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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0019, 1945-11-24.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0082

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 82 Date: 24 Nov 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 19

ITEM 1 Chinese Discussion on War Crimes - Yomiuri Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Summary:
Conspiracy Carries the Same Guilt As the Crime; Chinese Legal Discussion On War-crime.
Kyodo.
An editorial in the Herald Tribune on 11 November says as follows; "the Chinese government names the Japanese Emperor, Prince KONOE, Eumimaro, the wartime Prime Ministers, the Foreign Ministers, many of the generals and admirals, and two ministers of the present cabinet as war-criminals.
This was done under the assumption in European laws that the conspirator is just as guilty as the perpetrator. On the other hand, the reason why AMERICA allowed an evil person like KONOE to be in an official position is her desire to use him as a tool in bringing into custody all the other members of the infamous oligarchy.
ITEM 2 Three General Officers to be Sent Under Guard - Asahi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
Three General Officers to be Sent Under Guard.
British occupation headquarters at JAVA announced, on 12 November, that three Japanese generals, detained in JAVA would be sent under guard to SINGAPORE on the 14th, in order to be tried as war-criminals. They are Lieutenant General NAGANO, Yuichiro, commanding general of the 16 Army; Major General YAMAMOTO, Shigeichiro, Chief of Staff of the 16 Army; and Major General NAKAMURA, commanding general of Central JAVA.
They are being indicted as war criminals for having given weapons to Javanese Nationalist troops, contrary to the orders of the British Supreme Commander.
ITEM 3 Various Aspects of the Election System - Tokyo Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Summary:
Various Aspects of Election System.
In response to the request of the Allied Headquarters for the revision of the election law to include woman suffrage, the government has decided

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POLITICAL SERIES: 19 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
to present an election law revision bill to the coming extraordinary session of the Diet. After the approval of the bill, the government will dissolve the Diet. In order to carry out a general election according to a new election law, necessary plans are hurriedly being made, mainly by the Home Ministry.
Fundamental plans have already been decided at the Cabinet conference, and they comprise:-
Approval of woman suffrage.
Lowering of the age-qualification for franchise and election, both of men and of women, to 25 and 20 respectively.
Adoption of a large electoral district system.
Adoption of a restricted plural balloting; system.
Easing of election campaign control.
Concerning the problem of the restricted plural balloting system, a sudden opposition has arisen from all parties, as this system gives rise to a minority representative system. Active discussions will be concentrated upon this problem in the extraordinary session of the Diet, as it constitutes an important point in the election law revision bill.
When only one representative is returned from one electoral district, it is called a small electoral district, and when two or more representatives are elected in one electoral district, it is called a large electoral district. In Japan, when one prefecture forms one electoral district, just as in NARA, KAMANASHI, SHIGA, EUKUI, TOTTORT, and MIYAZAKI prefectures, it is called a large electoral district. But when one prefecture is subdivided into several electoral districts, and plural representatives are returned from, each district, it is called a middle electoral district. Since three to five representatives are elected from one electoral district in either case, it must be called a large electoral district. In the present revision bill, the adoption of a large electoral district means the enlargement of the electoral districts, under current law, so as to make one prefecture one electoral district. This system of election aims at, (1) prevention of a local man of influence from being elected, and election of a nationally known man by enlarging spheres of choice of electors, (2) prevention of monopolization of seats by the majority, and the opportunity for minority representation.
Methods of voting, now used in the world, may roughly be tabulated as follows:
Majority representation system.
Small electoral district, single voting system.
Large electoral district, plural voting system.
Non-restrictive plural voting system.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 19 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Minority representation system.
Large electoral district, single voting system.
Restricted plural voting system.
Proportional representation system.
The proportional representation system alone is said to comprise more than 300 methods. A majority representation system determines the elected according to election by majority. This system is divided into (1) single voting majority representation system and (2) plural voting majority representation system, depending on whether one or more representatives are elected from one electoral district.
Single voting majority representation system is practised in ENGLAND, AMERICA, FRANCE, CANADA, etc., and in JAPAN. This system was adopted in the 1st - 6th general elections, and in the 14th. According to this system, as only one representative is elected from one electoral district, the majority party of that district can have a representative, but the minority party cannot, even though the latter gains more votes in the aggregate than the former.
Plural Majority Representation System. According to this system, each voter can cast a plural vote for all the candidates of representatives in that district. For instance, when a certain district has a fixed number of three representatives, a voter can cast a plural vote for any three out of some number of candidates. Under the small electoral district system, an opportunity for electing a representative of a small party may be lost, but it means the loss of only one seat. According to the plural majority representation system, the difference of only a small number of votes, as a whole, determines the destiny of a number of candidates. This is abnormal.
In short, under these systems, a big party is given an opportunity to dominate. As in the case of JAPAN and ENGLAND, where a representative cabinet system is adopted, a difference in a small number of votes at once means a change of the political situation.
But, though it is a matter of course that in the case in which a decision is to be reached over some practical affair, opinions of the majority have, as a whole, more validity than those of the minority, the election of representatives is different from a national election, and it is the election of representatives who are bound to "discuss" in order to "decide". Accordingly, in an election, both majority party and minority party should be represented. This most suits the principle of democracy. From this point of view, a minority representation system aims at amending the abnormality of a majority representation system and giving representation to minority parties.
A large electoral district single voting system. This is the voting system now being set up in JAPAN. This system has been very rarely used in foreign countries. In this sense it may be called "of Japanese pattern". Under this system it is certain that a minority party will be given representation, but the larger the fixed number of representatives becomes, the more advantageous it is to the minority party.
Under this system, there is little danger that the greater part

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POLITICAL SERIES: 19 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)

of seats are occupied by a single party. But when the fixed number of representatives is small, it is scarcely different from a majority representation system.
According to this system, a popular candidate gathers a far larger number of votes than are necessary for his election. The result is that, he causes many votes to become useless votes, and he prevents the election of other candidates of the same party as his. He also promotes the election of the weaker opposition party.

