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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0166, 1946-01-10.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0695

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 695 Date: 10 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 166

ITEM 1 Promulgation Of Two Imperial Ordinances - Yomiuri Shimbun - 8 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
At the extraordinary Cabinet meeting held on 6 January, the Government deliberated upon the two Imperial ordinances concerning legislative measures which are necessary for carrying out the directives of SCAP. The two Imperial ordinances contain the following items:
1. Removal from public offices of militaristic leaders; 2 Dissolution of 27 right wing bodies. There was general agreement among the ministers as to its fundamental policy in carrying this out.
At the ordinary Cabinet meeting on the 8th, the Government is to submit the above two Imperial ordinances, in order to get a final resolution, which will be promulgated on the same day. Accordingly, since the general election of the members of the House of Representatives is to be carried out in the near future, the Government is to make public formally the Candidacy Restriction Ordinance and at the same time will promulgate the above Imperial Ordinances.
As to whether candidates will be eligible or not, the Government is to take measures for additional regulations by which judgment can be made.
ITEM 2 Discussion Between Baba, Tsunego and Hasegaha, Nyozekan - Yomiuri Hochi - 8 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
BABA: The majority of people in the Nation is for the continuation of the Emperor System, I suppose.
HASEGAWA: There are some who are of opinion that the question should be decided by means of a plibiscite. What is the procedure?
BABA: The Japanese Constitution can be revised by two-thirds of the members of both Houses of Parliament. In order to revise it by plebiscite the necessary provisions must inserted in the new Constitution. The Villagers do not seem so much concerned about soveign rights, but they have a strong feeling of attachment to the Emperor. The Imperial rescript terminating the war seems to have impressed them most. They think that because of this rescript, the war ended and they can live.
HASEGAWA: In foreign countries, however, people are wondering why the Japanese Emperor failed to exercise the power he used to terminate the war, at the time of its outbreak.
BABA: Another argument used by foreigners is this. - If one word, from the Emperor stopped the war, another word from him may make JAPAN militaristic in the future. To prevent this happening in the future, I thin political

