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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0021, 1945-11-25.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0090

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 90 Date: 25 Nov 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 21

ITEM 1 The inside history of "Gumbatsu" or the militarist party, succession of deceptions and intrigues - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45.
Full Translation:
Continuous Deceptions and Intrigues of the Military Clique disclosed by General KASAKI.
SAGA Dispatch.
Since the termination of war, the true character of the military clique full of deception and intrigue has been gradually disclosed to the public. And now at last we have come to know directly the inside story of the Army, which began with the so-called "March Incident" and ended with the Great EAST ASIA War, from the former Inspector-general [illegible]of Military Education. Hitherto NASAKI has been regarded generally as an agitator in the Army, and according to the inside story, he was one of the men who were considered "intriguers" by the military clique. During a recent visit to SAGA, [illegible]ASAKI, in an unusually forceful manner for a 70 year old man, made the following speech:
"The divine tempest is blowing just now and when the military clique is swept away completely by this divine tempest, a new JAPAN will be born."
"The so-called 'March Incident' in 1931 was a coup d'etat conducted by the military chiefs, KOISO, TATEKAWA, NINOMIYA, SUGIYAMA, NAGATN (NAGATA made the plans), and ŌKAWA, Syumei, and aimed at the seizure of political power and the installation of UGAKI, at that time Army Minister, as Premier. But before this plan was executed, Marquis TOKUGAWA, Yoshichika persuaded ŌKAWA to abandon his plan and notified NAGATA, who was at that time chief of the Military Affaris Section, that I could not agree to dispatch soldiers for a coup d'etat even though General UGAKI had agreed. Therefore the Scheme failed. The military chiefs who were the plotters were placed in an embarrassing position, but so far have gone unpunished for their misdeeds. And this is the very thing that corrupted the Army."
"The 'October Incident' of the same year was conducted along the same line, but this time the persons involved were field officers instead of general officers. The leader of the 'incident' was HASHIMOTO, Kingoro, and this time the conspirators decided to set up ministers

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POLITICAL SERIES: 21 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
to their own liking. However, while they were consulting at KINSUI in KYOBASHI, ARAKI came in and pleaded all night against the plot. And once more the scheme failed to materialize."
"Ex-Foreign Minister MATSUOKA was the first man to say that NANCHURIA is our life and if JAPAN does not control MANCHURIA, our national defense will lose its meaning. Such was the general opinion in those days about the Manchurian Incident. But the fundamental opinion was that as long as we Japanese did not solve the problem of population, we would not be able to survive in the future.
"In these days, even clerks of the, Manchurian Railway Company became incensed and boasted that if the Army did not take up arms, they would take matters into their own hands. MANCHURIA was considered in those days an essential part of the national defense and our nation now knows that the Manchurian Incident began from the explosion incident of RYUJOKO.
"That incident was due to a Japanese plot, and I am not in favor of the use of such underhanded methods. At that time, we should, have appealed bravely to the justice of the world. When the incident broke out, I stayed in FORMOSA and as soon as I returned to TOKYO as Deputy-chief of the General Staff, I suppressed the spreading war fever and halted the drive of our forces in MANCHURIA at the line of the Great Wall of CHINA.
"The 26 February Incident was also a great force in which military fascists aimed at sweeping away their opponents by making use of the revolution-inclined young officers. I was greatly distressed at the time because they planned to lure me into the scheme in an attempt to benefit by my popularity with the young officers. I did not realize my popularity among them, and submitted five items to military judiciaries to be thoroughly investigated. I also made it clear that I had no connection with the incident.
The five items were as follows:
Why did elder statesmen such as Prince SATONJI anticipate the incident?
The aim and scope of the Incident were the same as those or the October Incident, so some of the participants must also have participated in the letter Incident.
The young officers had been misled by someone into believing that by this Incident, they would be able to save Lieutenant Colonel AIZAWA.
We were reported to have been made puppets of the conspirators when the Incident broke out. Such a report must have been prepared in advance by someone.
When I went to ISOBE, Asaichi, one of the leaders who was in the prison and talked with him, he said, "Sir, at last you have been caught in their trap." So I began to cross-examine him, but the Military Judge made him leave."

