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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0027, 1945-11-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0110

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 110 Date: 27 Nov 45


ITEM 1 On Militarists - Tokyo Shimbun - 16 Nov 45. Translator: J. Weiller.
Since the end of the war, the militarists directly shouldering the burden of both responsibility of the war and war crimes, are being pushed headlong into extinction, a fate which they brought upon themselves. The militarists must hear the greater part of the responsibility for bringing JAPAN to her present state of ruin. In illegally expanding her boundaries which was accompanied by widespread tries both in and out of the country and in the wanton sacrificing of a stupendous number of lives and property, they have committed crimes for which they can never adequately atone.
Well then, what are militarists? we must, however, be careful not to confuse militarist with the military. Our purpose here is to expose those elements which constitute a militarist, thereby making clear wherein the responsibility for war crimes lies.
The militarists are the group of soldiers in leading positions who, utilizing the force of arms and powers of the army oust the other social strata, and attempt to attain their own selfish interests and ambitions. There are public militarists and private militarists and each can be divided into army factions and navy factions.
The Origin and Present State of the Militarists.
The militarists, in the first place, owe their origin to community factions. Our army was first organized by OMURA, Masujiro of the CHOSHU clan and having been comparatively modernized by YAMAGATA, Aritomo, it fell under the influence of the CHOSHU clan as against the influence of the SATSUMA clan in the navy. The current saying at that time to the effect that without the CHOSHU clan there would be no army in as much as they formed its very backbone, tells the story. Up to the last moment a vestige of antagonism between SATSUMA, SAGA, TOSA OITA, and other factions remained in the army but, all in all, the CHOSHU faction was overwhelmingly dominant.
However, owing to the progress of the times and the development of culture, the strong position of the clan gradually weakened, Furthurmore, with the emergence of elements dissatisfied with the oligarchy of the CHOSHU faction out with the passing of the regime of General TAWAKA, Giichi.
There is an episode which took place towards the end of the TAIOHO era while TOJO, Hideki and ISHIWARA, Ganji, both anti-CHOSHU, were instructors at the Military College. They so planned that all the candidate officers of the CHOSHU district, to a man, failed in the

