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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0176, 1946-01-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0736

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTEPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 736 Date: 13 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 176

ITEM 1 Crafty Arrangements by Liberals, L[illegible]cial-Democrats Sport of - Mimpo - 10 Jan 46. Translator: A. Kido
Summary:
Since the issue of the recent "house cleaning" directive by SCAP, the Government has been devising remedical measures to cope with the situation. The political situation is as confused as ever. Secret efforts are being made by the Liberal Party to control political power, confusion exist in the Progressive Party, and there are attempts on the part of the Local-Democratic party to gain power. Thus, the last scandaleons struggle for the reins of power is being continued.
Premier SHIDEHARA, Foreign Minister YOSHIDA, Chief Secretary TSUGITA, and Director of the Burean of Legislation NARAHASHI are consulting on remedial measures. Of the Cabinet ministers, the following six are to resign from office, being included in the provisions of the 4 January directive: Minister of State MATSUMOTO and TSUGITA, Home Minister HORIKIRI, Minister of Agriculture and For stry MATSUMURA, Education Minister MAEDM, and Transportation Minister TAKAKA.
Chief Secretary TSUGITA, not considering himself affected by the new directive is of the view that it is best to effect a wholesale reorganization of the Cabinet, excluding the affected persons, and to prepare for the general election. Director of the Bureau of Legislation NARAHASHI stoutly opposes this idea, however, spying that since the directive affects so many, the Government should resign in masse. It is clear that behind this proposal by the Director of the Bureau of Legislation is the President of the Liberal Party HATOYAMA, who is planning to form the succeeding Cabinet from the Liberal Party, with Foreign Minister YOSHIDA as its head, by collapsing the present Cabinet from withing through the efforts of Welfare Minister ASHIDA and Director of the Bureau of Legislation NARAHSHI.
Meanwhile, the Liberal Party, should it obtain political power, plans to nominate ministers from the Social-Democratic Party. The Social Democratic Party has expossed its satisfaction with this plan and is willing to recommend Mr. SUGIYAMA as minister of Agriculture and Forestry, and Mr. NISHIO, or MATSUOKA, as Welfare Minister.
If this scheme is realized, the Liberal Party will have won the rightist elements in the Local Democration Party. If the difficult problems of food and social administration carried out by members of the Social Democratic Party is satisfactory, the Liberal Party will receive the credit of unsatisfactory the Social-Democrats will by driven out of the Cabinet. Should they enforce such a radica1 policy that cannot be approved by the Liberal Party, they will either be suppressad or threatened with a reorganization of the Cabinet. Such are the crafty arrangements being made by the Liberal for the Social-Democrats.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 176 (Continued)
ITEM: 2 A Critical Study by Wakayama, Junshiro, Mainichi Correspondent in Ziirich-Mainichi Shimbun - 10 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ono
Summary:
Following is the gist of a critical study of T[illegible]nnoism by WAKAYAMA, MAINICHI correspondent in ZIIRICH, S[illegible]ITZERLAND. He has been in GERNANY for over ten years and was for [illegible]rly a lecturer at the Universities of KOLN and ZIIRICH:
"Professor Max Waber, famous German economist and socialogist, one said that defeat in war would place imperial rule in danger, while victory would bring about a menace to a republican Government. That this holds true is clear when we see, at present, the existence of resounding clamor against imperial rule in various parts of EUROPE in YUGOSLAVIA, GREECE, BUIG[illegible]RIA, RONMANIA, ITALY, and BELGIUM. In JAPAN, too, where imperial rule was expected to survived for et runity, we can hear mounting criticism of its axistence. Nowadays, no one listens eagerly to the passionate of its existence. Nowadays, no one listens eagerly to the passionate poems of ancient poets who praised imperial rule. This phenomenon, I believe, is not of sad and grievous character but rather pleasing to behold. At the same time, the eyes of the Allied Powers are focused upon the problem, centering around the relation of Tennosim to democracy. Research on the problem of Tenneism must be started from the fundamental point of view fits compatibility with democracy.
