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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0032, 1945-11-28.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0125

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 125 Date: 28 Nov 45.

POLITICAL SERIES: 32

ITEM 1 Imperial Supreme Command of the Army, the Navy, the Foreign Affairs Abolished - Yomiuri Hochi - 17 Nov 45. Translator: H. Naoji.
Extracts:
According to the information obtained from the International news agency on the 6, November 1945, Prince KONOE is expected to make a report to the Throne about the new constitution of JAPAN in a few days. This report to the Throne will propose that the supreme command of the Army, the Navy and Foreign Affairs be taken away from the Emperor, the Privy council be abolished and the power of the pert Keeper of the Privy Seal be done away with. Prince KONOE is also planning to reply to the Throne proposing the abolition of all government officials in the Imperial Household excepting the Minister of the Imperial Household, whose rank would be lowered.
At present in JAPAN, the army, navy and diplomatic organizations are practically non-existent, therefore it is needless to say that the Emperor does not possess supreme command. However, in the future JAPAN will reopen her diplomatic relations with other countries and probably, in the distant future, JAPAN may have an Army and Navy.
It is not certain yet whether Prince KONOE changed his opinions about the supreme command of His Majesty the Emperor or not, but one month age Prince KONOE stated that he found no reason to change the articles of the present constitution that recognize the supreme command of His Majesty the Emperor.
When Prince KONOE or any other Japanese reports to the Throne about revision of the constitution, he must first of all obtain permission from General MacARTHUR. The report to the Throne which proposes the elimination of government officials in the Court and other statesmen attending His Majesty the Emperor, will be favored among those Japanese who complain that His Majesty the Emperor is not informed of the real situation in the country and that the Emperor is isolated from the people. Prince KONOE and Imperial Highness HIGASHI KUNI already have declared their desire to relinquish their titles and become commoners. Regardless of whether the office of the Lord Keeper of the privy seal is abolished or not Marquis KIDO is likely to give up his post, inasmuch as he is unpopular with the people because of his role as superior adviser to the Emperor during the war.
The Investigation Committee in behalf of the Government has ended its preliminary study. After discussing each article and chapter of the constitution for over a month, the Investigation Committee of the constitution, headed by State Minister MATSUMOTO, has completed its general study excepting for the 5th chapter, Justice, and the 6th

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POLITICAL SERIES: 32 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
chapter, Finance. However these two chapters will be discussed at the committee meeting 19 and 20 November. A general meeting of the Investigation Committee of Constitution Problems will be held on 24 November, and then the preliminary arrangements of all articles, including supplementary rules of the first seven articles, will be completed.
After the forthcoming ordinary Diet session, the Government will hold further committee and general meetings. It is now preparing to complete the revision, in January, which may have to be presented, according to the political situation, to the special session of the Diet which is to be held in February 1946. However, State Minister MATSUMOTO expects to present only the reorganization bill of the House of peers to the special session of the Diet in order to have time for careful study of constitutional problems. He is hoping to discuss these constitutional matters in the new Diet which will be formed after the reorganization of the House of peers and the election of the House of Representatives.
On the other hand the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, headed by Prince KONOE, is expected to make a reply to the Throne on 20 November concerning the study of constitutional problems. In this reply to the Throne, the summary of its study is supposed to be shown, unofficially to the Government and at the general meeting on 24 November, it will be discussed together with that of the government. With respect to the Government, it has the opinion that it is not necessary to submit the order to study the reform bill for the constitution formally to the Throne.
Constitution Problems Investigation Committee members added.
NAKAMURA, Chief of Accountant Bureau of the Ministry of Finance, and secretary KUBOTANI were appointed respectively as the officer in charge assistant of the chapter 6, Finance, of the Constitution.
