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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0100, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0439

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 439 Date: 21 Dec 1945

POLITICAL SERIES: 100

ITEM 1 Japanese Defeat in Singapore (Second part) - Tokyo Shimbun - 18 Dec 45 Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary:
After the SOVIETS' participation in the war and the atomic bomb raids on HIRO[illegible]MA and NAGASAKI, the Japanese in SINGAPORE were greatly a[illegible]realizing the strife and agonies of JAPAN. Preceding these occurences in SINGAPORE, economic enterprises were liquidated except those necessary for military purpose, and all Japanese under the age of 45 were mobilized.
In this connection, many scandalous and unjust dealings were carried on under the cover of the general confusion. The lack of munitions by the troops was apparent, and the production of bayonets, trench mortars, etc. was forced upon, "S" Company and others, in SINGAPORE. However, production was not successful in spite of the arrogant statement of the Army officers. Even the astonishing fact that only three guns in perfect condition were guarding the coast around SINGAPORE ISLAND was revealed by the British Troops' investigation.
Prices had risen 100 of 700 times higher than the pre war prices, causing an ill feeling of the natives against the Japanese Army. Unscrupulous military officers made big profits by selling munitions to Chinese merchants, while Japanese civilians sold their goods in order to get money to meet living expenses. The civilian merchants concerned themselves with making money by co-operating with the Chinese merchants thus bringing confusions into the markets.
Under such circumstances, the Japanese were destined to face the coming of 15 August. From about 12 August, the military police in SINGAPORE began to confiscate the short wave redio receivers, but the real reason for this was not revealed. The military police could only say that mutiny was feared. Hence, the public began to suspect something must have been kept secret.
On 15 August, we reporters heard the Imperial Rescript in tears, and it seemed very odd that we were ordered not to tell about JAPAN'S defeat. Also, only a part of the officers and men of the Information Service wer informed of the fact on 15 August. Others learned of it on 18 August, and were overcome with astonishment, but the ordinary civilians were quite doubtful because they had been told that JAPAN could not be defeated.
After the end of the war, the deserters from military service increased A rumour was spread that an anfantry company was planning a battle against the Allied. Powers. Several young officers committed suicide, feeling disappointed at the defeat. After a week of despair and terror "B"-24's dropped pamphlets telling us of the end of the war. The