"Now, the establishment of democracy is an awesome trend, in the world today, it being a necessary course in the development of world history, not moraly coincidental with the victory of the Allied Powers. The problem of Tennoism if it is to be solved, must be discussed along the lines.
"Is Tennoism compatible with democracy? In this connection, the British Monarchy is very often cited by the supporters of Tennoism is the best example of this compatibility. This belief, in my opinion, is totally mistaken. There is no doubt that, contrary to the case in GREAT BRITAIN, Tennoism in JAPAN has been often utilized by despotic leaders to suppress the democratic tendency here. Let us, therefore, start with a historical survey of the system.
"The peculiarity of Tennoism lies in the distortion of ancient history and the endownment of divinity to the Emperor. Cases of mythological distortion of ancient ages are numerous in world history, but the existence of the obsolute ruler, as a living god, is peculiar to this Country. The latter characteristic gave birth to the religious belief that JAPAN is a holy country, while it encouraged the revolutionary movement whenever the social order became stagnant, under the slogan of the restoration of imperial rule. The revolution, becamed by the mystic Emperor, tends to be reactionary, and in this the cause for the reactionary movement of patriotic associations during and before the last war is clearly seen.
"The natural law of Christianity in the Occident, contrary to that of JAPAN, became the source of the natural law theory of ROUSSEAN after losing its religious tinge, contribution, to the development of the enlightened era in the eighteenth century. Tennoism, however, has failed to show any signs of development, remaining in the primitive stage of mythology, which, I believe, forms a grave m[illegible]nace to the democratization of the Country, because it is a constant source of reactionary movement. Furthermore, mysticism in politics, which is the natural result of mystic Tennoism, is opposed to the modernization of the country. It unavoidably leads to the prohibition of free criticism of national politics, suppressing the free will of the people.
"What I have described above is, I suppose adequate to clarify the incompatibility of Tennosim and democracy. Constitutional change, no doubt, in the status of the Emperor is a matter of urgent necessity, but it does not lesson the need of the ideological change of the Emperor. What is to be done is to deprive Tennosim of its mystic veil?
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POLITICAL SERIES: 176 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
"As I have already mentioned, the discussion of Tennoism in the Allied countries is centered around the problem if the system's compatibility with the establishment of democracy in JAPAN. Those who oppose the system claim that the continuance of Tennoism will necessarily lead to the isolation of the Emperor from the public, providing opportunity for the rise of revolutionary movements, while its advocates are inclined to allow the survival of the system so as to avoid the confusion accompanying radical reform.
"What we must bear in mind, however, is that even such advocates of Tennoism as GREW, former American ambassor to TOKYO, and CLIVA and CRAIGY, former ambassadors from ENGLAND to JAPAN, are supporting the system in democratized form, which is free from the mysticism of former days. SANOTT, who stayed in JAPAN for several years as a missionary, referred to the system in his article in the Reader's Digest, in which he insisted upon the necessity for the removal of the "holiness" from the Emperor requesting the ebdication of the present Emperor and the onthronment of young ruler under a regency.
"RONER, former Polish ambassador to TOKYO, takes up the problem from the same angle, assorting that the democratization of Tennoism is the sine quanon to the democratization of the Country. In Europe the monarchies continue even where the sovereign power of the state lies in the hands of the people. For example, look at GREAT BRITAIN, SWEDEN, NEATHERLANDS, DENMARCK, and NORWAY, where democratized monarchies exist side by side with parliamentarianism.
HUKUZAWA, YUKICHI, the greatest revolutionary the rist of the MEIJI era, once said, 'We do not cut down at random a pin tree of traditional legend. Tennoism has a tradition of two thousand, years. We may allow it to survive without harm.' No doubt, the so-called deity of the Emperor was nothing to a man of his perspicacity.
"Politics now is something apart from theoretical discussion. Tradition plays an important role in the Government of a nation. If we are to lean anything from the sad experience of the war, it is a fact that politics, when tinged with mystisism, becomes very dangerous. The brutal reign of the nazis, as well as the imperialism of the Japanese militarists, were backed with the mystic warping of the political system. The first task, therefore, in rebuilding JAPAN is to take away the will of mysticism from the Emperor."
