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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0144, 1946-01-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0629

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 629 Date: 5 Jan 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 144

ITEM 1 Dialogue Between Mr. BABA and Mr. HASEGAWA - Yomiuri Hochi Shimbun - 3 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Kurata.
Summary:
Mr. BABA: "Now that 1945, a year full of calamities, is ever, let us talk about the reconstruction of an agreeable, happy, and hopeful new JAPAN. To begin with, let us talk about the means by which JAPAN must be revived after her def at."
Mr. HASEGRWA "As a matter of fact, I think JAPAN has never experienced a defeat since the beginning of her history, so that all the Japanese people are now quite at a loss as to how to behave."
Mr. BABA: "I believe that and though I must hate defeat, I would be even more angry with the tyranny of militarism if our country had won this war.
Mr. HASEGAWA: "I have heard the same opinion from most people;"
Mr. BAEA.: "Suppose JAPAN won this war and the militarists, boastful of their success, made another war, only to be more completely defeated. I think, in that case, JAPAN would become, non-existent. In any event, I believe we must reconstruct a now JAPAN."
Mr. HASEGAWA: "I am of your opinion, and at the same time think that as far as JAPAN is concerned this defeat is a good lesson."
Mr. BABA: "But at present all the Japanese people are quite optimistic regarding their defeat, as can be seen from the fact that they are hailing General MacARTHUR and his occupation forces."
Mr. HASEGAWA: "The same held true even during wartime. I always abhorred wartime newspapers, using such words as "wild beast" in writing about American and the English. I could not understand the reason for their writing like that."
Mr. BABA: "That was militelistic propaganda to raise hostile feelings among the Japanese people against enemies, and all newspapers were obliged to be instruments of this propaganda."
Mr. HASEGAWA: "But why didn't they refuse to write such things?"
Mr. BABA; "Soldiers could hardly use such words as "pro-American", aid "pro-Anglo-Saxon". When they meet, a person, one of their greatest concerns is to make out whether he is a friend or enemy. They can never recognize neutrality or independence of peoples."
Mr. HASEGAWA "Why not? I don't think that so many soldiers have such extreme opinions. I believe, the military authorities should have had an effective organization to integrate general opinions

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POLITICAL SERIES: 144 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
while respecting opinions of the Nation as wall as of newspapermen."
Mr. BABA "As Lloyd GEORGE wrote in his book, soldiers cannot capably judge one's personality, because there is no discussion among them. But politicians, in their turn, are accustomed to see through one's mind, because they have a good deal of bitter controversy. Their inability being such, soldiers can never van wars."
Mr. HASEGAWA; "I have the same opinion about the ability of politicians but I cannot conduce their on-lookers' attitude during the war."
ITEM 2 General of the Army MacARTHUR is satisfied with the Emperor's intention to take a leading part in democratizing JAPAN - Asahi Shimbun - 3 Jan 46. Translator: N. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
General MacARTHUR issued the following statement on 1 January to the effect that he was satisfied with the Imperial Rescript of the same day: "I am greatly satisfied with the Emperor's New year's statement. The Emperor is taking a leading part in democratizing JAPAN, as stated in the Imperial Rescript, and is making his future stand a liberal one without hesitation. Such behavior by the Emperor is a reflection of basically sound and reasonable views. Sound and reasonable ideas cannot be held in check." General MacARTHUR's statement expresses candid satisfaction with the New Year's Imperial Rescript, and he bases it on the following interpretation.
The Emperor definitely intends to take a leading part in democratizing JAPAN for the people of JAPAN.
The Emperor is making a liberal stand.
It shows that the basic idea of democratization has taken root in JAPAN. General MacARTHUR's statement this time not only gives great encouragement on the establishment of a democratic JAPAN, but will also be approved both by the nations of the world and by JAPAN herself.
ITEE 3 View'of Democratic Government In JAPM - Asahi Shimbun - 3 Jan 46. Translator: N. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
The fundamental task given to the present Government of JAPAN is, in a word, to establish democratic, political and economic systems as soon as possible. Indeed, the Government has been making efforts to develop a democratic government, of the people and by the people, in political and economic fields, according to the directives issued by Supreme Commander of Allied Powers since last year; but, frankly speaking, the efforts and results cannot be said to be satisfactory. It may be said that the test whether or not JAPAN can start her life as a peaceful state among the nations of the world will take place, in 1946. This is why the Government is expected to demonstrate more onthusiasm and effort.
Reform of the Diet: It goes without saying that, first of all, the Upper and Lower Houses must be fundamentally reformed in order to push democratic government. The Lower House has been already dissolved and the general election is impending. The Government also stated that it intended to sweep the feudal political remnants

