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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0123, 1945-12-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0535

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 535 Date: 27 Dec. 1945


ITEM 1 "Democratization of Parliament: JAPAN's coming Task" - Tokyo Shimbun 25 December 1945. Translator: Paasche.
Those political events which have already taken place-the new election laws and land laws-are nothing short of revolutionary, but many important tasks still lie ahead, especially, a remaking of the privy council and the [illegible]of Peers. Nonetheless, nothing is more urgent now than to carry through the elections, which are to give a true picture of what the Nation wills.
As to the next task, Premier SHIDEHAKA has already pointed out the coming remodeling of the Upper House Ordinances, but the Upper House itself takes the attitude of clinging to it's old privileges. Said OKOCAI, of the influential research group, "that need is there for reform?" Democratization of the House of Peers does not mean it is going to be another Lower House. True to the meaning of the bicameral system, to the Upper House will retain its function of being a safety-valve for the Diet.
Upper House members should be recruited from persons of all walks of life; recruiting [illegible]y Imperial nomination as in the case of the Diet, is not proper under a bicameral setup and must be abolished. At present, there are two schools of thought the Upper House; is a reform seeking faction among Imperial nominees, the other aristocratic cons rvatives. In October a group was formed the safety of Upper House reforms but since it banked on the censor [illegible]tives, it met only twice and failed in its purpose.
Originally, nerecitary cristocracy was a mere family affair without politican significance, [illegible]crticles 33 and 34 of the Constitution gave nobility political [illegible]and made it the basic of JAPAN's parliamentary structure, thereby bringing about our pecuiliar blending of parlia-mentaranism and feucalism. This system, by which aristocrats vote each other into the Upper House is not permissible from the viewpoint of democracy; there fore, the Constitution must be revised since article 34 says, "The upper House consists of the Imperial Family, the nobility, and Imperial nominees". Another obstacle to reform is article 13 of the Upper House". So far the Upper House has blocked all attempts to reform it. Without in changes in the Diet election law must be approved by both the Diet and the Upper House, the Diet has not say as far as the Upper House ordinance is concerned. In this way, the peers are shielded from all outside criticism and interference. If progressive elements of the Upper House proclaim the necessity of reform, they are interfered with by reactionary rows. The late private KONOE's attempt to revision were cases in point. A reor[illegible]House of [illegible]must remain the is "safety valve" it was [illegible]ned to be, but with It's prerogatives cancol[illegible]. It must facilitate the smooth working [illegible]ed democracy.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 123 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
MIYATA Mitsuo and [illegible], members of the House of Peers, advocate the following reforms: 1. Metrirement of aristocratic members and representatives of the highest [illegible]yers. 2. A fixed term of office for Imperial nominees and reduction in their number. 3. Imperial nominations must coase to be a sinecure for super[illegible]nnuated Government officials. 4. Imperial nominees should come from all walks of life: scientists, agriculturists, publishers, etc. 5. The various cities and prefectures should be represented. 6. The authority of the Upper House must be restricted. 7. In order to clarify it's role as "safety valve" the Upper House shall merely reconsider questions un which the Government and [illegible]iet are at variance, questions partainin to severeignty should be decided on by the Privy Council. 8. Accordingly the title of the House of peers should be changed to by Upper House (JOIN).
Such proposals as these have so far been [illegible]dicapped by the conservative atmosphere prevailin[illegible]in the Upper House. A reform must be in line with rievision of the constitution and should include the following points: Abolition of members belonging to the Imperial family; abolition of aristocratic members; and abolition of representatives of the higher Tax payers.
ITEM 2 Recollect and the Present View (Political) - Yomiuri - Hochi-26 December 1945. Translator: Weiller, J.
As long as the world's history endures, manking will not forget the year 1945, for in that year bloodshed, which had threatened the world since 1929, was utterly crushed by the iron arms of the democratic [illegible]ncipators. Victorious cries of mankind and its culture were heard throughout the world, even by the vanquished. A peaceful light again began to righten the surface of the earth and once mere manking created and worked toward progress. Through various reports [illegible]since the termination of the war many secret feuds and [illegible]cable schemes among our war criminals ruleing class were exposed to the immense indi[illegible]of the people, who had been forced into untold hardships and sacrifices by that ruling class.
Among the many expose facts, the thin that strikes us most forcibly is the ugly factional strife for supremacy among the upper political groups composed of semi-feudalistic militarist-bureaucrats and [illegible]Since the Manuchurian Incident, the so-called, party cabinets, [illegible]been merely tolerated by the Zaibatsu upper bureaucrats, [illegible]lite of the militarists, and JUSHIN, disappeared alto other, and in the end, the militarists entirely mono ulized political power giving their erstwhile bureaucrats a wide burth.
Even among the militaristic factions themselves the read power should was by the INJO clique the group most faithful to the militarists privilled and interers, most adventurous, aggressive and despotic. Other political groups were reduced to the imenviable position of a collites. In is ultra reactionary faction was solely responsible for erivin the Nation into was, and after the setbacks at MILLWAY [illegible], it research to every trick to conceal the collapse of JAPAN's In erialism, in order to stubbornly maintain selfish interests and [illegible]. At last this group stooped to the point of manufacturing "[illegible]of Gerneal Headquarters" on one hand while, on the other, it [illegible]the out [illegible]military and special police administration greatly.
In spite of their frenzied onces the facts of [illegible]which was becoming worse [illegible], could not be [illegible]dis[illegible]. The [illegible]who, during the long war had post their [illegible]and were forced to make.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 123 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
every convevable sacrifice, gradually be an to lose their zeal for the was when they suspected a dark future. The result was tacit "sabotage" against the governments various wartime policies. The people became more concerned about food, transportation prices, and other problems than about the war.
In the first stage of the war, the capitalists enthusiastic over the fuge profit, the war had brought them encouraged it. despite an initial uneasincess they entertained prior to the outbreak of hostilities. However the turn of the war after GUADALCANAL coused considerable unrest among them because they were seiged by panic that he utiable bonds in their vaults might eventually become valueless. With daily increased unrest among the people, the sense of despair became manifest even among the ruling class and they began to think a way of counciliating the enemy.
In the reconstruction process of the TOJO Cabinet after the GUADALCALL defeat the political influence of monopolized capital increased in the leading figures of finance and industry occupied important posts as advisors and ministers. This tendency was even more pronounced in the KOISO Cabinet Which succeeded TOJO after his Cabinet collapsed due to the fall of SAIPAN. Diplomatic feelers put through the SOVIET UNION, however, did not obtain the desired result and when we received a not from the SOVIET to the effect that the non-aggression pact between our two countries had lost its meaning, the KOISO Cabinet met with a sad end and was replaced by the so called "War Termination Cabinet" headed by SUZUKI, one of the JUSAIN.
With the total collays of the two great Fascist countries in Europe the, announcement of the POTSDAM Declaration the fall of IWO JIMA and OKINAWA and intensification of air raids, [illegible]internal situation was decidedly aggrevated; Industrial power was fundamentally destroyed, traffic was cri[illegible]led; and the Nations daily necessities were extremely deficient. On to of all this, [illegible]bomos were dropped and the SOVIET UNION entered the war. Continued Resitation meant the fundamental destruction of the ruling organization controlled by the militarists, bureaucrats and ZABATSU. Accordingly, the "Imperialist for the termination of the war" was promulgated on 15August, and JAPAN'S Imperialistic, reactionary aggressive war ended, after 14 years. The reactionary rulers, even after the defeat, tried to shift the responsibility to the people, capitalizing on them political unawareness. They were frantically trying to uphold the semifeudalistic system, skillfully turning to account the peoples slavish submission, to the Emperor, an idea they had been diligently driving into the peoples heads for the post 80 years ever since the [illegible]IJI Restoration.
For this purpose they [illegible]cabinet headed by Prince HIGASHI KUNI, a member of the Imperial family, ex-Commander of the expeditionery Forces in OHINA and Commander of the Defense Forces. The Cabinet missions offered superficial obedience to the democratic Allied Forces, shifting responsibility to the Nation, protecting war criminals and reactionery elements, and holding the threat of the military and Special Police over the peoples heads. Nowever, having been exposed by the Allied Forces, this reactionary Government had to retore after two months in power.
Nevert[illegible]less the foundation of the r[illegible]ctionary and conservative ruling power has not yet cen overthrown, principally owning to the peoples political backwardness. Conse uetly, the foundation of the SHID[illegible]Cabinet materialized, [illegible]is composed of bureaucrats and bosses of bour [illegible]is landowner partiea. The missing of this cabinet is to ap[illegible]ose [illegible] [illegible]ossible the realization of the demand for democratizing JAPAN explain the war crimine is from political activities, through [illegible]time of the various feudalistic systems and [illegible]of the people from very. This a [illegible]system and the shift of all [illegible]for the [illegible].

