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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0020, 1945-11-25.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0086

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
NO. 86 Date: 25 Nov 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 20

ITEM 1 Abolishment of Office of Minister of Privy Seal - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: H. Takahashi.
Summary:
Office Of Privy Seal To Be Abolished
The Office of Privy Seal will be abolished in the near future because it stands in the way of democratic rebuilding of JAPAN. The two important duties assigned to the Office of Privy Seal will be easily discharged by other existing offices. That is to say, the duty of attending His Majesty as adviser is performed by the Grand Chamberlain, the Minister of the Imperial Household and the president of the Privy Council.
The duty of recommending candidates for the formation of a new cabinet falls to the president of the Privy Council, the president of the House of Peers, and the president of the House of Representatives, who may become consultants to His Majesty. We can safely say that the democratization of JAPAN can never advance while the office of Privy Seal is intact.
In addition, in connection with the above, the revision of the structure of the Privy Council has been discussed, and it is emphasized at present that the number of Privy Councillors must be diminished. Rather than the Prime Minister, the Minister of the Imperial Household, the president of the Supreme Court and the chief of the Audit Bureau, other members should be selected from among the GENRO-class (elder statesmen) as truly capable of being advisers to His Majesty.
ITEM 2 Officers of the First Demobilization Ministry Assume Civilian Status - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Extracts:
It was decided at a Cabinet meeting on the 13th that the Ministry of War would become the First Demobilization Bureau, and that members thereof would assume civil service status. This proposal was submitted to Allied Headquarters, and it is now definite that the members of the First Demobilization Bureau will assume civil service status, and that reserve officers will be used therein.
ITEM 3 Official System To Be Fundamentally Improved - Asahi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: H. Takahashi.
Summary:
Distinction Between Senior Official and Junior to be Abolished
A revision of the official system was decided upon at the formal conference

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POLITICAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
of the Cabinet on 13 November. As a result, pending problems such as the eradication of the discriminations between senior officials and juniors, the simplification of the grade system of official rank, the prevention of change of occupation too frequently, and so forth, have been anticipated and it is clear that the government intends just promotion, fair increases of salary to become possible through the adoption of an efficient system.
Regulations Concerning Officials' Titles. Corresponding officials are to have the same titles in each occupation unless they are engaged in special work.
Official rank is to be divorced from occupation. The chief of a department or bureau who has held an official rank will be given official rank, by appointment. (Note: - Appointment will be ordered by the chief of the office concerned or through the sanction of the Emperor, according to the nature of the appointment.)
Abolition of distinctions between Senior and Junior Officials and simplification of the grade system of official rank. To abolish the discrimination between CHOKU-NIN officials (to be appointed directly by His Majesty), SO-NIN (to be appointed by His Majesty's approval), and HAN-NIN (junior official), that the same name "KAN" be adopted for all officials. At the same time the rank system will be simplified. CHOKU NIN will be 1st class, SONIN, 2nd Class, and HANNIN 3rd class. Third Class rank will be attained by the same process through which HANNIN are now appointed.
Unification of salary system. A simple salary system is to be set up, without relation to official rank or its grade, and it shall be possible for an official to rise to a higher salary class without changing his post, according to the longevity or efficiency of his service. (Note: Salaries should be consistent with duty, rather than rank.)
Prevention of official changes. Officials are to keep the same post for some minimum period, lest the too frequent change of officials cause inefficiency.
Improvement of the Higher Civil Service examinations. In the examination for both administrative and judicial fields, rigid standardization of subjects is to be avoided, and subjects necessary for judging the professional qualifications of an official, as well as his general ability and leadership qualities and experience are to be added. Men with actual practice or experience as well as professors should be made examination commissioners.
System for the training of officials. A system shall be devised whereby officials do research on some particular subject for several months or are engaged in practical work for a definite length of time. This research or practical experience is to be a condition for promotion.
Inspection and efficiency system. Inspectors from the Cabinet or various ministries shall examine each office for efficiency, and at the same time study means to increase efficiency in the various departments. Civilians of ability may also be appointed as inspectors.
An efficiency list is to be compiled twice a year for officials below 2nd
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POLITICAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
class. It is to be made up by their immediate superior and approved by the latter's immediate superior. Promotion and increase of salary are to depend on the efficiency list. Therefore this list must be scientifically compiled so as to insure justice and the making of accurate appraisals.
The government has decided to start the overhaul of official procedure immediately to increase efficiency. It will be started on 19 November and will affect every board and ministry.
ITEM 4 The United States Occupation Army numbers 460,000. The 6th Army To Be Disbanded Shortly. British Troops will join Occupation - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kiyosada.
Extracts:
The Commander of the UNITED STATES 8TH ARMY, Lieutenant General EICHELBERGER said on 14 November l945, that the approximate number of men of the UNITED STATES Army occupying JAPAN and the southern part of KOREA is 460,000. At the present time soldiers leaving JAPAN for their homes are more numerous than those coming to JAPAN. Owing to this rapid turnover, it is difficult to estimate the exact number of soldiers on the mainland of HOKKAIDO and KYUSYŪ. But, according to an estimate by Lieutenant General EICHELBERGER, there are 177,000 men and 18,000 officers belonging to the 8th Army, 199,000 officers and men of the 6th Army and 70,000 soldiers of the 24th Army Group in southern KOREA.
As the 6th Army is to be disbanded on 26 January 1946 with the Commander, Lieutenant General Walter KRUEGER, and the Headquarters returning to the UNITED STATES, the whole UNITED STATES Occupation Army in JAPAN will be the 8th Army.
A small number of troops from BRITAIN, AUSTRALIA, RUSSIA, and CHINA will join in the occupation of JAPAN in the future according to formal statements issued by their governments.
As mentioned above, Lieutenant General EICHELBERGER announced that returning soldiers are more numerous than those coming in, but, he did not say when the number of Occupation Army would reach a maximum. General MacARTHUR estimated, soon after the beginning of the occupation, that the size of the occupation army would be 200,000 by next spring, and there has been no qualifying announcement since that time.
According to a dispatch from TOKYO, a portion of the 400,000 troops of GREAT BRITAIN, her dominions, and self-governing colonies, is expected to join in the occupation of JAPAN, and is scheduled to arrive on 1 January 1946. It is said that a part of the British troops may remain until 1970.
ITEM 5 Inaugural meeting of the Federation for Japanese Co-operative Unions - Asahi Shimbun - l6 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kid.
Summary:
The co-operative movement proposed by KAGAWA, Tozohiko, and ARIMA,
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POLITICAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Rainei, has been formed into the Japanese Federation of Co-operative Unions. The first meeting of the new federation will be held on 18 November in KURAMAE Industry Hall, SHIMBASHI.
KAGAWA, ARIMA, SENGOKU, SHIDACHI, the organizing sponsors of the federation have already sent out invitations.
ITEM 6 Post-war Affairs Liaison To Be Augmented - Sectional Chiefs Conference To Be Held - Asahi Shimbun - 16 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Extracts:
On 15 November at a conference of vice ministers a plan for bringing closer liason between various branches of the government was discussed, and the following was proposed:
To hold sectional chiefs conferences.
The sectional chief shall have a post-war liaison office in addition to his regular post.
Important matters and those concerning other ministries are to be referred to the Allied Powers through the liaison office.
All documents addressed to the Allied authorities are to be submitted through the liaison office.

