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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0070, 1945-12-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0305

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 305 Date: 13 Dec 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 70

ITEM 1 Student's Opinions on the Emperor System and Political Parties - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Dec 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full translation:
Student opinion at the TOKYO Imperial University on the principle causes for defeat, the Emperor system, and political parties, since 4 December have been studied by the university's Sociological Research Association. The results are now being prepared by Mr. OGATA, Kunio, assistant professor, and others.
Details regarding the Emperor System and opinions on political parties were disclosed on 8 December to be as follows: (The total number of students polled was 1131. This figure is estimated to be 40% of the student body.)
Question: What is your opinion of the Emperor System?
Answers: A. It is beyond discussion. 139 votes; 12 per cent
Continuance on condition that it be modified. 452 votes; 40 per cent
Must be continued on that it be basically revised. 400 votes; 35. per cent
Must be abolished. 71 votes; 7 per cent
No opinion. 69 votes; 6 per cent
In general, supporters were overwhelming in the majority. It is worth noting that B is greater than C, but C is greater than B in the literature and Law Departments.
Question: which political party do you support of the following?
Nippon Progressive Party
Nippon Liberal party
Nippon Socialist Party
Communist Party
Specific figures have not been disclosed as yet, but the Nippon Socialist Party is overwhelmingly favored and the Liberal Progressive and Communist Parties follow in that order.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 70 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Two Main Opposing Currents in the Reform of the ([illegible]) Upper House - Tokyo Shimbun - 9 Dec 45. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full translation:
There are two. conflicting currents of thought on the question of reorganization of the House of Peers, The proponents of one are Imperially nominated members who are radical reformists, and backers of the other are so-called conservatives, mostly Peers.
Since the establishment of the House of Peers System Investigation Committee on 10 October, composed of 30 representatives of the various denominations, with Marquis HOSOKAWA in the Chair, only two meetings have been convened to now. The committee excuses its inactivity by declaring that it will assume a stand as soon as the Constitution Revision takes shape.
According to Viscount OKOCH, conservative:
Reform of the Upper House along democratic lines does not mean that the Upper House should be converted into another Lower House. The function of the House of Peers must be that of a safety valve for the House of Representatives. It cannot be denied, of course, that the core of the Diet is the Lower House, but at the same time the Upper House's opinions will certainly supply the Lower House with food for thought. As in business concerns, the Upper House functions as an auditor, while the Lower House is a director.
The component elements must be experienced persons of various fields. If, due to reconstruction, the men of experience are to be mixed together with elements in the Lower House, the dual house system would be veritably destroyed.
Reforms must be carried out impartially.
Some have put forward a demand to abolish the name of the House of Peers, but it is a trivial matter.

Viscount OKOCHI's opinion is diametrically opposed to the reforms advocated by the other camp in the House. Anyway, amidst hot arguments for and against the reform or total abolition of the Peerage System in the Upper House is talking its natural course toward reconstruction.
ITEM 3 General Ugaki and Various Parties - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full translation:
General UGAKI, Kazushige now has appeared to be a likely candidate for the presidency of the Progressive Party of JAPAN. But recently, the Ethnological Research Society, the Young Men's Association of JAPAN, the World Culture Advancement Society, the People's Prosperity Alliance, the Water Reed Society, and the Construction Alliance revealed their attempts to organize a new party, supporting General UGAKI in a position different from that of the Progressive Party of JAPAN.
A conference was held 8 December in MARUNOUCHI Hall of the TOKYO MARUNCHI Building. Mr. HATTORI, Hideaki, former MINSEITO member of the House of Representatives, was nominated chairman. Future plans were then discussed. Representatives from each participating group will be organized into committees. A draft of the new party
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POLITICAL SERIES: 70 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
platform and declaration of principle has already been started.
ITEM 4 Liaison Organ - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full translation:
Liason Between MacARTHUR's Headquarters and Imperial Household Requested by Allied Headquarters.
General Headquarters of the Allied Forces has ordered the Japanese Government to set up a responsbile government organ to facilitate instructions to the Imperial Household.
General Headquarters has explained that the directive was not issued because the Imperial Household has not carried cut its instructions. It was devised to establish a formal government liaison organ between General Headquarters and the Imperial Household.
ITEM 5 Busy with Maintenance of Old Order; No Zest for Democracy - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Dec 45. Translator: N. Daasche.
Summary:
The parliament, summoned in the face of the rising tide of democracy, and in the midst of economic hardships is still wasting time with desultory talks that have little to do with the people. Instead of buckling down to the important task of investigating war causes and sabetage by the present Government, officials, and financiers; instead of establishing a democratic parliament by a new Election Law, and a Trade Unions Law as the principal step towards democratization of industries, and an Agricultural Adjustment Law as the first step towards dissolution of feudalistic land tenure; instead of diligently and sincerely attending to those tasks, the parliament indulges in futile debate, even though one half of its allotted time is already spent.
The deliberations on War Guilt were lacking in determination and enthusiasm, and were more attempts at passing the buckwith an eye on the coming elections. This applies equally to SAITO's interpellation and the bills brought forward by the parties.
Finance Minister SHIBUZAWA's "Economic Revival" speech was nothing but a reactionary attempt to push taxation and rescue measures for chauvinistic capitalists by talking about economic reconstruction. Considering the time-lag between the opening session and the introduction of the vital bills, (with the exception of the Election Bill) the question now raised is: "What real interest is the present Cabinet showing in the process of political and economic democratization?"
One would expect the Diet to critize and censure the Government for its antipathy. Instead the Diet is busying itself with praising the Emperor System, which constributes only one part of the problem of Constitutional reform or with other side issues. All parties are as one in their efforts to uphold the old structure and on this point there is apparently no real difference between the Socialist Party and the rest, even though the Socialists profess to represent the masses. In other words, the Diet is combine which cooperated in the war efforts of the militarists, bureaucrats and plutocrats, and is new deliberately ignoring the instructions of Allied Headquarters, subscribed to by the people, namely, the liquidation of feudalism
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POLITICAL SERIES: 70 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
and imperialism. This in spite of the fact that the Diet is clearly aware of popular sentiment.
The present Cabinet, tied up with the old ruling group, seems to agree with this attitude, welcoming the sabotage of progressive legislation by the Diet. The fate of the Land Bill, which has come to grief, seems to have much to do with this state of affairs. All this bears out the fact that the present Government and Diet, having a share in the responsibility for war and standing for the old ruling strata, are lacking in will and ability to shed light upon the war guilt question or to bring about democracy. The inborn reactionary qualities of the Diet and Government are now generally recognized. It is high time the elections bring about a new order.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0070, 1945-12-13.
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