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POLITICAL SERIES: 144 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)

away by thoroughly reforming the House of Peers' Ordinance. The bill revising the same ordinance is to be introduced at the next Diet session. The important thing now is the form in electing members of the Lower House; in other words, to what extent the Imperial Rule Assistance Diet will be swept away. Frankly speaking, although the Government dissolved the Diet, it has not taken any measures to destroy former influences and bring forth new powers. Regarding this point, the Government must take concrete measures for the coming general election in the near future. It is not too much to say that whether or not JAPAN Can start afresh as a democratic state depends upon how the coming general election is performed and what results it will bring. The SHIDEHARA Cabinet is an interim one. Therefore, the general election is even more important from a realistic point of view.
Reform of administration: Following the reform of administrative organs, the important item is that of administration. Taking up the fundamental reform of administration as one of the important policies, the Government has already abolished the Information Bureau, and intends to raise the status of the Communications Board and divide or unify other ministries. In accordance with this reform, the Government announced the principle that 58 per cent of the officials will be lopped off even in central offices. This is an [illegible]avor to put the bureaucracy, which collaborated with the military clique, in their original place. Moreover, the Government intends to reform the Privy Council and Peers systems. An indispensable provision of administrative democratization will be to remove those politically privileges and feudal remnants.
Reform of judicial system: In regard to the reform of the judicial system, which is as important as the legislation and administration divisions, the Government intends to carry out a fundamental reform by establishing an investigation committee and asking the views of learned men. This reform accompanies the abolition of the Peace Maintenance Law and other poor laws, and the greater part of them have already been abolished by Supreme Commander of Allied Powers directives. Therefore, the important thing is the re-training of officials to take charge of the new administration of justice. It is vital to reform the entire judicial organ, which takes charge of the application of laws, as well as the method of appointing and training judges and public prosecutors. With this as its goal, the Government is gradually taking concrete measures, so we can look forward to the fundamental reform of the judicial system and methods of crime detection.
As ellustrated above, democratic government is developing little by little in judicature, administration, and legislation, but we cannot say that speed and direction is satisfactory with regard to the revision of the constitution, the fundamental law. Looking at State Minister MAISUMOTO's answer in the Diet and other suggestions by authorities, the revision of the constitution which the Government is planning seems to be considerably unrelated to public demand. The people are waiting to see to what extent democratic government will be provided for in the revised constitution. At any rate, this year is the year for trials, more severe than in any other year during the war, for both the administrators and the people. Now, is the time when JAPAN should begin to reconstruct herself. It is necessary that all the people, official and public, should stand and overcome their tribulations with a strong will.
ITEM 4 Development and Strengthening of Democracy; states, SHIGA, Yoshio: "Emperor System put to bad use in The Past." - Mainichi Shimbun - 4 Jan 46. Translator: Paasche.
Summary:
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POLITICAL SERIES: 144 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
SHIGA: "Between 15 August and 23 August 500,000,000,000 yen emergency war funds" have disappeared. One cannot help coming to this conclusion since the Army and Navy have declared that of the sum total of 850,000, 000,000 yen of which 200,000,000,000 yen were spent up to 15 August only 150,000,000,000 yen are still extant. What is to become of the anti-inflation policy if such huge sums are spent within two weeks? For this reason we will have to go deeper into this matter. We communists speak of a anti-inflation policy at the expense of the workers. We learn from the newspapers that the Imperial Household has spent ten millions: we communists do not worry about such paltry sums. We consider that the whole Imperial property should be given up. According to a Supreme Commander of Allied Powers report, this property amounts to 75 billion yen. But we think this is an understatement since the figures are based on Government information.
At all events the Emperor must pay war profit and property tax, to be used for spending among those who have suffered most from the war workers, peasants, people who lost their homes, unemployed and demobilized soldiers. All banks must be directly administrated by the people. The workers must have a share in working out the production plans. The peasants must obtain goods for their rice; this means that productive activity must be increased extensively. Since the Government and the capitalists do not do it, the workers must.
It is very significant that there is a tendency now among business companies to refuse to close down; some of them continue their own work even if they have contracts with the occupation forces or go so far as to turn down Air Force work in favor of their usual business. Some theorists advocate plans which go beyond the scope of democratic revolution, aiming at "Socialism now". This is dangerous and communism does not support it. We must gradually bring about a republican state, since the present Government is not going to play the game.
The next phase will be the participation of the workers in the administration of planned production. There is a rumor that the communists will use the growing food shortage to mobilize 200,000 people for staging food riots. This is nothing but vicious propaganda. However, the Government does not deal with the food problem. The Communist Party is absolutely against using violence. It wants to push aside the Government through popular pressure and aims at raising the standard of living. But in view of the uncertainty resulting from inflation the danger period is not yet passed."
Mr. ABE, Nosei stated: I believe the Emperor System will always be with us and I think it a good plan for the Imperial Treasury to give up much of its property to the people. The fact that the Emperor System was misused need not lead to its abolition. During the MUROMACHI [illegible]Shognnate or The OJIN wars when the Emperor was eclipsed, we find, in the literature of the time, only praise and sympathy for the Emperor. This shows that he belongs in the national setup. In the long run JAPAN cannot be ruled by a president or a marshal or a party secretary, because such a personality could not become a political center of gravity."
MIYAZAWA, Toshiyoshi stated: "I am wondering whether Japanese monarchy may not be helpful in preoerving the social order and I am afraid too speedy a democratization of the organization may encourage some sort of fascism. One may regret the fact that since the MEIJI era, the Emperor was deified, but this policy has been instrumental in shaping a mass psychology with which we have to reckon now."
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0144, 1946-01-05.
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