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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0134, 1945-12-31.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0580

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 580 Date: 31 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Draft of a New Constitution Discussion thereon - The Mainichi Shimbun -
29 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full translation:
The Constitutional Research Association, organized by Mrssrs. TAKANO, Iwasaburo; SUZUKI, Yasuzo, etc, announced its draft of a revised constitution, as had already been reported. On 28 December, Mr. SUZUKI, one of the drafters, said of the projected constitution:
"The reason for the revision of the constitution is the need for a really democratic constitution. This draft was made at the instance of Mr. TAKANO, Iwasaburo. I felt that the revision which the present cabinet is now making is like a fifth wheel to a coach. As a citizen, I cannot leave it only to the cabinet. I wrote the new draft with pure, democratic ideals as a nucleus. It is in what is called 'a general political plan' that I put both my greatest efforts."
"Mr. STALIN said that 'a general political plan has mainly a future relation, while a constitution has a present relation.' The draft was made with the present Japanese situation in mind; and it can be realized in the very near future. It is formed with TAKANO's outlook on the world. Technical finishing touches have been left to an expert. I quoted the following references:
"'The Constitutional Bill of the Oriental Japanese Empire' by UEKI, Edamori, which was published in 1883 and 'The Prospective Japanese Constitution' by TOSARISSHI-SHA. They were written by the founders of the Liberal Party, which was the first Japanese democratic society. I also referred to more than twenty drafts which were written with great passion, opposing the great oppression at the beginning of the MEIJI Era. Foreign materials which I used were from the French Constitution of 1791, the Constitution of the United States, the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the WEIMAR Constitution and the Prussian Constitution, As for TAKANO'S outlook regarding the Emperor System which guided much of my work, I believe it can be divided into three main parts:
"The first part is that JAPAN is to be a limited monarchy, with the Diet having legislative power, and the Emperor having administrative power. The second part is that the political supreme power is wholly removed from the Emperor. He is to rule only the national ceremonies and is to have no political power. The third part is that in order to avoid the danger of reacting elements seizing political power by taking advantage of the Emperor System, a republic is to be formed, with the president elected as a representative of the people. In conclusion, the present Emperor System is to be maintained, in view of present conditions. It will be controlled, and will be a republican system in principle. In short, a parliamentary republican system is to be adopted."
"The difference between the two is that in the new system, 'the sovereign reigns, but does not rule.' What I have worked for is that the national rights of supervision be given to both the Government and the Diet. These rights involve the reformation of the judicial system and the public

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POLITICAL SERIES 134 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
election system so that a vote on the lack of confidence in the cabinet can be arranged."
"I do not know very Ach about the KONOE revision or the Government revision, however, the KONOE Bill seems slightly more progressive than the cabinet's Bill; and we can agree with such items as 'The Imperial Diet can dissolve itself' or the need for the establishment of a standing deliberative body. The Diet would be divided into two Houses - the First House and the Second House. The Second House would be made up of those elected from labor unions, farmer's unions, and cultural groups, academies, etc. In the economic field the prohibition of monopolistic capital, plutocrats, and high rate of interest would be considered basic; and nationalization of lands was considered. However, the nation's economy must not be regulated too strictly in order to avoid unfavorable reaction.
ITEM 2 Conditions in Northern KOREA - The Mimpo - 30 December 1945. Translator: S. Kawasaki
Full translation:
The cold, starvation, compulsory labor, etc, were reported as ills besetting the KOREW's, but the actual circumstances of Northern KOREA after her liberation, were not made public. When we see the Proclamation which was given the Korean people by the Headquarters of the Russian Forces soon after the occupation, we find that, the various reports received were false.
It is necessary that we renew our k[illegible]e on the actual conditions of Northern KOREA. Then, let us look at the proclamation. The Soviet Forces and the troops of Allied Powers have expelled Japanese looters from KOREA. KOREA has become an independent country. However, this is only the first step in the near history of KOREA. A well-ripened orchard is the result of human labor and attention. Therefore, the happiness of KOREA can be [illegible]rought about only by determined labor.
Remember the painful lives you led under the reign of JAPAN. Every stone on stone fences and every muddy field tells a tale of painful labor, blood, and sweat, don't they? For what did you work? You know well that the Japanese despised the Korean people and stained the custom and the cul[illegible]of KOREA, living in luxury in lefty buildings. Such a slavish past will never be repeated. The past days, like a bad dream, will be swept away forever. Korean people, Remember Happiness is within your grasp. You have regained freedom and independence. Now you can do as you please.
The Soviet Forces have made every effort so that you may be able to begin to work freely for yourselves. As Korean people, you must create your own happiness by yourself. Proprietors, factories, businessmen, and entrepreneurs - restore factories which have been destroyed by the Japanese. Open new manufacturing works! Open shops! Establish commericial relations!
The Headquarters of the Soviet Forces will guarantee the protection of property of all Korean enterpreneurs, and in order to guarantee the normal working of the factories, we shall assist you as much as possible. Korean workers! Display your heroism and creative labor by working! Display a love for work, which is one of the fine, racial characteristics of the Korean people! Only those who pay attention to the economic and cultural development of KOREA, in actual practice, can become patriots of your fatherland. Long live the released Korean people!
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