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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0045, 1945-12-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0177

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEARQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 177 Date: 2 Dec 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 45

ITEM 1 The Emperor Systems end the Communist Party - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Summary:
A discussion meeting about the Imperial system was broadcast on the evening of the 21 November. We had been dissatisfied with the conventional addresses over the radio; therefore, this broadcast was welcomed by us. The main point of the discussion is as follows - Mr. KIYOSE and Mr. MAKINO asserted that the existence of the Emperor as the head of family of the Japanese people must be continued. Mr. TOKUDA stressed that the Emperor must assume his responsibility for the war, considering the fact that the whole people are now reduced to the greatest misery. I wholly disapprove of TOKUDA's opinion, not only from my feelings as a Japanese but also through dispassionate examination of social phenomena.
He seems to be swayed by sentimental considerations. I have now become aware that the greater part of the Japanese communists are tending to oppose the ruling class because they (the Communists) have been long oppressed. I could only wrinkle my brows on hearing TOKUDA' s opinions, which were full of violence and dogmatism. Finally, the discussion deviated from the Imperial system and went to the Japanese family system. Mr. MAKINO, who favors the system, was several attacked by TOKUDA. The former said to the latter, "the Communists are men who get understanding by mutual consultation." It is clear that these two men's viewpoints are distinctly contradictory. After all, the Communists are not those who understand talk.
ITEM 2 Industrial Law - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Summary:
The Industrial Law to be submitted to the next Diet Session has drawn the following opinions:
Minister of Commerce OGASAWARA, "Democratizing of economy, a problem connected with the future, must be carried out after careful study. The authorities expect to introduce the Industrial Law draft to the next Diet Session. The Control Board etc., will make some alterations, and the attitude of Supreme Headquarters is now being sounded out"
Minister of Agriculture: "Whereas the distribution of 3 go of staple food is impossible, that of the same quantity consisting of rice and other substitute foods would be possible. I intend to improve the distribution of substitute foods so as to cone up to 3 go staple

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POLITICAL SERIES: 45 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
food distribution. The Government will continue to control the staple food, but as to other fresh food, free trade will be allowed so as to let demand and supply run smoothly. Rice monopoly is not being considered as yet."
Mr. TAMURA, Hidekichi, of the progressive party:
The compatriots still remaining overseas are in the millions, causing much worry to the Nation. The Government should reveal its plan for disposing of them.
The war victims are more than 10 millions who need housing, clothes, fuel etc. What measures are being taken by the Government?
What is the Government's plan to face the unemployment problem?
Home Minister HORIKIRI, advocated public election of prefectual governors. To carry this out, I think a local autonomy system must be first secured. What does the Home Minister think about it? Shall the public election of prefectural governors be done by direct or indirect election; shall governors be public or Government officials?
The Government has revealed that the Government officials will be reduced by 50 per cent, but this plan was not carried out. That plan must immediately be effected and the remaining officials should be given better pay. Improvement in the official system is connected with the teacher system, and I believe we should secure an educational system to cultivate democratic education and removing militarism. What does the Education Minister think of it?
Future police authority should be concentrated on keeping national peace and order. Reform of the police system must aim at improvement in the quality of officers, together with substantial improvement in their treatment and pay. I am informed that the Japanese police have remained impassive at the sight of atrocities committed by some Chinese. In such a case, why can we not so negotiate with the Supreme Commander's Headquarters so that the police may be able to suppress the malefactors?

