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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0017, 1945-11-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0074

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 74 Date: 13 Nov 45.

POLITICAL SERIES: 17

ITEM 1 A Phase of the History of Japan's Collapse (4) ([illegible]) - Yomiuri-Hochi - 13 Nov 45. Translator: T. Weiller.
Full Translation:
In a secret publications dated 25 July 1935, entitled "High Treason of militarists and Chief Retainers", distributed by the "Advocates of Imperial Restoration" and associate organizations, the following passage is to be found under the sub heading "The Procedure of the 15 July Incident."
"At 0830, 10 July, Governor-General UGAKI called on the War Minister. From 1030 discussions concerning personnel began between the Minister and Inspector-General of Military Education MASAKI, when the former suddenly demanded the latter's retirement, stating that he voiced the unanimous opinion of the army. But when MASAKI, out of desperation, challenged the statement, UGAKI stated it was 'the wish of the Chief of Staff'. He further stated that it was a plot schemed by General MINAMI and the Chief of Military Affairs Bureau NAGATA. He said, "MINAMI is having me pull his chestnuts out of the fire. Since his return from MANCHURIA the conspiracy has intensified."
"However, MASAKI did not accede to the demand and took leave saying he wanted time to gather material about Major General MAGAMA and others. "At 1500 hours the War Minister called the Vice Chief of the Staff SUGIYAMA and discussed counter-measures.
"At 0800, 12 July, General MASAKI had a conference with the War Minister during which MASAKI emphasized the advisability of arriving at a tangible plan, before calling a conference. The Minister then called in the Vice Minister, the Vice Chief of Staff and the Chief of Personnel Bureau and deliberated on counter measures, deciding to hold a Three Chiefs Meeting at 1300 hour. At the meeting, MASAKI is recorded as having stated:
" 'You say control is the watchword, but precisely what is meant? If it means simply blind obedience to the authorities, it is not real control. Control is only feasible after the men have been well inspired with military spirit, based on principle.
" 'What do you mean by the unanimous opinion of the Army? If affairs were conducted on a majority opinion, the will of the subordinates

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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
would overwheimithat of the superiors, imposing thereby a condition contrary to the fundamental rule of command.
" 'The Inspector-General of Military Education is under the direct command of His Majesty the Emperor, and as such is not to be insulted by such nations as unanimous opinion.
" 'Some outside agency is obviously behind the demand for a change. I would be a disgrace to my responsibilities if I were to yield. Furthermore, it would establish a deplorable precedent. It is more than a personal affair.
" 'If decisions that should be made at a Three Chiefs Conference were made by the War Minister alone, such a precedent would surely affect the position of the Chief of the General Staff. As a result the army would be in the same state of confusion as party. In order to prevent politics, thus falling easy prey to opportunists. To counteract this we need only abide by rules which have been sanctioned by the Emperor. The present attitude of the Minister may well lead to usurpation of the prerogatives of the Supreme Command'.
"Since the Minister was unable to reply to the above arguments, the meeting was concluded.
"At 1300 of 15 July, the second meeting of the Three Chiefs was held. General MASAKI delivered a heated address on the gravity of the demands for change, citing Imperial sanctioned regulations. The War Minister, however, remained adamant, pretending to be backed by the Chief of the Staff. The meeting was adjourned at 1530 hours without, having [illegible]achieved any results. Thereupon the War Minister according to a prearranged strategem, wired to General WATANABE who was then touring the SAN-IN district at 1540 hours he went by motor car to the HAYAMA palace adjunct where he was granted the Emperor's audience. He submitted to the Throne a petition to replace MASAKI by WATANABE. He returned to TOKYO at 1900 hours. General WATANABE left HAMADA that very night.
