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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0085, 1945-12-17.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0362

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 362 Date: 17 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Emancipation of Farmers - Provincial Newspaper - NIIGATA NIPPO (NIIGATA) - 11 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
According to the announcement of the Public Relation Office of General Headquarters, on 9 December, General. MACARTHUR ordered that Japanese farmers be emancipated from their bonds. They are to be freed of feudal, absentee landowners, enormous debts, inequitable taxation, and other economic evils. The measure is one of the most radical change that American Occupation authorities have ordered. Generally speaking, the order is one of fundamental, economic revision in accordance with various provisions of the Potsdam Declaration. The revision will give a farmer the opportunity to work for democracy's development. A farmer will be able to enjoy a fair share of his production. As a result of the revision, Japanese tenant-farmers will be able to buy lands at low prices. These tenant-farmers have often given more than half their production as farm rent.
The revision is to be carried out by the Japanese Government. Various plans concerning the reform of agricultural land must be submitted to the Allied Forces by 5 March 1946, and approval must be obtained. This plan should include such things as regulation of the ownership of land, transferred from absentee landowners to tillers, regulation of the purchase of such land at moderate prices, and permission for tenant farmers to buy land on an annual installment plan.
In order to help former tenant farmers, the Japanese Government has been ordered to provide facilities so that a tenant farmer can make long or short term loans at moderate interest rates. Agricultural production is to be protected from exploitation by industrial business men and those persons who engage in distribution, and measures stabilizing the prices of commodities will be carried out. The Government has been ordered to submit a plan concerning technical education of farmers. At the same time, the Japanese Government has been ordered to submit plans for agricultural cooperatives with the purpose of economic and cultural elevation of Japanese farmers.
The supreme Commander for the Allied Powers believes that the putting into practice of plans demanded in this directive will make JAPAN again a peace-loving country. He also thinks that it will become one of the most important of the Allied Powers' administrative policies by which JAPAN will be made to regain her international position among the family of nations. Almost half the total population of JAPAN is now engaged in agriculture. A majority of these farmers cultivate their rice-fields with their own hands. For the past several centuries, owing to intensive usage, the land has been growing sterile; and a farmer must secure his crops entirely through the use of ferti-

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POLITICAL SERIES: 85 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (continued)
lizer. Most Japanese farmers own but three acres, and they must get sustenance for their families from their poor, cultivated lands. As compared with American farmers, who have 47 acres on an average, Japanese farmers' average is infinitesimal. Almost half the farmers have only two acres of cultivated land, and tenant-farmers number 20 per cent of the total number of farmers.
The farm situation has become more severe owing to the lack of organization under which they have traditionally suffered. The interest which they must pay on their debts is much higher than that paid on industrial and commercial loans. The direct taxation on farmers is proportionally greater as compared with the tax on industrial and commercial enterprises. Farmers must rely on fertilizer, for which they must pay exorbitant prices. Farmers have never been given even one opportunity to attain prosperity. The above-mentioned circumstances describe the Japanese agricultural situation, which will be eased by supreme Headquarters' orders.
Japanese farmers have fallen into a position little better than that of slaves. They have never been given the chance to obtain democratic knowledge. Even if they should have such a chance, under the present feudal organization, farmers would be too weak to take advantage of their knowledge. Supreme Headquarters has not only demanded that the Japanese Government submit the plan for agricultural reformation, but also intends that the Japanese Government be wholly responsible for complete fulfillment of the directive's extensive objectives.
ITEM 2 Report from Singapore (conclusion) - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 13 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Frequent strike
Singapore strikes occur very frequently following demands for wage increase. Over 7,000 stevedores struck first, followed by riksha-men and night soil men. Whenever strikes occur, Japanese soldiers are requisitioned and in November, 700 soldiers were at work daily in the city. Their wages were fixed by the British authorities at 80 cents for light labor and one dollar for heavy labor. As this daily wages is too low to maintain living standards, they are demanding an increase and are resorting to strikes. While occupied by the Japanese troops, Singapore had no time for Renovation, but on the return to British rule, it has changed its appearances. Streets have been cleaned, trenches filled in, and sign boards have been freshly printed.