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POLITICAL SERIES: 166 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
democratization is absolutely necessary. The Parliament, the political parties and the people must he given the power to prevent the selfish whims of militarists and bureaucrats. If the people are provided with sufficient power, there will be no room for militarists and bureaucrats.
HASEGAWA: The Imperial Household and the Emperor are very significant in that they represent the general will of the Japanese Nation. The fact that the Japanese Nation is peace-loving, optimistic, compromising, and, accordingly, not jingoistic, is fully represented by the Imperial Household. The history of the Imperial Household shows well its peaceful and compromising nature. The foreign expeditions were not initiated by the Imperial Household. The expedition to KOREA and the Mongolian invassion were no exceptions. In both of these cases, the Imperial Household advocated peace, but was forced to war by those, then in power. The Japanese in general do not want to wage war in such cases, and the Imperial Household represents this popular will. The weakness of the Imperial Household lay in the fact that it could not check the militalists.
There is a special reason for the Emperor's inability to avoid declaring war. The MEIJI Emperor opprosed the opening of the Simo-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars until the very moment of their outbreak. He said "If the Government insists on declaring war, I will sanction it. As the constitutional Emperor, I do-not want to establish a precedent by not sanctioning what the Government has decided to do."
In the case of the recent war, the Government decided to open hostilities and applied for sanction. To refuse that sanction would mean a return to despotism. The Government decided to end the war, and the Emperor gave his sanction. It is clear that no responsibility rests with the Emperor in either case. Militalists no longer exist in JAPAN, and the Emperor and the Imperial Household can now rule the Japanese Nation.
For the first time in the history of JAPAN, the Emperor MEIJI held a conference and proclamed his intention of coming closely in touch with the people, thus tending to regate the Emperor's divinity. Foreign observers should study and understand the real influence of the Emperor as the representative of the general will of the Nation.
BABA: Here is something that well illustrates the Emperor's peace-loving outlook before the opening of the war. Prior to becoming prime minister, TOJO forced Prince KONOE to tender his resignation, as the latter was opposing the war. At that time, TOJO thought it dangerous to go to war, as the Navy was not ready to do so so he wanted to make Prince HIGASHI* KUMI Premier and take the matter up with him. The intention of making Prince HIGASHIKUMI the new premier was then expressed to the Emperor. The Emperor was opposed to this for the reason that the Prince might have to stand and proxy for the Emperor, and so it was unwise for him to assume the responsibility of declaring war. The Emperor then asked Prince KONOE if Prince HIGASHIKUNI decided not to declare war, would the Array obey this decision. Prince KONOE referred him to TOJO, saying he was not well enough accquanted with conditions in the Army. Then TOJO was asked and in reply he said, "If the Cabinet decides for peace, I am not sure whether the Army will be satisfied or not. "As a result, the attempt to make Prince HIGASHIKUNI Premier failed. I am afraid that TOJO's reply in this case constituted an attempt to override the Emperor's supreme power.
At the time for the Manchurian Incident, General HAYASHI, Senjuri, later Premier, was Commander of the Korean Army. He sent troops to MANCHURIA, without waiting for the Imperial order, under the pretext that Japanese residents in Manchuria were in danger of being annihilated. This was the cause of the Manchurian Incident. It was not sanctioned by the Emperor. In consequence of this, however, the Manchurian Empire was established, and this contributed much to JAPAN's power. According to the militarist
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POLITICAL SERIES: 166 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
way of thinking, the attempt was justified in that it proved beneficial to the Country, even though it was carried out against the Emperor's will.
HASEGAWA: That is the same idea that some of the ZAIBATSU have.
BABA: There are soldiers who say frankly that it would be better for the Nation to do anything that is benefical to the Country, irrespective of its being in conformity with the Emperor's will.
HASEGAWA: When the East INDIA Company established itself in INDIA, their action was censured as being unjust. The British politicianes replied that it was benefical to the Country. JAPAN'S case was similar to this. It may be all right in ENGLAND, but not in JAPAN, as the attempt was made against the general will of the people. Such a thing must not be done by the Army, which is under the command of the Emperor. The plans of TOJO and HAYASAI referred to above were not in accordance with the general will of the Army, but merely devised by a clique, Of soldiers, and Army leaders are responsible for it.
ITEM 3 Discussion between Baba, Tsunejo and Hasegaha, Nyuzeikan (concluded) - Yomiuri Hochi - 9 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
BABA - Allied Directives and the POTSDAM Declaration declare as their aim to turn JAPAN into a peaceful democracy. The question is what will come after that.
HASEGAWA - The Japanese bourgeois class always has felt that JAPAN would not gain in the war. JAPAN is not made for heavy industries, and heavy industrial development was enforced by war. JAPAN will now revert to light industries, which is indigenous to her. The ideal for JAPAN is to spread culture among her people and become a Far Eastern SWITZERLAND.
BABA and HASEGAWA agree then that it is fortunate that JAPAN has no more armaments. Countries which have large armaments will be worried about each other and others. This will be accentuated, if the atomic bomb becomes common property, for then a war would mean mutual extermination.
BABA: JAPAN has experienced the terrible effect of the atomic bomb on herself. She will, therefore, be the most convinced apostle of peace. The question will be only whether or not the Allies will let her play such a role.
HASEGAWA - There is no reason why the Allies should not lot JAPAN assume the role of a peace apostle in a world peace organization, but, it is mistaken to think that the invention of the atomic bomb in itself would stop wars. It will stop wars no more than the invention of gun powder stopped wars. Defense measures against the atomic bomb will most probably be widely studied.
BABA Military might never will stop wars. The basis for world peace will be laid only if the peoples and the races of the different countries are inculcated to love and respect each other, bound by common humanity. As for American and Allied help to turn JAPAN into a democracy, the Japanese people are grateful.
HASEGAWA It is desirable that the Japanese people establish in the future a relationship with the European and American countries for permanent study of the questions of humanity and customs, as well as economics, science and arts. JAPAN, freed from military shackles, will be able to move in this way toward a renewed. role in the world.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 166 (Continued)
ITEM 4 Mizutani, Chozaburo's Opinion On The Trouble in the Agriculture and Forestry Department - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Jan 46. Translator: R. Ochiai.
Full Translation:
We are much interested, from two viewpoints, in a rebellion taking place in the Agriculture and Forestry Department, one is the fact that it has arisen from the bureaucrats themselves, contrary to the previous Cases of attacks from the outside. This means that bureaucracy is already under attack by Government officials as well as by civilians. The other is that democratic activity was first carried out in a Government office in the Department of Agriculture and Forestry.
Though the Departments closely related to the people's everyday life, such as the Finance, the Commerce and Industry, and the Agriculture and Forestry Departments, are expected to be quickly democratized, the rebellion tells us that the latter has been awakened to its own serious problem, namely the food problem, and has begun self-criticism. Anyway, the trouble signifies the termination of bureaucracy. From these stand points we, the Social-Democratic Party are watching the matter with, hearty support for the democratic movement by lower officials.
How can we democratize a Government office? There is no way other than that of sweeping out favoritism. Hitherto, there has been no connection between work and position, or between position and personal ability, for the choice has been made according to academic career. This must be changed. This change will have an important effect upon the Home Department, where an academic clique is in control. Though at present the Party has no negotiations with Government officers on this problem, we will help them if they ask us.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0166, 1946-01-10.
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