"At 0940 of 16 July, the War Minister called on the Premier and conferred with him. At 1030 hours he left a Cabinet Meeting while it was still in progress and, accompanied by Vice Chief of Staff SUGIYAMA, went to the Princes residence, where Marshall Prince NASHIMOTO had arranged to meet them. After explaining the situation to the prince the Minister, as though to repeat SHIRAKAMI'S resignation of the previous year withdraw his resignation from his pocket and showed it to the Prince. On being told his action was unnecessary, he replaced it in his pocket. The two princes immediately set out for the Palace, and the change in the Inspector-Generalship was announced at 1330 hours.
"At 1100 of 17 July General MASAKI proceeded to the Prince's residence. At the periodic War Councillors meeting held at 1300 hours, General ARAKI and others expressed their opinions on the change, attacked the Minister's attitude and the underhanded means employed by Major-General NAGATA and others. They then disclosed to all present a
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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
document written by NAGATA purporting to force the Emperor to appoint the UGAKI cabinet after the March Incident. All were astonished and the War Minister was at a loss for an explanation. The meeting was adjourned at 1800 hours."
The following statement in the same document, "High Treason of the Militarists and Chief Retainers," is significant in that it discloses the participation of outside conspirators who backed War Minister HAYASAI: "Supported by the Chief Retainers (JUSHIN) and militarists, the 'Breakfast Party' (ASAHANKAI) with Baron IZAWA, Tokio as the leader, played an important role in the intrigues. Among its members are HARADA, Kumao; KITO, Koichi; OKABE, Chokei; KURODA, KURODA, Nagakazu; GOTO, Fumio; and KARASANA, Toshiki all are acting 'messenger boy's of the GENRO and JUSHIN. Major General NAGATA, Tetsuzan is also a leader among them. Their secret rendezvous is a certain MACHIAI (rendevous place) at TSUKIJI."
The "Breakfast Party" was a favorite topic of conversation in contemporary political circles. They were regarded with considerable apprehension during the period of development of new Bureacratic movements. The party faded away soon after the AIZAWA incident. However, since Baron HARADA was Prince SAIONJI's private secretary; Marquis KIDO Chief Private secretary of the Lord Keeper of Privy Seal; Viscount OKABE, brother of Mr. MURAYAMA, the president of the ASAHI newspaper and an influential member of the House of Peers along with Baron KURODA; Mr. GOTO, Home Minister in the OKADA Cabinet; and Mr. KAKASAWA the Chief of Police Affairs Bureau, and since all were satellites of Baron IZAWA, Tokio who was considered in political ascendence, it is no wonder the party attracted attention.
Since that time Marquis KIDO, after holding the positions of Minister of Public Welfare and Home Affairs, has become Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, and was instrumental in shaping JAPAN's fate as the man responsible for recommending the TOJO Cabinet to the Throne. Baron OKABE on the occasion of the TOJO Cabinet's formation was appointed Education Minister, and is now the president of the DAI NIPPON KYOIKUKAI (Japan Educational Society). Mr. GOTO was Home Minister during the 26 February incident, and though for some time afterwards did not hold a ministry, he was appointed a minister without Portfolio in the TOJO Cabinet, where his chief function was advisor to the YOKUSANKAI (Support Party) and 'YOKUSAN SEIJIKAI' (Support Government Party). Mr. KARASAWA after long retirement following the 26 February incident, was appointed Vice Minister in the TOJO Cabinet and took control over the bureaucrats in that Department.
The Three Chiefs Council on the other hand was a dignified and fear body. Historically, it was the Three Chiefs Council who developed the Imperial Japanese Army from the private forces of the CHOSHU [illegible]. As a result of the tyrannical acts of the CHOSHU clan armies under YAMAGATA, KATSURA, TERAUCHI and others for a period extending from the close of the MEIJI era to the beginning of TAISHO, popular demand for the appointment of civilians as Ministers of War and Navy was voiced after the fall of the KATSURA cabinet. Despite intense opposition by YAMAGATA and the Army, Prime Minister YAMAMOTO succeeded
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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
in pushing through approval to enable generals and admirals the sphere of appointments of the Second Reserve to become Ministers of War or Navy. The Army had yielded to public pressure.
