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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0155, 1946-01-08.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0667

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 667 Date: 8 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 155

ITEM 1 How Should we Select New Leaders? - Asahi Shimbun - 6 Jan 46. Translator K. Murakami.
Full Translation:
The Allied directive has expelled all the past militaristic leaders from their positions of authority. The Cabinet is on the verge of collapse. The majority of prefectural governors have been included within the scope of the directive. Calculations of the Progressive and Liberal Parties have gone wrong. All the old leaders are resigning from their offices as a result of the directive, leaving large vacancies in the political organization, which are not easy to fill. In fact, the parties are eagerly looking for new leaders.
Mr. TAIRA, Teizo, critic, and Mrs. MAKI, Yu, head of the women's section of the Communist Party, spoke on methods of selecting new leaders. Mr. TAIRA stated, "The MEIJI Restoration was a semirevolution, which basically was the cause of the present calamity. One reason for the Restortion being incomplete is that it was the compromise between the old and the new elements of the MEIJI era. At first the new elements decided they would not employ a single member of the TOKUGAWA Family. However, they could not obtain leaders in any other way than by admitting the TOKUGAWA element. Finally the two groups met half way, under the guise of making an attempt to prevent foreign agressions. In order to establish a thoroughly reorganized society, there must be no compromise between the old and the new. The directive issued now gives us the best opportunity to act on this principle.
"Bureaucrats often say, 'If we withdraw, you can expect nothing but a decline in administration.' What conceit [illegible]Food, inflation, and unemployment—we cannot rely upon the present bureaucrats to ease these problems. We do not have to encourage administrative confusion.
"The present bureaucratic administration is negative. We should employ men of ability from business circles and do away with the present civil service examination system. Prefectural Governors must be elected by popular vote. For the present, the replacement of prefectural governors will be done according to the directive. In replacing them, we should indeed make use of all able persons, who have put aside feudalistic views and who think in terms of JAPAN instead of themselves at the same time. The so—called heads of political parties must be swept away.
"Mr. HOSOSEICO, Mayor of ONODA in YAMAGUCHI Ken, who has always been the chief secretary of the Farmer Labor Party under Mr. OYAMA, Ikuo, is now a noted mayor and is respected by the people, I would like to venture to select some able Communists or Socialists. By doing this, something about their parties can be learned, and we can begin to reorganize our bureaucracy. In former years, even a policeman was affected by a change of Cabinet. What is needed is a new society with new leaders and the exclusion of all the old elements."

