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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0157, 1946-01-08.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0674

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 674 Date: 8 Jan. 1946

POLITICAL SERIES: 157

ITEM 1 Now Constitutional Plan-Tokyo Shimbun-6 January 1946. Translator: Nishihara. H.
Extracts:
The Diet system should be reformed drastically in the future, but for the present the system should be maintained after strengthening its authority, abolishing the House of Peers, and establishing the Second House. The following items are proposed:
The Diet should hold legislative power, decide laws, approve budgets, decide regulations for administration, and supervise their execution. Any treaty should be approved by the Diet if it concerns legislation.
The Diet session will be without adjournment; if adjourned the executive committee will act in its place.
The Diet should be authorized to prosecute ministers and Government officials for grave mistakes. For the trial in this connection an Administrative affairs court should be established.
The Diet will be dissolved instantly when a national vote approves its dissolution.
In order to cancel a decision of the Diet by a national vote, more that, half of the eligible voters must participate in the voting. The First House will consist of elected representatives. The Second House will consist of members elected by groups based on people's oc[illegible]. The First House is given priority on all points.

The Cabinet is the highest organ. The prime minister will be appointed by the chairmen of both the First and Second Houses, and cabinet members will be appointed by the prime minister. There were several other opinions that the prime minister should be appointed by an election of the members of the two Houses, by decision of the representatives of political parties, or by recommendation of the chairmen of the First House only.
Tile Cabinet is responsible to the Diet, and it must be clearly written in the Constitution that every cabinet member must be trusted by the Diet. The Cabinet has the power of appointing officials and the power of amnesty.
The people have the right of sovereignty, and jurisdiction should be for the benefit of the people under the laws governing organizations of courts of justice. Aiming at independence of jurisdiction, it is necessary to abolish the system which allows government organs, such as the Law Ministry to appoint or dismiss the judges. The Supreme Court should be the highest

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POLITICAL SERIES: 157 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
jurisdictional organ, and it is desirable that the president of the Supreme Court should he elected to an additional post of president of the Administrative Affairs Court. But some opinions claim that election of the president of the Supreme Court will he technically difficult, though it is desirable. It is concluded that the president will be appointed by recommendation of the chairman of the Second House upon approval of the members of the Second House. The lower officials should be appointed by the president.
It must be clearly written in the Constitution that those suspects found not guilty should be given reparations without fail, and in order to secure people's rights against unlawful damage by government officials, the Administrative Affairs Court should be established, of which the president should be elected by the public. In dependance of jurisdiction must be secured by all means so the jurisdictional officers won't become puppets in the hands of political parties.
The former attitudes of officials who felt that all sorts of sums must be spent, should be abondoned; the former tax and expenses of the Imprial Household must be reconsidered; and wasteful spending of reserved funds should be avoided. Special accounts which easily become wasted should be limited to Government enterprise accounts. Final reports of accounts must be made clearly and effectively.
The First House must be given priority over the Second House concerning the state budget; expenditures will be discussed by the First House first; sums and items approved by the First House should not be denied by the Second House.
It should also be written clearly in the Constitution that the public should not suffer from heavy taxes; this should read, "Taxes should be fair, and the public must not suffer from heavy taxes."
ITEM 2 SCAP Demands the Government's Strict Execution of the Directive Issued on 4 January-Asahi Shimbun-7 January 1946. Translator: H. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
The Supreme Commander's directive concerning the banishment of military nationalists is causing confusion among old leaders on the one hand, and is being supported by the people with democratic ideas on the other. It is clear that SCAP [illegible]that the Government shall realize the full import of this directive but whether or not the present Government is able to realize it for itself is another question. However, SCAP seems to expect the Government to sweep militarist or extreme nationalist from political positions in JAPAN. But the question as to how to use the elasticity of the directive is left to the Government.
ITEM 3 The Present State of the Political World-The Yomiuri Shimbun-7 January 1946. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
Imperialistic class leaders have been swept an ay from, many circles by the for-reaching directives of SCAP. The ruling classes have been hard hit, particularly in the political world. As many of the heads of existing parties are to be swept away there are very few measures left which can be of any assistance to them.
Taking advantage of this, several members are earnestly setting out to maintain their old power. Although the Cabinet of SHIDEHARA, with its bureaucratic character, Thus six ministers who are affected by the directives, it is attempting to prolong the life of the Cabinet by making reform is with a view to maintaining the ruling rights of the old
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POLITICAL SERIES: 157 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
leaders. Even if all these methods should fail, and the Cabinet resigns in a body, it can be seen that a Cabinet of intermediate character will be forced. Although it is a fact that this is the final battle of democratic powers, it cannot be denied, on the other hand, that the slow rise of democratic methods and lack of unity in political activities is due to the poor standards of political knowledge among the people. In order to make full use of this excellent opportunity, it is ardently desired that a political awakening of the whole Nation should manifest itself.
Of course, in view of the food crisis and inflation, the Nation is in such a condition that the people cannot take a great deal of interest in politics and the general election. Although such conditions do exist this directive, however, does give the people a most excellent opportunity for encouraging a democratic revolution and establishing the people's own [illegible]political system. It goes without saying that the people should definitly decide on sweeping away the militarists and right wing reactionaries and to supervise strictly any underhand methods and comouflaged schemes.
It is greatly to be desired that the Nation should determine to go out into the political stage on its own accord and utterly remove all the various feudalistic bureauratic, and militaristic systems. On the other hand, among the intelligent classes of cities and towns, and among a portion of women in these centers it is a remarkable fact that a distinct, political consciousness is growing. Their enthusiastic interests and keen criticisms have been directed against even the Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party, which are considered as being the representatives of one wing of the newly-rising political strength.
Among these persons ther are some who demand a clarification of thought and action, in view of recent events in the Social Democratic Party. The most important thing is that the nation has faith in the beginnings of a fight for democracy.
ITEM 4 The Social Democratic Party is in Haste to Determine its President-Asahi Shimbun-7 January 1946. Translator: N. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
The JAPAN Social Democratic Party has secured a very advantageous position over other parties in consequence of the directive issued by SCAP on 4 January, and it is moving actively to win an overwhelming victory in the forthcoming general election by increasing the number of recognized candidates. It is naturally presumed that there will be a lot of unattached chadidates in the various districts, so the Party issued to every branch throughout the country a directive to increase the number of recognized candidates and thus eliminate indepentant candidates.
Many people observe that it is rather difficult for the Social Democratic Party to become the leading Party, which is its intention, after the general election. The constituencies are still firmly under the sway of the old influences. However, political circles are faced with an unprecedented revolutionary situation and the Social Democratic Party has been exhorted to develop as the Party which is to win public confidence. So, leaders are consider who shall be president and they have decided to bring this presidency problem before the Central Executive Committee on 16 January. The question seems to be whether to get the president from inside or outside the Party. Mr. OYAMA, Ikuo, a non-member; Chief Secretary KATAYAMA Tetsu, Standing, Central Executive Committeemen MATSUOKA, Komakichi, and NISHIO, Suyeniro, within the Party are talked about as candidates, Mr. OYAMA is not well, and messrs. ABE TAKAYO and KAGAWA, advisors of the Party have also been mentioned. In short, the above three men are likely to be recommended for the presidency.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 157 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
The Social Democratic Party, which aims at being, the leading Party by puting up 300 candidates for the forthcoming general election, is to call a meeting of the central excutive committee. This will consist of representatives from each part of the country. It will be held on 16 January at the KURAMAYE Industrial Building. Debates will be held on measures for election, the present state of affairs, the presidency problem, the Emperor system, the problem of combining with the Communists and so on.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0157, 1946-01-08.
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