However, the Army's considered it dangerous to leave so much power to the discretion of one man, since it might very well become a private army. As a result, the Chief of the General Staff and the Inspector-General of Military Education were to participate with the Minister in all decisions regarding change of personnel. By imposing this restriction on the Minister, it was felt the Emperor's personal command was insured. Regulations pertinent to the above action were enacted in the Imperial Rescript of August 1913. Article 11 of the regulations states:
"1. The appointment, dismissal and transfer of officers or civilians of corresponding rank; or selection of candidates shall be handled by the Minister of War after consultation with the Chief of the General Staff and the Inspector-General of Military Education."
"2. Regulations expediting military affairs will be based upon details established at a conference in which the Minister of War, Chief of the General Staff and the Inspector-General of Military Education will participate."

Proceeding from the above, a "Memorandum Regarding Personnel" was initiated upon agreement among the Three Chiefs in April of 1927, the context of which follows:
"Until otherwise announced, the appointment dismissal, or transfer of officers or civilian of corresponding rank may be effected by the Minister of War without consultation with the Chief of the General Staff or Inspector-General of Military Education," with the following exception:
"a. In the event of private recommendations to the throne regarding personnel of the rank of general, the chief of the General Staff and Inspector-General of Military Education shall be consulted.
"b. The affairs of personnel coming under the jurisdiction of the Chief of General Staff or Inspector-General of Military education will be transmitted to the War Minister by the Inspector General of Military Education."

As a result, the ambitions of individuals to use the army were thwarted. Further, by having extended the sphere of the War Minister's appointments, the tyranny of the army was curbed.
Disregarding the precautionary measures of his predecessors, War Minister HAYASHI, influenced by the Militaristic-Fasciste, and [illegible]pressure, violated regulations and set up a dictatorship within the army which then became instrument of personal interests.
As it is, the extraordinary ousting of MASAKI and the revision granting eligibility to the War Ministry only to generals in active service were responsible for General UGAKI's failure to form a cabinet. This
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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
in turn contributed to the development of the CHINA incident. The final stroke occured when General TOJO succeeded in gaining control of the army, after which militarists and Bureaucrats monopolized politics and diplomacy. AS a consequence Great East Asia War broke out. Thus Japan has collapsed [illegible]. On whom falls the real responsibility for the war?
ITEM 2 Nobility Reform Bill - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: A. Hido.
Extracts:
In instituting a reform of the nobility system, the Imperial Household Ministry appointed, on the 12th, Prince HOSOKAWA, Moritachi, and Viscount OKOCHI, Masatoshi, as investigators, thus reinforcing the inquiry board of the Bureau of Peerage and Heraldry, which is the research section for the Nobility Reform Bill.
A conference will be called soon. Prince HOSOKAWA's ancestors were major feudal lords, and Viscount OKOCHI's of a lesser feudal lord status. This is assurance that all ranks of the peerage are being investigated for the Nobility Reform Bill.
ITEM 3 General YAMASHITA Absorbed In Deep Thought - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: H. Takahashi.
Summary:
The court of General YAMASHITA, who is now standing trial, is a large drawing-room on the second floor of the government Resident High Commissioner for the Philippines. That court, containing about 300 seats, is always crowded with an audience composed mostly of American soldiers. The seat of the chief judge is on a platform one foot tall, behind which the national flags of AMERICA and the PHILIPPINES are crossed. An elaborately equipped laudspeaker announce's the appearance of the members of the trial.
General YAMASHITA and his suite take their seats at the south end of the court to the right side of the platform, in order from right-to left General YAMASHITA, Lieutenant General MUTO and Lieutenant General UTSUNOMIYA. They are always surrounded by eight attorneys. The general has a serious end grave member in court and rarely smiles. He seems to make efforts to understand, whatever HAMAMOTO, his interpreter whispers into his ear. The general and his attendants are accommodated on the second floor of the official residence, and are supplied with army provisions prepared by the military police unit.