ITEM 2 America versus Soviet Union - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Full Translation:
Measures for the supervision of JAPAN seem to be settled by the Far Eastern Investigation committee based on the plan mapped out by the UNITED STATES, but now it seems to be meeting opposition. General MacARTHUR, who, as supreme Commander of the Allied Nations in the occupation of JAPAN, has the right of deciding on the occupation plan, supports the Far Eastern Investigation Committee, as it stands, composed of all countries, including the miner countries, which have interests in ASIA.
On the other hand, the SOVIET UNION insists on the "BERLIN method", and demands he establishment of a Board, of Directors for the supervision of JAPAN.
The Far Eastern Investigation Committee was inaugurated in Washington on 30 October, and delegates from ten countries participated in its first meeting, namely, AMERICA, ENGLAND, FRANCE, CHINA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, CANADA, HOLIAND, the PHILIPPINES, and INDIA, but the SOVIET UNION did not send a delegate. Afterwards, information concerning the meeting was sent to the SOVIET UNION, but she still refused to join.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 32 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Consequently it ended informally. The topic of a Board of Directors for Japan's supervision was brought up for discussion by the SOVIET UNION at the Foreign Ministers' conference held in LONDON the other day, in opposition to the Far Eastern Investigation Committee proposed by Mr. BYRNES, the UNITED STATES Secretary of state. In the supervision of JAPAN, the Committee proposes that all countries, large and small, interested in ASIA should investigate the problem of supervising JAPAN from every point of view.
The Committee will ultimately be located in TOKYO, but for the time being it will be in WASHINGTON. One of its objectives is to have the opinions and policies of the nations concerned represented by the directives which General MacARTHUR receives from the white House and puts into execution. In other words, the readjustment of ASIA's problems particularly JAPAN, must be carried out based on the views and wishes of all the member nations. But the UNITED STATES which has played the chief role in defeating JAPAN, must have supreme power in supervising the country. Against this proposal by the UNITED STATES, Mr. MOLOTOV, the people's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, at the Foreign Ministers' Conference, made the following statement:
"Of course I support the spirit of the Far Eastern Investigation [illegible]Committee theoretically, but practically the world's peace in the future can be established, not by the smaller countries, but by the perfect union of opinion of a few powerful nations. That is to say, the four powers AMERICA, ENGLAND, SOVIET UNION, and CHINA, prior to the establishment of the Far Eastern Investigation Committee, should set up a Board of Directors for the supervision of JAPAN, based on equal rights of utterance for these four nations, and must supervise JAPAN directly."
He further emphasized that an agency as weak as the Far Eastern Investigation Committee is unfit for carrying out the utterances of these great powers. He said he did not oppose the present position of General MacARTHUR. But he insisted on the execution of JAPAN's supervision by the "unanimous decision" method.
But AMERICA, disapproving of this proposal which the SOVIET UNION had already made at the SAN FRANCISCO Conference could not support the plan. Since the recent Foreign Ministers Conference failed through adherence to the "unanimous decision" method and since in BERLIN too, progress on many problems has been impeded for the same reason, the UNITED STATES voiced its disapproval.
It is reported however, that this attitude of the SOVIET UNION has recently been altered through an exchange of notes between the two countries, and the withrawal of the "unanimous decision" proposal is expected. On the other hand, a[illegible]proposal affirming the SOVIET UNION's right of utterance, was approved by Mr. BYRNES, the Secretary of state. He said that a variety of opinions among the Allied countries was acceptable, if only there was not a "unanimous decision method", namely, the "right of veto", so that in case there was a difference of opinion, AMERICA would be sure that it could carry out its own policy. Thus, it seemed that the two countries would agree in the opinion that supervision of JAPAN should be effected on the basis of the BALKAN system.
But on 6 November, the 28th Memorial Day the Russian Revolution, Mr. MOLOTO? again insisted upon the establishment of a Board of Directors for the Supervision of JAPAN superior to the Far Eastern Investigation Committee, and emphasized the adoption of the BERLIN supervision method.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 32 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The BERLIN Method is the one by which the Four Powers AMERICA, ENGLAND, the SOVIET UNION and FRANCE divide GERMAN territories and the supreme Commander of each country forms a Board directors, and the four nations supervise GERMANY, upon a basis of joint responsibility.
