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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0185, 1946-01-15.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0771

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 771 Date: 15 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 185

ITEM 1 Shidehara's Few Cabinet: Conservative and Ineffective - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
A partial reshuffle of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet almost came to a finale Saturday evening, when Home Minister and Transportation Minister MITSUCHI, Education Minister ABE, Agriculture and Forestry Minister SOEJIMA, Cabinet Chief Secretary, and NARAHASHI filled the vacancies made by HORIKIRI: TAMAKA: MAEDA: NATSUMURA: and TSUGITA respectively. Former Chief Secretary of the Cabinet TSUGITA has started the careful selection of successors with new plan laid down on 11 January and has already drawn up the new organization. HARAHASHI was transferred to the position of Chief Secretary of the Cabinet. The successors of outgoing State Ministers were selected not from among party men and civilians, but from government officials. A first framework of the reformed Cabinet was formed by selecting Privy Councilor MITSUJI and Privy Council Chief Secretary ISHIGURO by consent of President of the Privy Council SUZUKI; the choice of the others continued as pre-arranged.
Thus this new line-up lacks force and freshness, resulting from not choosing members supported by the masses of the people. The SHIDEHEARA Cabinet is an interim one, and will be incompetent in coping with the present nation crisis. The new line-up may just represent no talent, since these successors are limited to those unaffected by the new Allied purge order.
Meanwhile, scarcity of food and rising inflation have become more acute in this country. The reshuffle of the Cabinet was to be effected by gathering a new stratum of representatives of the masses into the Cabinet in order to break the deadlock over the present crisis. Prime Minister SHIDEHAPA has lost a good chance to take fresh and forceful figures into this latest reorganized cabinet, except for the new combination of ISHIGURO and NARAHASHI. However Prime Minister SHIDEHARA decided on successors to fill vacancies two hours after consulting with former Chief Cabinet Secretary TSUGITA. The week-long Cabinet crisis came to an undramatic fimale by the resignation of the outgoing State Ministers.
ITEM 2 Nozaka Returns to Stormy land - Asashi Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Summary:
NOZAKA, Sanji (pen-name, OKA[illegible]O Susumu), a leading member of the Communist Party in CEINA, who had been making strenuous efforts in the anti-war movement and the liberation of the Japanese in CHINA for 15 long years as one of the leaders of the movement at the Headquarters of the Chinese Communists at YENAN during peace time, the CHINA Incident and the Greater EAST ASIA war right up to the present, came back to his homeland at a time when the country was hit by the directive ordering the punishment of war criminals and