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POLITICAL SERIES: 21 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
"I now would like to give the causes of the CHINA Incident and the Great EAST ASIA War. It is not because we've lost the war that I say we were doomed to defeat. I had warned about the possibility of losing this war many tines since the CHINA Incident. The militarist party had tried to seize political power through the 26 February Incident but their hopes were not realized. AS a result of this failure dissatisfaction with the Army gradually increased, so the Army tried to divert the people's attention to events abroad in order to cover their own shortcomings. The CHINA Incident was a great gamble, and the Greater EAST ASIA War was an even greater one. A war in which the basic motive was evil could not possibly have been won.
"The Navy opposed this war from the very beginning. For example, the late Fleet Admiral YAMAMOTO used to say before the war that JAPAN would be able to fight for a year at the longest. All remnants of co-operation between the Army and Navy had disappeared even then. And handicapped by lack of armaments and a disadvantageous geographical position, our defeat was beyond question.
"There are several reasons why we waged war against AMERICA and ENGLAND in the face of such disadvantages. One was the desire to fight the battle to the end rather than be ruined because of the foolish CHINA Incident. Confidence in a military victory by Germany inspired confidence in a military victory for JAPAN. There was also confidence in the impossibility of AMERICA'S fighting a long war. TOJO himself was confident of JAPAN' s victory and began the war resolutely.
"When I was commander of the First Division, TOJO was commander of the First Regiment. And when I was the Chief of Staff, YAMASHITA took his office as Chief of the Bureau of Military Affairs in the War Ministry. TOJO hated YAMASHITA in those days, and also mistrusted me because of my association with YAMASHITA. Consequently he had little to do with me."
ITEM 2 Campaign Limiting Items - Yomiuri Noohi - 15 Nov 45 Translator: K. Murakami
Full translation:
The government has decided on an outline of the revision of the election law and is now preparing a statute. On 14 November, the House of Representatives examined the revision from its own standpoint at the Special Diet System Investigating Committee and decided on two items. These items are the public management of elections, and regulation of election campaigns, and are to be offered to the Home Department as recommendations of the House of Representatives when Home Minister HORIKIRI returns from his trip to KANSAI.
The details of the public management of elections and limitations of election campaigns are as follows: -
The issuance of the official reports of elections must be along the lines laid down by the Home Department, and the private distribution of papers by candidates for election is prohibited.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 21 (Continued)

ITEM: 2 (Continued)
Free mail is to be abolished and newspaper advertisements to be made available under public supervision.
Bills advertising speeches are limited to 5,000, and bills for other purposes are banned.
When advertising a speech, neighborhood associations may be utilized.
Signs and posters are banned, and names of all candidates are reported jointly at suitable places in cities, towns, and villages.
Radio is to be utilized under communications regulations.
ITEM 3 The old NISSEI Faction to be christened "The Japan Progressive Party." Asahi-Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The Progressive Party, tentatively the name given to the old Japan Political Association, held a meeting preparatory to its formal inauguration at headquarters in MISHI GINZA on 14 November, and decided to publish the draft of the declaration of principles of the party.
Many objected to the temporary name given the party. Other names suggested were: The People's Party, The Constitutional Democratic Party, and The JAPAN Democratic Party, but in the end The JAPAN Progressive Party was accepted.
The declaration of principles is as follows:
Platform (Draft)
The Party will:
Protect the national policy and insure responsible democratic politics centering about a Parliament.
Respect individual freedom and strive for improvements on the basis of co-operative self-government working toward the maintenance of world peace and the promotion of prosperity and happiness of mankind.
Work independently and will strive to increase production by working for a new economy, thus securing the existence of all the nation.

