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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0049, 1945-12-03.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0201

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 201 Date: 3 Dec 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 49

ITEM 1 Independent members - 110. The Progressive Party - 250 -Asahi Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: S. awasaki.
Full translation:
All political parties have been hastening to align and assign their parliamentary members before the forth-coming Extraordinary Session of the Diet. The Socialist Party has already announced the formation of a negotiation body of 15 gen and both the Progressive Party and the Liberal Party are proceeding along similar lines, expecting to present a frill report to the authorities by 26 November 1945.
It is expected that the members will be comprised of about 50 of the Liberal Party and some 250 of the Progressive Party, the present, total number of members, except for 42 vacant seats is 424, and if we subtract about 315 men, members of the three parties mentioned above, we find about 110 independents.
The attitude of the independents, who will be pretty powerful, is being watched by all JAPAN. Among them earn, there are the former "SEISHIN Club" members, such as Mr. FUKUYA Shunichi, Mr. TANAKA Imiji, and others who intend to form new parties. The desire to form an amalgamation of independent members, advocated by Messrs. TSUZAKI Sisatake; MAZAKI, Katsuji; NAMATANI, Takeyo; KIMURA, Trataro; KITA. [illegible]oichiro; SHINTO, Shintaro and KOYAMA, Ryo is powerful. Finally about 110 members excluding ten purely independent members, such as Messrs. OZAMI, Yukio; MITSUI Sakichi; SASAGAWA, Ryoichi and AKAO, Satoshi will give notice of the formation of a negotiating body to the authorities on 26 November 1945. They are expected to attend the coming extraordinary Session of the Diet.
ITEM 2 Premier Shidehara's Diet Speech on Administrative Policy - Asahi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: M. Maruyama.
Summary:
His Majesty the Emperor personally worshipped at the ISE Grand Shrines and the Imperial Mausoleums at UNEBI and MOMOYAMA on 13 and 14 November, and also at the IAMA Mausoleum on 17 November, to report the termination of the war.
There is one basic fact in the present situation which must always be considered by those who are in charge of internal politics and foreign policy, as well as by those who are in a position to comment on or criticize them. It is that hostilities have now ended between JAPAN and the Allied Nations, but normal and Peaceful relations are still far off.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 49 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
It is quite proper for us to insist upon policies which are considered just and fair in dealing with foreign problems, but the present situation is such that JAPAN has lost much of the strength necessary for carrying out her policies in a thoroughgoing manner. This is unavoidable for a defeated country. Of course, there exists in human society a sense of universal justice and an inviolable public opinion, but even these have not yet been much appreciated under the abnormal situations in various countries fallowing the termination of the war. However, it is the power of morality, not the power of arms, that will eventually dominate the world and guide internal and international affairs Control through rational thinking must prevail. World opinion will accept this as right. The only goal for JAPAN should be to build up a new JAPAN, through all-out efforts, on the basis of justice and fairness. This will be a lighthouse shedding rays of hope on the future destiny of the country. With this conviction in mind, I am determined to deal with the affairs of State.
JAPAN has an obligation to eliminate all obstacles standing in the way of restoring and strengthening democratic tendencies among the people. Democratic elements in this country have been gradually budding forth since the MEIJI Era, but these have bean stopped many times by reactionary forces in recent years. Fortunately, however, the tree itself has persisted, though the leaves have fallen, and it is expected that the tendency will emerge once more. Special efforts will be made by the Government to insure their unimpeded development.
To attain this objective, the Imperial Diet must be made an organization which reflects correctly the will of the people. An entirely free and fair election is therefore essential. The present Election Law for Members of the House of Representatives is obviously inappropriate for this purpose. The Government has therefore revised it and submitted this revision to the present session for Diet approval. The main reason for having requested Imperial sanction to convene the present Diet was for this purpose.
The basic conditions necessary for restoring and strengthening modern democratic tendencies lies in educational reform. To eradicate education tinged with militarism and ultra-nationalism, the Government has laid down a new educational policy by which the people should serve the country and society by perfecting their individual characters; it evisages epoch-making developments particularly in civic education. Needless to say, it will be a superb national spirit of freedom and independence that will form the foundation of democracy.
There now seams to be a tendency among the Japanese people to remain in a state of despair, brought on by unfavorable physical and moral conditions. It is deplorable to see how moral standards have fallen in both public and private quarters. This must be remedied through reform and strengthening of social education so that the people shall not lose their spirit of freedom and independence, nor their ardor and enthusiasm for rehabilitation and reconstruction.
