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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0088, 1945-12-18.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0378

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 378 Date 18 Dec 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 88

ITEM 1 On the Revision of Constitution - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Dec 45. Translator: S. Ono.
Full Translation:
At the ex-post facto approval committee meeting of the House of Representatives held on 14 December, KISHI, Independent, interpellated on the constitutional revision, upon which MATSUMOTO, Minister-Without-Port-folio, replied, "In view of the present political situations I am making every effort to accomplish the necessary preparations for the presentation of the revised constitution at the next session. But my opinion is that such a short period of time as two to three months is hardly adequate for a great task like the revision of the constitution. The revision of the constitution will inevitably demand the necessity of amendments in various fields of legislation. This means we must be prepared to enact a wide range of accessory legislation prior to the establishment and enactment of the new constitution. The constitution can be compared to a house, while the accessory legislation represents furnitures with which to equip the house.
"Now we can hardly expect to complete the arrangement of the furniture by the next session. Since a house without furniture is hardly habitable, so a constitution without accessory legislation is unworthy of enactment. I, therefore, confess the difficulty confronting us, if we must introduce the bill in the next session, notwithstanding our firm desire to exert every effort to hasten completion of the necessary study. Meanwhile, I deem it most desirable that the bill for revision be deliberated upon with utmost care by the Diet, with the House of peers drastically reformed and the House of Representatives consisting of newly elected members."
ITEM 2 Separation of Church and State; Imperial System - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
More than two months have passed since the decision of the American Government, whereby the Shinto religion, being regarded as a state religion, must be abolished. It is a fact that some feeling exists to the effect that the decision may be contrary to the freedom of religion. Moreover, [illegible]the problem of the Imperial System and its relation to the Government of our country, with the Emperor as God, has become a very urgent and real problem.
Mr. Dwight MACKENZIE, NEW YORK Correspondent of the Associated Press, reported as follows on 14 December: "The American Government's decision by which the Shinto religion was abolished, will give the reformation of present JAPAN a great impetus. It may be said that the means by which the past Japanese military cliques controlled the minds of the people, was by state Shintoism. If the Japanese fear that the decision of the American Government may hinder freedom of religion, such fear is

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POLITICAL SERIES: 88 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
groundless. The intention of the American Government is that religion be separated from government, and that the people be given the right to think as they please. If the Japanese, wish to adhere to the way of the gods, namely, the worship of ancestors and the worship of heroes, they have the right to do so.
"However, Shintoism has, in the past, been used by the militarists and the more prominent figures in the industrial world. Together with the militarists, such industrial businessmen conquered peaceful, neighboring countries. When the Government was planning such politics and was aware of popular opposition, it succeeded by taking advantage of Shintoism.
"In JAPAN, there is a two-faced political system being fostered by militarists and monopolistic industrial capitalists. It becomes even more complicated by the fact that the Emperor is both the sovereign of the state, and the divine head of Shintoism. The Emperor, who is a descendant of the Sun Goddess, has been considered a living god. Thus, when Shintoism is separated from politics the so-called unity of church and state will be broker, and the abdication of the Emperor will be inevitable.
"It is obvious that in the present situation, the Emperor cannot hold the positions as head of both church and state. It seems to have been decided by fate that the Emperor must throw away one of the two. It is probable that even if the Emperor should throw away his present position as sovereign, he will be able to do so without damage to the dignity which has so long been the object of national belief. Actually, there has been a rumor that the Emperor will soon abdicate his throne, and devote himself to being the highest leader of national belief. However, there is one big condition. Among the Allied Powers, there are many demands that the Emperor be tried as a war criminal. If such a thing is realized, what will become of the position of the Emperor as God? Furthermore, if the Emperor is judged to be guilty, what will happen? What will become of the foundation of the Imperial Household? If, under such a condition, the abdication of the Emperor should be realized, the Emperor, system will be ended in JAPAN.
"The American Government has declared that the form of Japanese politics must be reformed fundamentally. If JAPAN needs the Emperor, she can keep the Emperor. However, Japanese politics must be of the Japanese people's own choosing. At any rate, the problem of the Emperor system is at present one of the most important ones in JAPAN and in the world."
ITEM 3 The [illegible]- Asahi Shimbun - 15 Dec 45. Translator: J. Weiller.
Summary:
The General Election
Round Table Conference
TSU[illegible]MI, Yusuke Progressive Party
KOYAMA, Kuranusuke Progressive Party
ANDO, Masazumi Liberal Party
MIZUTANI, Chozaburo Socialist Party
KUPOSAWA, Torizo Independent
SHIGA, Yoshio Communist Party
Sponsors ASAHI SHIMBUN
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POLITICAL SERIES: 88 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Chairman: "What concrete measures has each party prepared for the pressing problem of getting farmers to give foodstuffs to the authorities?"
Mr. KUROSAWA (Independent): "If the plight of consumers is driven home to the producers, I think the problem will be easier to solve. The bureaucrats and controlling associations should be blamed for the present fiasco. Though not intentionally, perhaps, they nevertheless cheated the farmers, since without understanding the real conditions, they forced their own plans on them. Thus the farmers have lost confidence in these intermediaries. Under the present circumstances the only way is to connect the producers and consumers directly. The job of selling the allotted quantity lies not with the farmers but with the administration organs, the lowest of which are the mayors or chiefs of villages. The representatives of the producers and consumers should meet and have detailed discussions; this is the only way out of the present difficulties. What I propose is the formation of a co-operative society composed of both producers and consumers."
Mr. SHIGA (Communist): "I quite agree with Mr. KUROSAWA that under the present Government plan the food problems can never be solved. The Communist Party is of the opinion that a peoples' conference should be formed, consisting of labor unions, a food control committee and a farmers' committee, which, after wiping out the existing compulsory selling system, must tackle the problem in its own way. The present farmers' associations are groups of tenant farmers only, and those interested only in the tenant farmers' movement cannot solve the present-day food problem themselves. The Farmers' Committee should be composed of all toiling farmers. Their function, at first, should be the handling and sale of foodstuffs. On the other hand, the present neighborhood associations should democratically reorganize and form a citizens' foodstuff committee for the purpose of collecting and distributing the foodstuffs."
Chairman: "Do you think the matter can be settled by that method?"
Mr. MIZUTANI (Socialist): "Our party is more inclined to Mr. SHIGA's opinion than Mr. KUROSAWA's. However, as for both Mr. KUROSAWA's cooperative society and Mr. SHIGA's farmers' committee, the Socialist Party insists on a thorough-going co-operative society dominated by the farmers. The Socialist Party thinks that the development of consumers' associations will answer the purpose of collecting and distributing food at least as well as the formation of the food control committee which Mr. SHIGA suggests. We are not quite satisfied with the connection of labor unions and the consumers' association in the agrarian district. A peculiar incident occurred in AKITA Prefecture where a farmers' association was recently formed. Tenant farmers took their crops out to a certain locality and instead of putting them into the Agricultural Association's warehouse, as was the practice, they decided to sell the rice to a group similar to a labor union, refusing to give any food to the regular foodstuffs' organization."
Mr. KUROSAWA: "I cannot make comments on a food control committee without knowing the particulars, but if it is to play the role of adjusting any unfairness in the transactions between the cities and the agrarian districts, it is certainly necessary. As to the Government offices, their function should be that of mediation for the attainment of the objectives we are now talking about. The estrangement between the urban and agrarian districts can be remedied if existing misunderstandings can be removed through well-managed mediation by competent authorities."
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0088, 1945-12-18.
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