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POLITICAL SERIES: 123 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Smaller Paris Hold Meeting-Minichi Shimbun-26 December 1945. Translator: Onno, Masashi.
Full Translation:
A mass meeting to give smaller political parties an oppertunity to make public their political opinions, will be held at 1230 on 20 December under the sponsorship of the Mainich Shimbun. Among [illegible]political parties desiring to send representative, speakers to the meeting, ten were selected by lot. (The rest will be given an opportunity later). The details of the meeting are as follows: The meeting will be held in the large open area near the Mainichi Shimbun building in front of YUKARUCHO Station. (rain or shine) and speaker will include YASUI, Shinsaku of the JAPAN Labor Party (NIKON KINRO TAISHUTO); SATO, Teine of the Social Decocratic Party (SHAKAI MINISHUTO); UBA, Tasabure of the JAPAN Kisin, Sun Party (NIHON ASAKI [illegible]); [illegible]Keize of the New Young Men's Party (SEISO SAIN SKINTO); MANABE, Tomiji of the JAPAN Reform Party (NIKON KAKUSAIN-TO); YOKOTA, Tashiji or the Social Productive Party (SAAKAI SEISAN-YO); KAWANO, Kinokiro of the JAPAN Republician Party (KOKUNIN KYOWATO); YAMAMOTO, [illegible]of the Young Men's Constitution Party ([illegible]SEINENTO); and SUZUKI, Kikutare of the JAPAN National Party KIHON KOKUMIN-TO).
ITEM 4 Ceremony of Formation of Independent Social Democratic Party (Dokuritsu Shakai To)-Asahi Shimbun-26 December 1945. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
The Independent Social Democratic Party (DOKUAITSU SHAKAI TO), of which Messrs. KAMEI, Kanichiro, and YAMAKOIICHI, Ichire, etc. are the leaders, held an inougural ceremony on 25 December and announced 19 aims. The gist of these aims is roughly as follows:
The maintenance of the Emperor, who is regarded as the center of a corporate family body.
The Political responsibility of the people is to be made direct; and the premier and a governor are to be elected by public election.
For distribution of materials for consumtion in a society of [illegible]co-operative national associations are adveisted to promote increaded votunal production.

The following persons are expected to run for the forthcoming [illegible]election as conditates.
KANAGAWA Ken: KAMEI, Kanichiro; SUZUKI, Yuji.
AICHI Ken: LGI, Takeniko.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0123, 1945-12-27.
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