Proclamation (Draft)
JAPAN is a defeated nation at a crucial period in her history. We are pledged to accept our defeat with humility, and we are further pledged to carry out the terms of the Potsdam Declaration faithfully; and strive to overcome all obstacles blocking the reconstruction of JAPAN.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 21 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The responsibility for the defeat is on the militarists, the bureaucrats who acceded to their wishes and abused their authority, and the ZAIBATSU.
Political parties were too weak, and helpless to avert the catastrophe.
It is, of course, the nation's duty to protect our national existence. Especially now, in the days when strange and violent disturbances are taking place, we will firmly reject Communism for the great principles of constitutional monarchy.
In order to practice democratic ideas and to meet the general wishes of the people, the Imperial Constitution will be revised by the people and the government in order to give a basis to all political movements.
We must reform our parliamentary system and other political institutions. Furthermore, we must respect our freedom of speech, assembly, association, religion and all fundamental human rights.
In order to carry out such a policy, reactionary dogma should be completely eliminated by establishing education based on individualism, public service, and rationalism.
As to the means for elevating standards of living, a new well-proportioned economic system should be initiated to regulate agriculture, industry and commerce.
The bureaucratic system should be rejected, national finance be strengthened, food supply insured, and scientific technique employed to promote production. Monopolies should be liquidated in order to elevate the standard of living and insure stability of national life.
For these reasons we have established the Progressive Party of JAPAN.
ITEM 4 Abolishment of the Office Related to Shinto Religion Mainichi Shimbun - 15 November 1945 Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Summary:
The Commissioners of the Shinto Religion Will Resign from Their Positions. The Office of Shinto Religion (JINGI CHO) Will Be Formed from Among The People.
The problem of the future of Shinto shrines, which the Allied Powers regard as a religious one, is being watched with great interest by all JAPAN. The Government determined to abolish the Office of the Shinto Religion, which carriers out the administration of Shinto shrines. If the Office of the Shinto shrine is abolished, 110,000 Shinto shrines throughout the country will have to form self-governing, private bodies to replace the Office of the Shinto Religion.
The Officials in charge of matters relating to Shintoism, and parishioners all over the country are keenly aware of the problem. Three bodies of the Shinto Religion, the Institute for the Study of Japanese Classical Literature, the association of Shinto Religion of Greater JAPAN, and the Association of Religious Service of Shinto Shrines propose to establish a private body, the Office of the Shinto Religion.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 21 (Continued)
ITEM: 5 (Continued)
They have begun to make appropriate preparations for this establishment. Their object is as follows: "Shinto shrines, as part of a national religion, are to be restricted as such things are not consonant with modern times. However, the real qualities of Shinto shrines are needed, and 110,000 Shinto shrines of JAPAN should be opened to parishioners.
The officials of Shintō Religion should resign their positions, in which they are officials of the country and are treated as such. They should serve God as private individuals as their duties are urgent at present. According to the desires of the officials of Shintō Religion and the parishioners, a non-secular body encompassing all Shintō shrines throughout the country will be established, and the status of the officials of Shintō Religion, the propagation of Shinto Religion, and all other matters will be governed by it. Subsequently, the unrestricted activity of the body will meet the demands of the country and the wishes of the nation will be satisfied.
ITEM 5 Suspension of a Preliminary Inquiry In the House of Peers Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The House of Peers held a joint meeting of the committee directors for investigating the House of Peers' system at the President's room in the Diet Building on 16 November. Views on measures taken for the coming extraordinary session of the Diet were exchanged.
They came, to the following conclusions:
Preliminary examination of the bills submitted by the Government, which has been a practice for the last few Diet sessions, will no longer be carried out.
Bills which were formerly examined by the House of Representatives will be examined, but only essential items thereof will be explained.
At the coming extraordinary session of the Diet, the Election Law Revision Bill of the House of Representatives, the Labor Union Law Bill, and others which will be basic factors in the reconstruction of a new JAPAN will be submitted, but sufficient time must be allowed for thorough discussion of these matters.

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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0021, 1945-11-25.
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