Moreover, under this system, as in the case of a small electoral district system, for the reason that votes of each voter are cast for a certain single candidate, this method stimulates individual competition among candidates. It is said that one of the causes of evils in the election system of JAPAN may to be attributed to this system. In short, under this system, if the object of a minority representation system is to be fully attained, it is necessary that a fixed number of representatives in one electoral district should be as large as possible.
The restricted plural balloting system is a form of the large electoral district plural balloting system, and it necessitates an electoral district which has a fixed number of more than three candidates. In this method, the number of candidates for which each voter can vote is made smaller than the fixed number for that electoral district. This is just the system that has been adopted in the coming election revision bill. In this bill, when the fixed number is below four, a single voting system will be adopted. When it is six to ten, a plural voting system will be taken up, and when it is 11 - 14, a three-voting system will be adopted. This system has been or is now being adopted in SPAIN, ENGLAND, AMERICA, ITALY, etc. Under this system, a majority party cannot monopolize all the representation.
This method was introduced, for the first time, in the so-called GIRONO Constitution. Though this system does protect minority parties, it is not foolproof. It has one weak point in that only the most influential party can get such protection. In short, both a large electoral district single balloting system and a plural balloting system as a minority representation system have some defects, and if the minority representation system is really to be effective, a proportional representation system must be adopted.
ITEM 4 We want responsible explanations - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Summary:
I am asking for answers on the following items:
An explanation of the relations between the Japanese officers and enlisted men according to the Imperial Rescript as read to Japanese soldiers.
An explanation of the legal interpretation of relations between government and private business.
An explanation from business man on their economic interpretation of profits during the war and at the time of surrender.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 19 (Continued)

ITEM 4 (Continued)
An explanation from members of the House of Representatives of their impressions when blindly following the military clique, and the reasons for their behavior after surrender.
Publication of records of tortures carried on by the police.
Interpretation by educators of the reasons for school strikes.

Most of people concerned with the above questions had been proud of their powers during the war. Now, however, they are the targets for a great deal of public criticism.
Concerning the first proposed item, the War Minister made a statement in which he advised the people never to accuse soldiers in general of wrong behavior on the part of a few.
We can not accept this statement because our criticism of officers and men at home was made simply because of our consideration for our soldiers and subjects overseas. We have no intention of accusing our soldiers abroad.
Foreign Minister YOSHIDA issued a statement regarding the second item. However, I do not consider him a member of the ZAIBATSU, because I am not well enough acquainted with his activities. Even accepting him as a spokesman for the ZAIBATSU, however, I do not think he is qualified as an authority on the matter. Accordingly, I think that little value should be placed on his statement.
With the exception of the first two of the above seven items, none have received any sort of explanation. And without explanation, there is every reason to believe that all prevalent rumors about them are true.
The first requisite for the reconstruction of JAPAN is to solidify the basis upon which a new JAPAN will be built. At present, the people who were dragged into this useless war and who are now confronted with many difficulties, have become extremely sincere in action. But they must not waste their efforts foolishly.
It is in order to pave our way toward reconstruction that I am demanding satisfactory and responsible explanations from all the above mentioned parties. Let us reflect on the past sincerely and then start working for the future.
ITEM 5 Responsibility of the Emperor Accused by Communists - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Nov Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Summary:
Responsibility of the Emperor - Accused by Communists.
(AP Special Telegraph):-
Associated Press Correspondent to TOKYO, Mr. Russel BRINES deals with the view-point of the Communist party of JAPAN as to the war-responsibility of the Emperor and says that the leader of the Japanese Communists, Mr. SHIGA Yoshio declared as follows:- "The New Japanese Communists are compiling a war-criminal's list, and the name of Emperor, is first on that list. The Emperor must be responsible for the attack on PEARL HARBOR. The Communists emphasize the abolishment of the Emperor System and this issue will be the
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POLITICAL SERIES: 19 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
central one of their campaign.
The party is comprised of 600 members at present, and the number is rapidly increasing, but the party will not be able to secure many seats in the Diet at the coming election. The war-criminals list which the party is making, includes those who have been leaders of the government since the Incident in MANCHURIA. The list should include other war-criminals, based on the reports, being used by the Allied Powers.
Some war-criminals, not placed on the list, will demand a trial by the Japanese Government. The Greater EAST ASIA War was a long time in preparation, and the authors and enforcers of such oppressive legislation as the peace regulations made in 1925 must also be placed on the list as war-criminals!
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0019, 1945-11-24.
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