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POLITICAL SERIES: 185 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
the expulsion of the militarists. He landed at HAKATA via FUZAN on 12 January. His political ability is expected to play a gigantic role in the direction of the Communist movement in JAPAN by the adoption of an agressive method which is practical in accordance with the Chinese theory that the Communist movement is permissible even tinder the Emptor System.
The S.S. KOGANE-MARU with repatriates on board from KOREA entered the harbor of HAKATA on the 12th. Among the repatriates who were carrying on their backs as much as possible, was found a gentleman just alighting from, the ship, lightly attired with a hunting cap and an overcoat of dark blue color, carrying a small business leather bag and an unbrella This white faced figure was none other but Mr. NOZAKA, Sanji, who had come home after years' absence. Since he left KOBE, where he had been released on parole, his hair has turned very gray. His first words addressed to the pressmen who went to meet him were:
"What has become of the Cabinet...?"
"It seems the Cabinet will be reconstructed...."
"Those who are possessed by a minister-hunting mania will be unable to do anything with the present JAPAN."
As there was some time before the departure of his train, we went to a certain place at SENDAI-Machi in FUTUOKA to take a rest, occasionally casting a glance at booth keepers who were calling to one another loudly. With the end of the war, in order to hasten to his native land, NOZAKA left YENAN in September last year. Since then, at ore time be air, and at another be railway or on foot, he had reached HEIJO via CHOKAKO and CHOSUN, and KEIJO on New Year's Day, arriving in JAPAN after four months' journeying. What pleased him most of all were delicacies piled up on the table, oranges among them.
Tasting the fruit, one by one, he remarked: "What will relieve JAPAN will be the thoroughgoing demoratization of the country as well as a drastic renovation of the economic organizations. Minister-hunting demagogues of the Liberal and Progressive parties cannot free JAPAN. We support a sincere union of democrats in the present JAPAN. As a plain member of the Communist Party I Will do my best in obedience to the plan of the Party. I am not disposed to talk of the Emperor System. For the rest, I'll give my opinion after I have met SHIGA."
Reading the latest issues of the newspapers eagerly, he started for TOKYO on the same might. His wife, Mrs. NOZAKA, was left in MOSCOW.
NOZAKA is 55 years old. After graduating from the Finance Department of KEIO University in 1916, he entered the JAPAN Labor Union, the President of which was SUZUKI, Bunji. In 1919 he went to England, and while he was studying economics at LONDOM University, he joined the Communist movement. For this reason he was expelled from LONDON, and went over to RUSSIA. In 1922 he returned home to his alma mater, and was appointed lecturer. His real intention of coming home, however, was to make preparation for the inauguration of a Communist Party in JAPAN. He was rounded up in the first arrest of the Communists in 1923, but on account of his illness was released.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 185 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
While he was recuperating at his home in KOBE, he secretly went over to RUSSIA with his wife in order to be present at the International Communists' Conference in 1935.
It was in 1943 that he went to YENAN, six years after the outbreak of the CHINA Incident. At the beginning of the Incident, SHIKACHI, Waparu went to CHUNGKING, and organized a Japanese Anti-War Union, while SUGIMOTO, Kazuo, who went there from RUSSIA, formed a Japanese Communists' Union, developing a Japanese liberation movement. This Anti-War Union became quite active and positive after receiving NOZAKA as its supreme leader.
Concerning NOZAKA's activity since be entered YENAN, an American critic, Andrew ROTH wrote a most interesting article in "Dilemma in JAPAN", published in September 1945, with the result that his existence became vivid and alive as being a great character of a new era. In the early period of the formation of the Japanese Liberation Union, its members numbered about 500. Out of this number, about 200 who possessed the resolution, experience and ability to become staff members of the Union, investigated and discussed fundamental problems concerning JAPAN, and made plans, availing themselves of all possible opportunities. Even before the defeat of the Japanese Army, the Union's plans and the technique of propaganda were testified to be most effective, and 80 per cent of the Japanese war prisoners came to accept the anti-war idea. The Japanese Liberation Union, as it was inaugurated at the time when JAPAN's defeat as inevitable, stressed the importance of the post-war plans of JAPAN. The nucleus of it was, of course, the Communists, the number of whom was, however, not above 25 per cent of the whole.
The Liberation Union received as its members not only Communists, but also non-Communists or anti-Communists. But there was a condition necessary for its membership. It was to admit the end of the war, expel militarists and batter the status of farmers and tradesmen of middle and lower classes; namely, to establish a democratic JAPAN.
About 3,000 Japanese soldiers were taken prisoner up to the middle of 1944. Of these, 350 soldiers remained in the Chinese 8th Division, and the rest were returned to the Japanese Army after being kindly treated and even given travelling expenses.
ITEM 3 Personnel lacks new life entirely. Education Minister Abe is popular. - The Mainichi - 13 Jan 46. Translator: S. Hirata.
Extracts:
As the informal negotiations by the government for choosing candidates had been already going on for a few days, the Cabinet reform proceeded comparatively well on Saturday when it began to be much noised abroad. The former agriculture Minister MATSUMURA, as envoy, already negotiated with Mr. MITSUCHI, Chuzo, on Thursday evening for giving him the post of Home Minister which is the main problem of the present reform. Early on Friday his definite answer was secured at the former's second, visit. His post as minister of two offices has been brought about because of his experience as Railway Minister in former days.
As regards the post of Agriculture Minister, some recommended Mr. KAWAI, Ryosei, present Vice-Minister, and some Mr. ISHIGURO, Takeshige, Chief Secretary of the Privy Council, on the ground that he was once an official of that Ministry. However, an objection came up against Mr. KAWAI from the Cabinet and his name was struck out
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POLITICAL- SERIES: 185 (Continued)
IMEM 3 (Continued)
from the canditdates' list. Such was the case with Mr. ISHIGURO. Later there appeared unexpectedly a certain Mr. SOEJIMA, Chihachi, who was long before an official of the Commerce and Industry Ministry and afterwards the Vice-President of Nippon Policy Exchange. The general public is not familiar with his name and it is quite problematical whether he will be able to tide over the present momentous food crisis or not. His appointment is quite unpopular everywhere.
From the beginning, Mr. NARAHASHI has been considered as Chief Secretary of the Cabinet. It has also been decided long before that he would invite Mr. TAJIRI, Aigi as Vice-Secretary. The personnel for Mr. ISHIGURO, who is the Director of the Cabinet Board of Legislation, has been decided by Mr. NARAHASHI's direct negotiation with Baron SUZUKI, President of the Privy Council. Education Minister ABE has already been reported several times as a candidate. His ability being much esteemed, some say he should be reserved, for the future Cabinet. At any rate he is very popular.
ITEM 4 Three Emancipators: Yamada. Umeda, and Mori - Asahi Shimbun - 14 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
Mr. NOZAKA, Sanji, has come back to his native land, having returned from CHINA with three young men all of whom were captured by the 8th Route Army (HACHI-RO-GUN), and who were subsequently engaged in working toward Japanese Emancipation. Their names are YAMADA, Ichiro, UMMDA, Terubumi, and MORI, Ken. They were the leaders of the YENAN Industrial and Agricultural School. All have suffered hardships as a result of their ideas, having been captured as soldiers or civilians in military service by the 8th Army, which was hostile in those days. Since then they have successfully overcome all difficulties and have tided over many crises.
MORI, Ken, comes from KOTEI-Cho, FUKUOKO-Ken, is a graduate of IIZUKA Commercial School, and a former employee of the MANCHURIA Railway Company Ltd. He was wounded in the neighborhood of TAIYUAN, SHANSI Province, and was captured by the 8th Route Army. While teaching Japanese, he organized the Anti-war League. He was leader of the Japanese prisoners who had been captured and was in charge of the Industrial and Agricultural School.
UMEDA, Terubumi, comes from. AWA-Gun, TOKUSEIMA-Ken, and is a graduate of KOKUSHIKAN College. He was a corporal in the Japanese army. In 1940, he was wounded during a battle in SHANSI Province, and was captured, by the 8th Route Army. After suffering from wounds for more than six months, he entered the Industrial and Agricultural School in 1941. Upon graduation, he became a teacher at the school and was in charge of a course in "political common-sense." He preached the evils of the militarists and the ZAIBATSU, the leaders of the war, and campaigned actively for the construction of a democratic JAPAN.
YAMADA, Ichiro, comes from TOKYO Metropolis, a graduate of the Scientific Section of TOKYO Imperial University. He was for a time a practicing surgeon. In August 1939 he was wounded in SHANTUNG Province, North CHINA, and captured by the 8th Route Army. After a lapse of one year he prepared the Anti-war League, consisting of Japanese only. He was engaged in propaganda work as a committeeman in the TAI-HANG Mountain district, SHANSI Province and was, at the same time, working as a surgeon at the field hospital, of the 8th Route Army.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0185, 1946-01-15.
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