The government has abolish various laws and regulations, which previously restricted political, civic and religious freedom, to secure freedom of speech, thought, and assembly for the people.
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POLITICAL SEREIS: 49 (Contained)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Special attention is being paid to instilling public confidence in the police through the abolition of special higher police system and making the new system more responsive to the wishes of the people. Liberalism will be perfected through development of individual responsibility. It does not, however, mean anything abnormally free and unrestricted. Speeches, writings, and actions that are inimical to public order end good custom are liable to legal punishment.
Stabilization of the standard of living is en urgent problem confronting JAPAN at present. JAPAN has wasted the best part of her productive capacity and energy because of war lasting more than ten years since the Manchurian Incident. Her civilian production, too, has been exhausted. Under such circumstance, all measures must be directed toward stabilization of the standard of living, and this needs to be done as quickly as possible. The food problem is the most important of all. This year's rice crop is expected to be the leanest of the TAISHO and SHOWA Eras. If the situation is allowed to develop without remedy, JAPAN will face a very grave crisis. Recognizing the seriousness of the situation, the Government is concentrating every ounce of energy to improve the situation. Reform of the compulsory rice delivery system increase in the buying price of rice, and the development of natural resources to get more food are some of the measures which the Government has taken to deal with this problem.
In spite of these remedial measures, however, there is still a lack of balance between the supply and demand of rice. As the deficit will have to be made good by imports from abroad, the Government has asked Allied Headquarters for its sympathetic consideration of this matter, this has been approved in principle by the latter. Furthermore, efforts shall be made by the Government to get satisfactory results on the materialization of the import plan JAPAN has lost much of its food-producing territories; as a result of its defeat, and this, combined with a considerable increase in population, has forced the country to seek a fundamental solution of the food problem, apart from the prevailing food crises. The result is that it has come forward with the farm land system reform and land cultivation programs, which is hoped, will be put into action in the very near future. A basic reform has been introduced into the farm land system, which is the principal cause of stagnation in agricultural development, in order that farmer be encouraged, and farm production increased. At the same time, large scale farm cultivation and land reclamation as well as the development of marine products and other food resources will be carried out.
Stabilization of the standard of living is another serious problem. Victims of the war must be helped, Japanese civilians and soldiers abroad assisted, and the daily necessities of the Japanese people at home secured. The housing situation is especially serious, and the Government is adopting all possible measures to ameliorate the condition. The Government has done everything in its power to guarantee possessions of the Japanese in KOREA, TAIWAN, KARAFUTO, and MANCHUKUO, and at the same time has tried to obtain information on the prevailing situation. However, dislocated traffic and chaotic conditions prevailing in these areas have made it difficult to attain these aims. The Goverment will, however, continue its efforts to effect speedy correction of these conditions. From South KOREA, North CHINA and the Pacific Islands-soldiers and civilians are returning according to plan. Demobilization and repatriation will bring in its wake serious unemployment problems.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 49 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The Government has therefore planned large scale projects to engage these unemployed in useful work. Reconstruction of the war devastated areas is to be effected under a unified plan which will be set up according to the distribution of industries and population. For this purpose the Government has formed a special Reconstruction Bureau.
The rehabilition of JAPAN'S war damaged industries is dependant to a large degree on civil initiative and effort. Control measures which impede these efforts will be abolished as soon as conditions permit. However, the necessity for stabalizing the standard of living demands, at present, a continuation of control measures on iron and coal products and textiles, as well as, or other basic civilian necessities. But state control measures will be restricted and left to individual self-control as much as possible. In the future, JAPAN will probably depend largely upon middle and small scale industries; the state will help these industries as much as possible. The Government approves formation of labor unions to effect a democratic solution of labor problems. It is doing all it can to review transportation and communication. Japanese Army automobiles have been turned over to, civilian use through the liberality of the occupation forces, War expenditures and losses have put JAPAN into a financial condition which is far from favorable, but the Goverment has adopted various finincial measures to avoid national bankruptcy. Finally, the Japanese Goverment has formed a commission to investigate the causes and facts of the Great East Asia War in order to avoid repetition of these mistakes in the future.
It is the wish of the Emperor that JAPAN help establish enduring world peace. The Japanese officials and people must, therefore, unite their constructive endeavors to achieve such a goal.
DISTRIBUTION: "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0049, 1945-12-03.
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