It is a matter for wonder why the SOVIET UNION has again insisted upon this plan particularly since it is reported from American sources that a compromise plan has already been carried out successfully. Though there has been no new international situation to encourage the Russians to stiffen their demand, it is also not likely that they will alter their attitude.
It may rather be said that RUSSIA has been upholding its plan from beginning to end. When we consider the SOVIET UNION'S keen interest in Far Eastern affairs and its demand for the guarantee of the right of veto, we can see that that country will go on in the future with this same attitude, From this viewpoint, the world's attention will be concentrated upon the attitude of AMERICA toward that of the SOVIET UNION.
ITEM 3 The Eventful Extraordinary Session of the Diet. Important Bills to be Deliberated On - Tokushima Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The Government decided at a regular Cabinet meeting Tuesday to request the Throne to convene the 89th extraordinary Diet session for an 18 day session, from 27 November to 14 December, in order to obtain the approval of the Diet on the Bill for Revising the election Law, and other important measures. The Diet session was formerly scheduled to be called on 16 December, but in order to have enough time for deliberation on the Election Law Revision Bill and other various control laws expected to be submitted to the Diet, the convocation date was advanced.
The coming 89th extraordinary session of Diet is not only the first session to be called by the SHIDEHARA Cabinet, but also the one which will concentrate on the Election Law Revision Bill and other important measures necessary to ensure a democratic political regime with the Diet as the nucleus. With the passage of these bills, the Government is expected to request the Throne to dissolve the Diet. The coming session is expected to show lively activity with the formation of the JAPAN Liberal Party, the JAPAN social Democratic Party and the JAPAN Progressing Party.
With the pending Election Law Revision Bill and urgent problems or foodstuffs, rehabilitation, etc., there is plenty of work to be done. The new parties are expected to start an active and wordy warfare in the arena of political campaigns during the session.
One or two more parties are expected to form from the remnants of the other parties and this should help liven the debates.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 32 (Continued)
ITEM 4 A Phase of the History of Japan's Collapse -Yomiuri Hochi - 18 Nov 45. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full Translations:
A Phase of the History of JAPAN's Collapse - Bureaucratic Fascism
The part played by our bureaucracy, hand in hand with the ZAIBATSU and militarists, in the political history of this country was very important Indeed, the history of bureaucracy for the past 60 odd years, interwoven with factional intrigues, constituted the main current of JAPAN's modern politics. In their time they appeared in the limelight, but once they scented a formidable opponent, they hastily hid themselves behind the screen of the Imperial Prerogatives, Their influence, openly or secretly, was always felt. The bureaucracy was by nature a feudalistic advance base in each stratum of politics, economics, and social life and was a faithful watchdog for the entire feudalistic system.
Home Office officials are pointed out as the most bureaucratic of the bureaucracy, Bureaucrats aiming at political careers must, without exception, wither go into the Home Office, or gather these officials into their fold. Without connection with the Home Office in one way or other they could not attain their cherished object. All the Home Ministers of recent times were once either Home Office officials or belonged to that lineage. The gigantic Alliance of organizations held by the Home office, such as the police authority in the name of peace and order and the local administrative organ, spread over the whole country with its personnel, forms a most formidable weapon.
Hence, bureaucrats concentrated all their efforts in the assignment of Home Office positions. The man who first build this system was YAMAGATA, Avitomo, too well known as the head of CHOSHU Clan and the chief of the militarists. Starting in March, 1885, when the first cabinet was formed in our Country, he served for several years as the Minister of Home Affairs successively in the ITO, KURODA and his own ministries, and during that time he firmly established the foundation of the YAMAGATA clique in that Department.