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POLITICAL SERIES 100 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Japanese thus come to believe the defeat. The Chinese scornfully laughed at their former rulers, the Japanese Army.
At the end of August, the Japanese military men and civilians began to move to JURON* on SINGAPORE ISLAND. Together with the evacuation, many barracks were built. It was planned to complete the evacuation before the landing of the Allied Forces, and consequently, a plan to accommodate tens of thousands in barracks was worked on day by day in the most unhealthy areas where malaria was rampant and water was very difficult to obtain.
ITEM 2 A Gubernatorial Conference Shall Be Held Soon - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 19 Dec 45. Translator: R. Ochiai.
Full Translation:
Wishing to explain thoroughly the new election law and to point out clearly its policy on general elections, the Government has decided to hold a gubernatorial conference in the near future. Two other conferences will also be held, one of officals of the Internal Affairs' Bureau on 20 December, and the other of police commissioners on 21 December.
ITEM 3 Three Important Bills In The Diet - Mimpo - 19 Dec. 45 Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
The Diet Is Extremely Indifferent About The People.
The main, objectives of the 89th Extraordnary Session of the Diet were passage of the Election Law Revision Bill, agrarian reform legislation, and the Labor Union Law. The Election Law has been reformed to the extent of prohibiting pre-election compaigning and controlling public election campaigns. As a reasult, the bill is more reactionary than the original Government laws.
On the issue of land purchases, farm rent, and arces to be cultivated, the Agratian Law has been revised with conditions advantageous to the landowner.
Though the Labor Union Law has been approved without any amendments, the original bill stipulating "promotion and advancement of the workers' political, social, and economic status", has been changed to read "the improvement of the workers' exonomic status."
The three bills have been passed with reactionary amendments, and passage was carried out by Allied Headquarter's directives which ordered the emancipation of farmers, the granting of freedom to organize labor unions, and unrestricted election campaigns. Nevertheless, both the Government and the Diet have demonstrated a lack of enthusiasm for progressive legislation. Moreover, most of the session was wasted on discussions of war responsibility. After half the session had been
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POLITICAL SERIES 100 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
consumed in such a manner, the three bills were finally approved. The progressive Party confined its efforts to selecting a party president, from the begining of the session until now, fancying that it will remain the most influential party after the elections. Food, clothing and shelter problems were not examined earnestly. Discussions on the constitution and democracy were heated, but neither the Government nor the political parties publicized concrete opinions.
ITEM 4 General Election Campaign. Public Indifferent - Asahi Shimbun - 19 Dec 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Full Translation:
The coming general election is important as the first step toward the democratization of the political structure. It is epoch-making in scale and contents, comprising such advances as eligible for election, the granting of suffrage to women, the restricted plural ballot and the major electoral district system. Our newspaper office has examine the campaigning in various districts. It is clear that the greater p[illegible]of the people, does not attach much importance to the coming general election because they are under the heavy pressure of each of the dail[illegible]necessities of life. Women in particular have little or no interest in the election. As for political parties, the Social Democratic Party is starting early campaigning through the organization of farmer and fishermen in various districts, and is staying way ahead in the vigor of its election campaign. The Progressive Party is still in a state of chaos over its internal affairs. The Communist Party is making a peculiar campaign, working among the intellectual class and war victims. Other political parties which represent new figures are steadily encroaching upon the preserve of the old political parties.
Outstanding new condidates are MUROFUKU, Takanobu (the Social Democrat Party, KANAGAWA-Ken) ARITA, Hachiro (the Liberal Party, in NINGATA-Ken) HAZA[illegible]A, Shigeru (in IBAPAGI-Ken) KAWAI, Yoshinari (in TOYAMA-Ken) SEKOMIZA, Risatsune (in KANGOSHIMA-Ken) TAIRA, Teizo (the Social Democrat Party, in YAMAGATA-Ken). TOKUDA, Tamaichi (the Communist Party, in TOKYO) SHIGA, Yoshio (the Communist Party, in OSAKA), etc. The number of candidates in each group has already exceeded the number of vacancies to be filled.
In the TOKYO district trends are not yet predictable. Former TOKYO mayor, OKUBO, Tomejiro will probably run for the Diet on the Liberal Party ticket and in the Communist Party, TOKUDA, Kuichi will probably stand as a candidate. The existing members of the House of Representatives for TOKYO will, of course, run, without exception, and three or four members of TOKYO Municipal Assembly are expected to come forward as candidated.
The first Ku in TOKYO (under the new Election Law) leaves more room for the appearance of new figures than the second Ku. No concrete movements towards the participation in the government by women voters are apparent for the present, but they may unexpectedly become influential. From the first Ku, ten representatives are to be elected
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POLITICAL SERIES 100 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
and two names are to be written on each ballot, and from the second Ku 12 representatives are to be elected and three names are to be written in.
These are special difficulties facing supervision of the election in TOKYO. The residents of TOKYO have little interest in the coming. [illegible]election, being busy with the difficulties of food and housing. Those who have decided to run as candidates in the second Ku are HACHINAMI, Takeji, SAKMOTO, Ikkaku (a member of House of Representative of the Progressive Party) BUGUMO, Kunitoshi (an Independent member) NAKAMURA, Takaichi (a former member of the House of Representative the Social December Party) MIIAMI, Kiyoji (the JAPAN Wage Earner's Party) KU[illegible]A, Tyojiro (the Liberal Party) YAMAGUCHI, Shiro (the JAPAN Reform Party), etc, Those urged to run are SATO, Yoshikuma, the president of TACHIKAWA Municipal Assembly, (the Social Democratic Party) OGAWA, Koki (the former mayor of TACHIKAWA,) NAMIKI, Shunzo (head of NISHI-TAMA village in NISHI-TAMAMA-GU, a former member of a prefectural assembly) NAMIKI, Yoshio, younger brother of NAMIKI, Shunzo (former employee of OSAKA Navigation Company) MANABE, Tomeji (chairman of the JAPAN Reform Party) SAKATA, Kyojiro, alias MINANOGAWA, former champion wrestler (the JAPAN Wage earners Party) INO, Yonejiro (head of MUSASHING town, the Liberal Party). HANI, Setsuko, the founder of The Liberal Academy (JIYU-GAKUEN) will be supported by some quarters. In the present circumstances, the public at large is pressed by economic circumstances, and is more busy in its personal affairs than with politics.
In the KANAGAWA-Ken the Liberal and Social Democratic Parties will furnish the inauguration of their branches by the end of this month, and will hold rallies reporting on the work of the current Diet session. In the Progressive Party district trends cannot be detected because of the complicated problem of leadership in the party.
The number of candidates talked about up to now has reached 39, more than thrice the number of vacanicies (12). Regarding the present situation of this prefecture in the Progressive Party, KOIZUMI, Matajir[illegible]and TANABE, Tokugoro, both senior members of the House of Representative are reported to be about to retire from active politics. From YOKOHAMA, SAKUMA, Michio, a member of the House of Representatives, and NISHIMURA. Sadao, a lawyer, are looked as likely candidates to succeed TANABE. As for the old third Ku, ANDO, Satoru, and YAMAGUCHI, Sauhei, both members of the House of Representatives have decided to run again, and KOBAYAS[illegible]Kenki will stand from ODAWARA. In the Liberal Party, KAWANO, Ichiro, a member of the House of Representatives of the old third Ku is a leading spirit in taking up the constituency of the old SEIKU-KAI Party. From YOKOHAMA, NAKA, Aukematsu, a member of the House of Representatives and MIURS Toranosuke, a member of the prefectural assembly, are expected to stand with KOIGUSHI, Seiichi. KATAYAMA, Tetsu, the secretary-general of the headquarters of the Social Democratic party as the lead, DOI, Naosaku from KAWASAKI and KANAI Yoshiji from YOKOHAMA and MUROFUSHI, Takanobu are running. Besides these, among the Independents and the unattached are NATSUO, Kaemon from YOKOHAMA, KAMIMORI, Shitetsu from KAMAKURA, YAMAMOTO, Masaichi, ITO, Tyuji from YOKOSUKA, and KAMEI, Kanichiro.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0100, 1945-12-21.
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