General YAMASHITA wear's the formal uniform of a Japanese general with all sorts of decorations shining brilliantly from it. When he stands he reveals a somewhat pink face which is bent down a little as if indulged in deep meditation. His lawyers listen to witnesses with utmost heed in order to catch any weakness in their arguments. Because each witness gives testimony in his own tongue such as Tagalog, Spanish, and so on, several interpreters are present to facilitate
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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
the procedure. The court stenographers work beside the platform and a group of witnesses stand in front of the chief judge at the north end of the court. The seats of the lawyers are situated against the wall on the opposite side.
ITEM 4 Abolition of the Military Administration in JAPAN - Mainichi Shibun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: H. Naoji.
Both the War and Navy Departments will be abolished on the first of next month and changed into an un-armed civic organization. Naval stations will be changed to the Local Bureaus of Demobilization
1. With the abolition of both War and Navy Departments, our Army and Navy will be completely abolished at home, although not abroad. It can be said that the Imperial Army that had continued to exist for seventy seven years since its founding on the 17th of January in the 4th year of Keio, or the 1st year of Meiji, will disappear permanently from our history. It was decided that instead of abolishing both the War and Navy Departments, the former and the latter will begin their new tasks under different names as the First Department of Demobilization and the Second Department of Demobilization from the first of December; and will be charge of the demobilization of the armed forces still abroad, the surrender of ammunition the support of bereaved families, demobilized soldiers, sailors, civilians in service and will perform various other duties that were left for them when the war ended.
Owing to this change, all officers and soldiers, who are home at present, will be demobilized on the 1 December and enrolled in the reserve, while the personnel in the First and Second Departments of Demobilization will begin work on the same day the departments are organized.
All soldiers, sailors and civilians in the military service at present will be made civilians and will be given new ranks as follows.
Army
Officers: First Senior Officials of Demobilization (CHOKUNI-rank, SONIN-rank).
Engineers: First Engineers of Demobilization (CHCUNIN-RANK, SONIN-rank).
Commissioners: First Commissioners of Demobilization (SONIN-rank).
Ken-commissioned officers: the First Sub-Officials of Demobilization (HAKNIN-rank).
Private soldiers: First Clerk of Demobilization (KOIN).

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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)

ITEM 4 (Continued)
Assistant engineers: First Assistant Engineers of Demobilization (HANNIN-rank).
Navy:
Officers: Second Senior Officials of Demobilization (CHOKUNIN-rank, SONIN-rank).
Engineers: Second Engineers of Demobilization (CHOKUNIN-rank, SONIN-rank).
(3.) Commissioners: Second Commissioners of Demobilizations (SONIN-rank).
Warrant Officers: Second Sub-Officials of Demobilization (HANNIN-rank).
Sailors: Second Clerk of Demobilization (KOIN).
Assistant-engineers: Assistant Engineers of Demobilization (HAMNIN).
2. The Navy Department will be changed as previously mentioned to the Second Department of Demobilization on the first of December. It is said that the new department will be composed of a Minister, a Vice-Minister, a secretariat and five bureaus, namely: General Affairs, Personnel, Supply Bureau for Needed Articles, Accounts, and Jurisprudence.
The four naval stations, namely: YOKOSUKA, KURE, SASEBO and MAIZURU, and the naval guard offices of OSAKA and OMINATO will begin their new duties on 1 December as the Local Bureaus for Demobilization; the twenty eight Local Personnel Sections throughout the country will begin their work on the same day as Local Personnel Sections for Demobilization.
The Local bureau of Demobilization will perform the various tasks ordered by the Second Department of Demobilization. The Local Personnel Sections of Demobilization will have charge of supporting bereaved families, demobilized soldiers and civilians who were in the military service.