His dislike of political parties went to an extreme, because they were carrying on a courageous campaign against the clannish government. Neverthless, whenever an occasion forced him to approach a political party, he resorted to conciliation.
Even ITO, Hakubun, with his vast powers could not restrain YAMAGATA because the latter held the Army in one hand and the House of the peers and Home office in the other. Among the bureaucrats under YAMAGATA, HIRATA, Tosuke was known for his talent and IKKI, Kitokuro was famous for his intellect. A group of the latter's pupils played prominent parts in establishing Bureaucratic Fascism in later year.
Against this power built up by YAMAGATA a revolution was started by HARA, Takashi. On joining the first SAIONJI cabinet as the Home Minister in 1906 the first thing he set about was a large scale change of local governors. This was really a blow to the bureaucrats surrounding YAMAGATA.
HARA further attempted an overhand of the internal administration by abolishing the "GUN" (T.N. Subdivision of a prefecture) system. The bill was passed unanimously by the House of Representatives in its 22nd Session but was referred to the Committee in the upper House and pigeonholed Undaunted, HARA again submitted the bill without altering a word, to the next session of Diet. However, for some reason or other, certain
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POLITICAL SERIES: 32 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
members of the Lower House, such as OZAKI, Yukio; SHIMADA, Saburo; HANAI, Takuzo; HAYAMI, Seiji; opposed the bill this time.
In reply, HARA said, "In spite of your approval last year you now say the bill needs further study. That means that you need further study, not the Government."
In the and the bill passed the Lower House with a majority of 24 notes. when it was handed on to the Upper House, where a group of YAMAGATA's followers were ready for a bitter combat, despite HARA's gallant debate, the bill was rejected with 149 votes against. 108.
When the present party politicians look back on that event they ought to feel ashamed that in the political history since MEIJI era, HARA was the only party warrior who dared to fight a gallant battle against the bureaucrats. In order to avenge themselves the YAMAGATA faction eagerly watched their chance for retaliation, Seizing the occasion of the formation of the OKUMA Cabinet in 1913, they allied themselves with OKUMA who had always opposed HARA, and by making him their tool, they succeeded in putting OURA, Kanetaka and IKKI, Kitokuro successively into the chair of Home minister.
Soon after the May Incident, the SAITO cabinet came into existence, this cabinet was planned and organized by IKKI and YUZAWA when they recommended SAITO to MAKINO, Shinken, the then Keeper of the Privy Seal. The recent rise of the bureaucrats was occasioned by the formation of the SAITO Cabinet. GOTO Fumio, IZAWA's direct disciple, joined the cabinet as the Agricultural Minister and subsequently took the part of the House Minister in the OKADA Cabinet. After the retirement of MAKINO from the Privy seal office owing to the 15 May Incident, the line in the Imperial Palace was strengthened by IKKI, YUASA and SAITO, under whom the bureaucrats, militarists and financiers worked together.
With the 26 February Incident, a new influence was discerned in the shape of the so called reformed bureaucrats. As the political parties were on their downward road, the time favored the new bureaucrats. As representative figures of this group there were KARASAWA, Toshiki and his followers in the Home Office; SEKOMIZU, Tsunehisa of the Finance Office; MINOBE, Yoji of the Commerce and Industry Department; SHIGEMASA, Seishi of the Agriculture and Forestry; OKUMURA, Kiwao of the Communication; OKA, Keijun of the Navy; IKEDA, Sumihisa; MUTO, Akira; and SATO, Kenryo of the Army.
Besides strengthening their power, centered, around the Board of planning, they set up as their pools the Eastern Asia Research Office with OKURA, Kimmochi for the President and KARASAWA Toshiki for the Chief Director and the fund subscribes by the Government and private sources was 20,000,000 yen. This, meant to be their pool, was, at the same time, an indicator of their future behavior. Simultaneously they established the Showa Research Association and the Association for Study of National Policy.
To be continued.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0032, 1945-11-28.
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