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verbal examination with the result that during the following several years not a solitary CHOSHU officer could enter the college.
With the passing of the clanship period the militarists began transforming themselves for their second phase, that is, the pursuing of personal interests.
The existence of the military preparatory schools which were the nucleus for the education of army officers can by no means be overlooked.
The fundamental ideal of education for those youngsters, who were quite blank both spiritually and physically, was to instill them with the idea of a chosen nation centered around the Emperor together with a program of militarism, imperialism, and self-complacent uniformism.
The school giving preference to the children of professional soldiers and to those who were regarded as excellent elements througout the country has a program designed to force and breed into them an atmosphere of Spartan education. Their individuality was entirely ignored. Almost all the professional soldier now occupying important posts in the Army are graduates of that school. As for the Military Academies, although they took in, principally, graduates of middle schools, the main body of instructors, by whose hands the students underwent a thorough spiritual education, were graduates of the preparatory schools.
In the military college also the essential part of both instructors and students was composed of graduates of the preparatory schools; and even among career soldiers, secret enmity between those from preparatory schools and middle schools was carried on incessantly. This was thought to be the greatest cancer in the Army. The Officers from the preparatory schools who provided the militarists in the second phase, had paromount influence in the army. In fact, they had a mixture of many characteristics, both meritorious and otherwise. Of these traits the most outstanding one was their simple mindedness. Because of this they were generally unacquainted with the outside world and to this can be attributed the self-complacent and cliquish atmosphere which dominated the whole army.
Next comes the Army's Central Office, which was the hot-bed of militarism. The results of the graduation examinations of the preparatory schools, academies and colleges governed the officers' careers throughout their lives. If the results were not excellent, even if they happened to be praisworthy individuals from the human or technical standpoint, they were allowed little chance and were always being transferred from one locality to another. It is not too much to assert that the great majority of those who worked in the Central Office were graduates of the Military College who had come from preparatory schools.
Furthermore a great number of these officers were occupying seats on The General Staff, War Department, Military Education and Air Force Headquarters. Among these the most influential were the Chief of the General Staff, Officers of sections number one, Tactics, number two, Intelligence, number three, Line of Communication, or number four, Military History, Also officers of the War Department, the Minister, Vice Minister and officers of the Military Affairs and Personnel Bureaus. The Department of Military Education, Air Force Headquarters and the Ordnance Bureau were of secondary im-
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portance. Number one section virtually commanded the General Staff while the Bureau of Military Affairs held military administration firmly in its grasp.
The Navy was practically similar to the Army in the above respects, except for the fact that it had no preparatory schools.
Private Militarism and Public Militarism.
It is a deep-rooted evil of the Japanese, not alone of the militarists, that being insular minded, should three men get together, they unconsciously form a clique taking on the names of KENJINKAI (a party of the same prefecture) or DOKISEIKAI (a classmate party) or other such names. It is therefore no great wonder that these self-complacent militarists practice this evil to an excessive degree.
When groups of private militarists combined and got in touch with an outside influence like the ZAIBATSU, such as MITSUI, MITSUBISHI, SUMITOMO, YASUDA or financial concerns newly arisen, they assumed the quality of public militarism. The following are the general qualities of the private militarists:
Cliques formed according to schools from which they graduated and according to native places.
Cliques formed according to the arms to which they belonged, such as infantry, artillery, and so forth. Of these the infantry clique held the greatest influence as the most reactionary element, closely followed by the artillery clique. In addition to these two cliques, the cavalry clique was claiming importance and inclined to join the infantry. It is noteworthy that many Imperial Princes were cavalry officers. Besides these, there were transport, engineers, paymaster, and surgeons; but their power, compared with the infantry and artillery, was quite negligible. The influential infantry clique was spiritually inclined to so-called bayonet charge method, and was in sharp contrast to the mechanization of the progressive artillery and engineer cliques. This is an interesting point in order to fully understand the background which inevitably led to our recent defeat.
Cliques of German-French ideology and Anglo-American ideaology were also formed. Since the foreign languages taught in the preparatory a schools were German, French, and Russian the graduates were naturally influenced with German, or Branch, ideas while, on the other hand, graduates of the academies via middle schools were taught English and educated more or less liberal ideas, thus becoming spiritually allied with the Anglo-American type. In this way, these two elements strongly confronted each other, but since, the important posts were all held by graduates of the preparatory schools it is quite conceivable that the Army was of pro-French and pro-German inclinations.
Clique of Military Affairs Bureau and clique of Number One Section of the General Staff. These two were the actual impelling powers of the army. Until the 26 February Incident, the Military Education Department had a strong voice in many matters but after the incident when severe criticism was levelled as to the responsibility for this incident. In any case, officers of the Military Affairs Bureau and

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Number One Section took the lead in the Army, Forming a close connection, the two were the private militarists backbone both spiritually and personally, Sometimes consciously accepting instigation form the ZAIBATSU, and sometimes, in turn, instigating them, they carried out their militaristic purposes. Especially during the past war period the part played by the successive Chiefs of the Military Affair Bureau was very extensive. Lieutenant General MUTO, [illegible]and SATO, Kenryo are cited as the most noteworthy among them.