Both the facilities and the personnel of the medical bureau of the Navy Department as well as of the naval hospitals in all parts of the country will be transferred to the Welfare Ministry and will be handed over to local self-governing bodies, municipal organizations or medical colleges giving medical care to demobilized personnel.
The Courts Martial Section will continue to conduct investigations and trials for infractions of military law under the title of Court of Demobilization.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 17 (Continued)
ITEM 5 The Reorganization of Metropolitan Police Dept. - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full Translation:
A Concrete plan has been completed for the reorganization of the Metropolitan Police Department. The original plans were to change the name "Economic Police" (KEZAI KEISATSU) to "Security Department" (HOANBU), and to transfer the Labor Department (KINRO BU) to the Municipal Office, (TOKYOTO-CHO). However, in order to carry out these changes it was necessary to revise the rules of the Metropolitan Police Department. Therefore, these changes, together with the expected shake-up of all Police stations under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police Department were postponed, until the issuance of an Imperial ordinance after the Cabinet meeting.
The following are the outstanding points of the present reorganization: First and second guard sections (KEIBI-KA) now under the Police Affairs Department (KEIMU-BU), will be combined. The Chief of the Guard (KEIBITAI-CHO) has not yet been nominated, and, in the future, each guard battalion (KEIBI DAITAI) will be placed under the control of the Police Affairs Department (KEIMU-BU) as independent units.
For the purpose of enforcing police discipline, full-time inspector is to be assigned to each area. The Transportation Section (YUSOKA) will maintain its present system, but the emphasis will be shifted from control of transportation to control of traffic. The moral, public peace, and sanitary sections of the law and order department, are to be stregthened and the entertainment section (KOGYO GA KARI) to remain as it is for the time being.
In the criminal department, (KEIJI-BU) the reorganization of the first and second Investigation sections (SOSAKA) is completed, and in the Research section (KANSHIKI-KA), the scientific systems are ready to cope with all types of crimes. Henceforth, all emphasis will be shifted to the prevention of crime. The general affairs and crime prevention sections will be combined, and a full-time police inspector will be placed in charge.
Appointed: Chief of Public Relations Section (SHOGAI-KACHO) in the Metropolitan Police Board's secretaries (KEISO KAN KANBO), Police inspector NOZAKI, Masakazu ([illegible]) a former police inspector of YOTSUYA police station.
Appointed: Chief of Communications Section (TSUSHIN-KACHO), Police inspector TESHIBA, ([illegible]) from the communications section of the Police Affairs Department.
Appointed: Inspector of the First District police inspector TOMINAGA, Masami ([illegible]), from the first guard section in the Police Affairs department.
Appointed: Inspector of the Second District, police inspector NOGUCHI, Yoshimune ([illegible]) from the northern guard battalion.
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ITEM 5 (Continued)
Releived from the post of Inspector: Police inspector NOBUYOSHI, Magari ([illegible]), former Inspector and official of police affairs.
Appointed: Service in the Police Affairs department Releived: Police inspector ICHIKAWA, Koichi ([illegible]) former inspector of the first district.
Appointed: Chief of the guard battalion (KEIBI DAITAICHO) in the Metropolitan Police Department, police inspector MITAMURA, Kikuji ([illegible]), from the battalion at SANTAMA district.
Appointed: Chief of the battalion at the SANTAMA division of the Metropolitan Police Department, police inspector IKECHI, Masami ([illegible]) from second guard section of the Police Affairs department.
Appointed: Chief of the guard section in the Police Affairs department of the Metropolitan Police Department police inspector FUJIMOTO, Yoshio ([illegible]) from the Police Affairs department.
Selected: Chief of YOTSUYA Police Station, police inspector NAGASUGI, Yoshio ([illegible]), from OJI police station.
Attached to OJI Police Station: Will handle the affairs of Chief of the OJI Station while the post is vacant, ADACHINARA, Tatsuro ([illegible]) formerly attached to the 3rd Police District.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0017, 1945-11-13.
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