ITEM 3 Dark History of Diet - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: S. Fukuda.
Summary:
Oppression of the Diet by militarists and bureaucrats started with the suppression of freedom of speech, as exemplified by the HAMADA affair. HAMADA called upon TERAUCHI to commit suicide because of the failure in CHINA, at the Diet session of 1937. It was also helped along by the NISHIO affair in 1938, when NISHIO said the militarists could be likened to STALIN. In addition, SAITO criticized the CHINA Incident in 1940, and MIYAZAWA criticized the financial set up.
The speech of OZAKI, Gakudo, and the above were all suppressed by the militarists. The army used every means at its disposal to suppress free speech. The shorthand records of the Diet were secretly disposed of Retirement of many representatives was forced by the Army. The trend toward suppression of free speech and aggrandizement of military power in the Diet reached its peak in the TOJO cabinet.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 45 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Continued)
There are serious gaps in the records of the Diet sessions of TOJO's time. Only one interpolater was permitted at the Diet session, and his remarks were subject to censorship. Speeches and recommendations were usually sent to colonel AKAMATSU, TOJO's secretary, for censorship before being permitted in the floor of the Diet. All criticisms were suppressed in the name of war need. The TOJO cabinet thrived on flattery, going to great lengths to force applause, for example, when TOJO spoke. People were unaware that this applause was forced. TANAKA, Senjin, a well-known Deckler of TOJO's in the Diet, was once confined in a nearly room while TOJO made a speech to the Diet.
With the passage of the Wartime Criminal Law, abuse of political power by the militarists and bureaucrats hit a new high. Many good men opposed the measure and almost voted in the Diet, but they were suppressed by members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. We must remember that the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and the JAPAN Political Association controlled strategic positions, not only in the Diet, but in control companies in mayor industries. They really ruled the Diet!
ITEM 4 Interpellators in House of Representatives for Each Party - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Extracts:
Interpellators in the House of Representatives for Each Party. ([illegible])
The following are the interpellators of each political party on Premier SHIDEHARA's speech concerning the administrative policies to be delivered today; Messr. SAITO, Takao; MATSUMURA, Mitsuzo; and TAMURA, Hidekichi, of the Progressive Party; Independents: MITAMURA, Takeo; KITA, Soichiro; FUKUYA, Shunichi; HATOYAMA, Ichiro, of the Liberal Party; NISHIO, suyehiro, of the Socialist Party.
ITEM 5 Tojo and Konoe Responsible for War - Asahi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Summary:
Addressing the Government, Mr. SAITO, Takao, of the Progressive Party, said the following: The Government should show a fair and square policy. The Government says that after the revision of the election law, the House of Representative will be dissolved, yet the premier says the present Diet is official. This attitude is an abuse of authority and is against Constitutional law. The Premier said he would re-dissolve the Diet when it is not agreeable to him. What does this mean? Has the Premier's no conception of democracy?
Now, as regards the question of war responsibility, the premier said the whole nation is responsible for the war. In my opinion, however, Mr. TOJO and Mr. KONOE are responsible. Had it not been for the China Incident, there would have been no subsequent war. If TOJO is responsible for the last war, so Prince KONOE is responsible for the China incident.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 45 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
The fact that the puppet WANG CHIN WEI was used and that the Tripartite Pact was concluded must be regarded as a challenge to the UNITED STATES and BRITAIN. Why was the UNITED STATES - JAPAN parley not crowned with success?
"I wish the Premier would point out the relations between Prince KONOE and the last war. While General TOJO is incarcorated, KONOE remains untouched. This gives the Nation a bad impression. Why is the matter neglected?
The premier ascribes the war responsibility to the Nation, which, in order to win the war, did its utmost. Are the people then on that account to take the responsibility on themselves? Why should the people be made responsible for the war, while there are those who are really responsible?
Next, I want to question the war Minister, The militarism of our country has been broken down by the POTSDAM Declaration, which is a good thing for the Country. It must be, however, regretted that this breakdown did not come through our own Nation's hands. Soon, our armament will be dismantled and both the Army and Navy Ministries will be wiped out. At this juncture, the Minister of war is responsible for explaining in full why our country could not overcome militarism."
Premier SHIDEHARA responded thereon as follows? "I have never said I would again dissolve the Diet when it did not agree with me, even if it consisted of a majority party. When such things appeared in newspapers, they were mistakes on the part of the press. It is not fit for the Government to declare special people responsible for the war. Nor is it fair for the Government to cause an internecive struggle".
War minister SHIMOMURA's response: "Conceptions of the military men on democracy, especially of the army leading class, were wrong. Still more inexcusable was the unjustifiable interference with politics by the army, which resulted. I am very sorry to say, in grave consequences. As the army dissolves. I heartily apologize before the whole nation. I, heartily request that you show your profound sympathy toward the loyal soldiers" and the war dead.
ITEM 6 Independence of Korea - Asahi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: H. Naoji.
Summary:
(Special telegram from KEIJO on 27 November)
Major General ARNOLD, Chief of the military administration told authority here during the regular press interview on 27 November about the various problems of KOREA as follows:
"KOREA will find itself in its most critical time for several months hereafter. The Allied Nations, at present, are much concerned with the independence of KOREA. The Koreans who want independence must be careful of poor leadership."
"Korea had permission from General MacARTHUR to import 75,000 tons of soft coal from JAPAN every month in the future. In JAPAN mining conditions are bad, but KOREA wants the imported coal for military traffic
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POLITICAL SERIES: 45 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
there. To fulfill this aim, the activities of leading and unloading are naturally required, but on this point, Korea is in good condition. On the 25 November, 5,400 tons of coal were unloaded there. It is not yet decided whether any means of payment is to be taken for imported coal or whether collateral materials are to be exported for it."
"With regard to the acceleration of the flow of materials between northern and southern KOREA, negotiations are being continued at MOSCOW, but I have never received any answer concerning it. The military administration authority is much concerned with the flow of materials between northern and southern KOREA and is trying to expedite that flow."
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0045, 1945-12-02.
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