Military Clique and Naval Clique.
The essence of the Naval clique can generally be deduces from facts given in connection with the Army. The opposition and strife between these two forces were rooted in the consciousness of their clanship which, in the MEIJI Era, was known as CHOSHU'S Army and SATSUMA'S Navy. At the beginning of MEIJI the navy was a part of the army. YAMAMOTO, Gonbyoe, one of the first graduates of the Naval Cadet School, in accomplishing his objective of making Navy independent did everything possible to wipe out any Army traces. At the same time he did everything possible to lift it above the level of the army. This consciousness of clanship and the resultant rivalry not only led to entirely different customs in the two forces, but established, different strategy and tactics. The [illegible] [illegible]other became a traditional convention. The friction was so intense that it was whispered that before defeating a foreign enemy, our army must conquer JAPAN'S navy or vice versa.
Of course, in both the Army and Navy the necessity for concord between the two was keenly felt and attempts were made to bring it about. However, since they were unable to reconcile their differences and abandon their traditional conventions, many strategical discordances were experienced during the war. Furthurmore because of the share and share-alike method, our slender resources were all the more impoverished, hastening the way to our defeat.
The proposal to set up an indepedent air force ended merely in idle talk because of the above strife.
ITEM 2 Our Answer to the Yomiuri's Editorial - The Yomiuri Hochi - 16 Nov 45. Translator: K. Gunji.
Full Translation:
We have read the editorial in the YOMIURI of the 13th which asked for an explanation of why the JAPAN Socialist Party moved its headquarters to the Lower House, and advised us to develop and active movement among the people. As we believe that the editorial reflects a misunderstanding about this mater, we shall be glad to offer an explanation.
We were evicted from the Industrial Building, but rented two rooms on the sixth floor of that building in the name of Mr. HIRANO, an associate member. As we did not have an office for the inauguration ceremony of our party, we were obliged to start our business there.

The managers of the building, noticing an unusually large number of people constantly coming in and out, discovered that we were using our rooms as offices and asked us to move. At that time however, we were occupied with many urgent tasks, such as receiving special delivery letters for the 2,000 members who were going to attend the inauguration and were desirous of obtaining lodgings. The manager of the Industrial Building would not comply with our requests for more rooms, but finally allowed us to use the rooms we had until the 4th of this month, so we could hold that meeting on the 2nd.

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On the 4th, however, we had not yet found an office and obtainte permission to use a room in the Lower House for a month.

Of course, in this case, the majority of the Standing Committee was opposed to the idea because it was inconvenient for them to attend meetings, and also for visits by local members. But there was no other alternative.
Popular movements are in the course of developing all over the country. We are continuing to hold, five hundred meetings daily in every, town, or village, from [illegible]in the north to KOCHI and KATO SHIMA in the south. At present Mr. KATO is in KANTO and TOKAIDO Districts: Mr. MIZUTA[illegible]I, in KIRKI; Mr. MISHIO, in OSAKA; Mr. KAWAMATA, in TOKOKU; and MR. [illegible]in SHIKOKU.
They are holding meetings on the average of twice each day and night. We also are making an active movement for the return of our soldiers and civilians now in foreign lands. Efforts in this respect are being made by Mr. YOSHIKAWA in CHINA, Mr. SHIBUYA in SHIZOOKA, Mr. TAGA in OKAYAMA, Mr. FUJIWARA in WAGASAHI, Mr. HOTA in HIROSHIMA, Mr. MATSUMOTO in SHIMANE, Mr. SHOJI in TOTTARI, and Mr. MAKAWA in KAGAWA.
The other day we held a mass-meeting of citizens in SAPPORO, HOKKAIDO, and leading a mass demonstration, we broke into the official residence of the governor and demanded the ration of three go of rice daily. We also lead a movement for the protection of sufferers from war disasters. The headquarters of a political party is, so to speak, the general staff office, and its main task lies in tactics, planning, and making connections, Therefore we delegate the carrying out of actual movements to local branches of the party.
We wish to express here our gratitude for the interest shown in our organization and the chance to make our policies known.
TAWARA, Haruji
in the headquarters of
ITEM 3 The Imperial Rescript Calling an Extraordinary Diet Session - The Asahi Shimbun - 18 Nov 45. Translator: S. Fukuda.
The government requested His Majesty, the Emperor to call the 89th Special Diet which opens the 26th and lasts for 18 days.
The Imperial Rescript calling the session was issued officially on the 17th day as follows:
The Imperial Rescript.
We order, in accordance with the seventh and forty-third articles of the Imperial Constitution, a session of the Imperial Diet in TOKYO on the twenty-sixth day of November this year, and to remain in session for a period of eighteen days. His Majesty's signature and seal hereunto on this, The seventeenth day of November, 1945.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0027, 1945-11-27.
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