ITEM 7 Government Officials System Reform Bill - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: T Kitayama.
Government Officials System Reform Bill Main Point - to Separate Ranks from Positions at Least Two Years in the Same Position
In order to cope with the crisis arising at the end of the war, the government has decided to carry out fundamental revisions in the system of promoting government officials. Not only the general public, but also the government officials want to see the system reformed.
The reformation bill incorporates fundamental simplification of ranks and grades, separation of ranks from positions, unification of the salary system, establishment of an investigation system by government officials, and the revision of the higher civil service examination system, all of which have been problems of long standing.
A certain petty official of a certain Ministry, after hearing of the proposed bill, said, "It's encouraging, but the revision, as it stands is inadequate." What is more important than the machinery of a system is the men who apply the system. It is a hasty conclusion that democracy will be realized through the introduction of the present reform bill. But if the bill is exactly carried out to the letter, the administration will improve.
All the officials, from the chiefs of bureaus down to officials of Hannin rank, will be placed under one and the same system of rank. Nominal differences will all be abolished.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
It is to be noted that all the differences between kotokan and hanninkan, which constituted a basis for feudalism in the government will be removed, and the complicated eight grades of kotokan and 11 trades of hanninkan will be simplified. These will be replaced by new grades. The first new grade is chokunin rank, the second, sonin, and the third, hannin.
Unification of the salary system is also essential. Salaries will be raised with reference to length of service and efficiency ratings, regardless of rank or position. Therefore, some shiefs of sections may receive higher salaries than chiefs of bureaus or boards.
The frequent changes of government officials have often been criticized. It has been true that officials consider their work of secondary importance, their primary object being to change positions and receive advances in salary. The reform bill aims at the correction of this malpractice, and hereafter right man will be appointed to the right position. The bill states that the Government officials should be kept in the same position for at least two years.
The faults of the higher civil examination system will also be eliminated under the proposed new bill. Members of the examination committee will be appointed from university staffs, and from among business men. For example, member of the examination committee on economical subjects will be appointed, from among prominent bankers. A certain number of subjects will be addedon to the examination, and the examinees can choose from them.
In the new plan, government officials are required to make various investigations to sea that both the lower and higher officials are carrying out their responsibilities to the people. The Inspection system is emphasized in the revision bill, as its absence up to now has been one of the causes of inefficiency in the government. Inspectors will be appointed from among Cabinet members and Ministries.
ITEM 8 A witness favorable to General YAMASHITA - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: S. Seno.
Full Translation:
At the public trial of General YAMASHITA, following yesterday's attempt by the defense counsel to halt the trial, the first witness expected to refute unfavorable testimony against General YAMASHITA was introduced by the defense staff. His name was Vishini ROMERO, the fourteen-year old grandson of General Artomio Ricarte, former fighter for FHILIPPINE independence.
ROMERO refuted last week's testimony, according to which General YAMASHITA had rejected General RICARTE's appeal that he, YAMASHITA, desist from killing all FILIPINOS and destroying all PHILIPPINE cities and towns.
He said that he had acted as an interpreter during the conversation between General YAMASHITA and his grandfather, and that he had never heard of any of the things charged in last week's testimony. After that meeting General YAMASHITA did not come to RICARTE again, according to ROMERO.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0020, 1945-11-25.
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