British Administration
It was announced by the British authorities that military administration would be enforced from Sept. for a period of six months and a military officer was appointed as Mayor. However, he had been a civilian official
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POLITICAL SERIES: 85 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
and was not a professional soldier. During the period of Japanese rule, orders of the mayor were ignored by the soldiers, and a very curious and complicated feature existed in the administrative organs in the one small city of Singapore. The British authorities have given full power of administration to the City Office, enlarging and clarifying the Mayor's authority. This action has taught us a great deal.
To control prices, soldiers are prohibited from dining or drinking on the streets and they comply fairly well with these orders, The British are very strict and thorough and punish offenders of laws and regulations. There are many instances of such punishments being dealt out to citizens and soldiers. However, they have never made school into restaurants nor produced wine in churches.
A British Expression of Gratitude.
In the middle of September, a Briton came to JURON *(TN?) carrying with him boxes of eggs and cakes. Since it was already evening and walking seemed dangerous, I asked him, "What can I do for you?" The reply was, "Until yesterday, I was detained in a detention camp in CHANGII*. I have been thinking constantly of how a human being can live happily, and I now firmly believe to accomplish this we must be mutually friendly and live by humanitarian principles. Though scanty, please take the distributing these eggs and cake to children and old women." His name is J. L. Farrell. I was greatly moved by this humanitarian act. With such benefactor, England should be strong. I firmly believe we must follow the road of such humanitarianism.
Departure for Homeland.
"On November 19, it was decided suddenly that 3,500 out of 8,300 Japanese could return home. The cries of joy on that day still ring in my ears. Lot drawing was adopted in selecting those eligible to return. On 22 November, we boarded the steamer "TAIAN MARU" and arrived in Japan after a fortnight, after a rather calm and pleasant voyage.
"While we were proceeding on foot from JURON* for Singapore, a very touching incident occurred. A Chinese daughter was so kind as to send us off with a bouquet in her right hand and a box of cake in the left. This was really a floral decoration to end our deserted life of detention. Comrades still remaining in JULON, comeback as early as possible! Your mother country is waiting your return and we will do our best to reconstruct a new culture out of the debris of war's devastation.
"Soldiers and civilians in military service are now concentrated in LEMBAN Island, which was uninhabited and is sixty miles from SINGAPORE. They are preparing to support themselves by cultivation of the land."
ITEM 3 Distorted History Of Japan To Be Re-investigated And Re-compiled (1) By [illegible]SUCHIYA, Takao. - Tokyo Shimbun - 13 Dec 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Full Translation:
It is needless to say that the Government in JAPAN has gradually lost its cultural and moral values by encouraging uncivilized, brutal,
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POLITICAL SERIES: 85 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
militaristic fascism since the Manchurian Incident. The Government has drawn the Japanese nation into the maelstrom of a series of Atrocious and barbarous wars of imperialistic aggression, much to the horror of the Japanese people and the world at large. What ideas are fostered by imperialistic fascism?
One is the anti-foreign principle, with belief in divine inspection and a self-satisfaction which tends to preserve national characteristics and exalt them above all other nations. Other ideas are those of reactionary irrationalism, feudalism and a principle of leadership based on uncivilized and unscientific behavior similar to that of the Nazis.
There is no doubt that one of the means by which militaristic fascism gained control in JAPAN is based on an incorrect interpretation of Japanese history. Therefore, in order that JAPAN can rebuild itself into a liberal and democratic civilized nation, it is an absolute requisite to re-examine and re-compile its history.
ITEM 4 The Election Law Revision Bill Will be Proclaimed on the 17th - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Dec 45. Translator: R. Ochiai.
Full Translation:
Acting under the assumption that the Election Law Bill revised by the House of Representatives will pass the House of Peers, the Government ordered the Home Office to make up copies of the law and writs ordering operation thereof within two or three days. After being examined at the Legislation Bureau, and referred to the Privy Council for deliberation on 17 December, they shall be proclaimed in effect that very day, 17 December 1945.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0085, 1945-12-17.
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