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POLITICAL SERIES: 155 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Mrs. MAKI, YU stated, "We unanimously approve the Allied directive. Since the old leaders have been expelled, the problem left for us is how to select new leaders. At present, Japanese women are very worried by the shortage of food, the feudalistic family system and poor nursing facilities. New leaders must be those who think not so much of their families as of the Neighborhood Association or the Town Association (CHOKAl) (TN This is not just a council but an administrative organization mainly managing distribution.), thus striving for democracy or the popular front.
"It is strange that we cannot find any item which makes women war criminals. During the war, in a factory in KEIHIN district, I saw a female foreman strike a factory girl on the grounds that she did not obey an order. In MEGURO-Ku, all women of a certain street were called out to welcome a princess who visited their factory. There are many female war criminals in this category. In the first grand popular meeting we drew up a list of female war criminals and are now making a second list to include members of educational institutions, the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, Japanese women's association, and female writers.
ITEM 2 Impetus Given to the Reduction of Government Officials by the New MacARTHUR Purge Order - Yomiuri Hochi - 6 Jan 46. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The Agricultural and Forestry Officials (NORINSHO SHOKUINKAI), which was formed on 20 December with the object of adjusting and democratizing the administrative structure, has decided to demand of the Agriculture and Forestry Minister, MATSUMURA, that the MacARTHUR order be duly applied to any Ministry officials in question. The latest Allied directive, ordering a purge in Japanese politics, has connection with the proposed adjustment of antidemocratic high-ranking officials.
In this connection, the committee has decided to report the establishment of a committee on this matter. The committee is composed of the majority of 2500 officials in the Ministry office. At its inauguration meeting, the committee decided on plans for the reduction of Governmental officials. This move is considered an act in concert with the proposed interior clean up of government offices. The staff of the committee blames the administration bodies of these offices for intrepreting the MacARTHUR directive as narrowly as possible. Even though high-ranking officials of various ministries may be exempted from removal from Government service, a great number of people with the civil service rank of CHOKUNIN or above fall in the categories of the new Allied directives.
The committee is expected to enlarge on the resolution on the reduction of Government officials at the next meeting. This move will naturally spread to other Ministries, and assume a graver aspect along with the progress of the political crisis.
ITEM 3 Round Table Discussion of Democratic Development - Mainichi Shimbun - 6 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Professor MIYAZAM: "The Japanese Emperor, similar to hereditary ruling houses elsewhere, did not hold much real ruling power in the past, and it is better that this also be the case in the future. In contrast with the British and Swedish Governments, the past Japanese Government
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POLITICAL SERIES: 155 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
was characterized by a weak parliament and strong cabinet."
Critic MUROBUSE: "The belief of the Japanese people in the Imperial House is just as artificial as Japanese mythology. A re-study of Japanese history will show that the Japanese Imperial Family was only the strongest of many clans which subjugated JAPAN, and as such, historically, was in no way the object of veneration and love by the Japanese people. If these facts are properly arrayed before the Japanese people, they will come to think very differently of the Imperial House. It is, therefore, proper if the Japanese Communist Party takes up this subject. But, when the Communist Party monopolized this subject, they will only achieve an adverse effect, for the Japanese people will then come to fear the Communists and support the Imperial House. It is, therefore, advisable to create a national commission to study this subject as well as all other urgent subjects such as the constitution, food and inflation problems, etc."
ABE, Principal of High School No. 1: "MUROBUSHI looks at Japanese history all too superficially. It is true that Japanese mythology was recorded after JAPAN was politically unified, and there might have been a political purpose in the recording. However, besides such a possible political purpose, it is a record of the society, life, and customs of the Japanese people. A revision of the Japanese constitution should be done only after very careful deliberation. In fact, there are many other political problems which should be solved first."
Communist SHIGA: "Professor ABE seems be allied with those who overlook all criticism in protecting the Emperor System. Since 15 August, however, the once undiscussed Emperor System has been made more and more the subject of discussion. HOKKAIDO coal miners are being placed under Communist leadership with the abolition of the Emperor System as the principal slogan."
ABE: "Such Allies as the communists are undesirable."
SHIGA: "It is said in support of the sac[illegible]dness of the Emperor System that it has continued for nearly 3000 years. The Allied Directive on t Shintoism states, however, that all ideas that JAPAN or the Japanese Emperor is superior to other countries and other rulers must be prohibited. The Japanese Communists, however, think that JAPAN is the most backward country in the world and the Emperor System is the epitome of this backwardness. Professor ABE has said that the Japanese Emperor System never was oppressive, but, SHIGA states that he himself had been imprisoned and maltreated by Japanese Government Officials for 18 years in the name of the Japanese Emperor. The advocates who want to turn JAPAN into a constitutional monarchy similar to that existing in ENGLAND ignore the different national character and historical basis of the Japanese and English people. ENGLAND is the country in which the capitalistic form of state developed earliest and which, in consequence, had a. long period of development in the direction of democracy. Also, ENGLAND's reigning house was invited from abroad. JAPAN adopted capitalism last of all and, moreover connected it with a feudalistic order centered in the Emperor and the Emperor System. If such is allowed to remain, reaction must be feared in the future. The Emperor ought to apologize to the people for what the Imperial House has done during the war, for retarding democracy in JAPAN since the MEIJI Restoration and for the present plight of the Japanese People."
ABE: "The responsibility for the misdeeds of which SHIGA accuses
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POLITICAL SERIES: 155 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
the Emperor rests not with the Emperor but with those who misued the name of the Emperor to satisfy their own lust for power."
SHIGA: "It is true that the Japanese militarists are responsible, but not only General TOJO. It is the whole complex group composed of the Japanese militarist and bureaucrats, of whom the Emperor is the supreme representative. Most probably the Emperor will hold General TOJO responsible. In fact, they will try to lay responsibility on each other. But, this is only pitiable internal strife showing that the whole lot of than are equally responsible."
ITEM 4 The Cabinet is on the Brink of General Resignation - Yomiuri Hochi - 6 Jan 46. Translator: K. Murakami.
Summary:
The Cabinet meeting, which was expected to open on 5 January, was adjourned until the following day. Foreign Minister YOSHIEA, who was expected to visit General Headquarters in order to clarify the intention of the Allies could not meet the authorities on that day, and there is now time for the legislative bureau to investigate the legal procedures in the execution of the directive.
It is said that Premier SHIDEHARA's intention is to maintain his Cabinet until the coming general election by changing five or six members who are affected by the directive. It is doubtful, however, whether he can carry out the difficult reorganization of the Cabinet. Furthermore, the Premier himself is ill, and must rest for a week or so. In such circumstances, the most general opinion is that even if he tries to maintain his Cabinet by partial reorganization, or dares to bring about a, general resignation in the hope he may be called on to take control. The Cabinet will, after all, be compelled to break up.
ITEM 5 Persons Influential In Militaristic Organizations are Expelled From Public Office - Mimpo - 6 Jan 46. Translator: R. Ochiai.
Summary:
Thinking that prohibition of Shintoism would be the last fundamental order for democratizing JAPAN, the Government and the reactionary elements were much surprised at the new directives from Allied Headquarters on 4 January. The Allied Powers, as they said, expected the Japanese Government by its own hand to take appropriate measures for prosecuting war criminals and dismissing militarists in aiming to establish a democratic country. However, since it has been irresolute and powerless the Allied Headquarters has issued these orders which expel all militarists from public office and dissolve rightist organizations.
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