. NOZAKA left HAKATA on 12 January at 1840 and was to arrive in TOKYO the following day at 2121.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0188, 1946-01-16.
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