ITEM 3 Death Penalty of Furushima - Asahi Shimbun - 11 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kawasaki
Full Translation:
On 10 January, the 11th day of FURUSHMA's trial at YOKOHAMA, the court was open at 0900. Defence counsel DICKIBNSON a postcard to FURUSHIMA at the witness stand and asked "Do you know of this note, which states that you took too good care of prisoners at the time when you wore commandant of the prison camp?" FURUSHIMA answered, "I know it well, and I received many others besides that one"
Getting the approval of the judge, FURUSHIMA attempted to defend himself, stating as fellows: "After carefully looking into the treatment of foreign prisoners who spoke different languages and had different customs, I was of the opinion that as human beings are all the same throughout the world, the prisoners should be given treatment. Therefore, I endeavored to treat the prisoners liberally and generously."
FURUSHIMA's wife, KAZUKO, was present, and her face showed how anxious she was about her husband. This touched the hearts of the audience.
Lieutenant MARGOLENS, prosecutor stood and related the differences between the testimony of FURUSHIMA and the facts of his crimes. He
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POLITICAL SERIES: 176 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
declared that the fact that he had ill-treated prisoners could not be denied in view of the statement of Colonel MURATA that a moxo cautary was not used as medical treatment, but as punishment.
In the afternoon, following an argument on his behalf by Captain MARTIN Lieutenant Colonel DICKINSON said, "In the Japanese forces, striking is not considered an unusual form of punishment. Moreover, in prison camps life at any place, all sorts of this might happen." He read about the actual conditions of a camp of American soldiers in ENGLAND, reported in the magazine, "Time". He stated "It is not fair that such a case should be determined by documents alone."
However; procecutor ENGLAND continued by saying that American Soldiers who suffered as prisoners of the Japanese during the war cannot be kept in JAPAN for the trial. The defendant made an affidavit to the effect that he had treated the prisoners courteously. I cannot believe the commandant's ignorance of the fact that while he was in charge of the camp. Private MANN died, and 19 prisoners wore sacrificed. The prosecutor stated, "the criminal who illegally mistreated these prisoners cannot be permitted to dwell upon the earth." He recommended, the death penalty. The head of the court martial declared that a sentence would be given during the afternoon of 11th. The court adjourned at 1430.
ITEM 4 Opinions of Political Parties On The Attitude of Shidehara Cabinet - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 11 Jan 46. Translator: K. Murakami
Summary:
Under the present powerless Government, led by Premier SHIDEHARA, who still remains quiet, and due to the apothetic attitude of higher political circles regarding the latest Allied directive, the political situation has become more and more unsettled. Thus, the Cabinet now has to face the crisis of general resignation, which seems to be inevitable. Opinions of each political party on measures for alleviating the confusion are as follows:
Liberal Party: The SHIDEHARA Cabinet is naturally responsible for creating the present political situation. Therefore, we can find only one remedy, a general resignation, though, if necessary, the Prime Minister can receive an Imperial mandate to form a new Cabinet.
Communist Party: It is quite natural for the Cabinet to prefer a general resignation, about which we have already made a statement. If the Cabinet tries to go on despite public opinion, our party will again advise it to resign. Mr. SHIDEHARA can never again receive an Imperial mandate. In order to take measures to most the critical problem of food and inflation, political power must be in the hands of the people. This is our opinion at the present time. As for political parties, they are generally prefared for it. To decide fairly on the persons to be responsible under General MacARTHUR's directive is a question to settled only by a Cabinet backed by the people.
Progressive Party: The main thought of the present Cabinet is the general election. Frequent changes of Government cause nothing but economic and social disturbances, and if the Cabinet changes, the general election will be postponed again. A general resignation, followed by another Imperial mandate, would be useless. The Cabinet should strive for partial reorganization.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0176, 1946-01-13.
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