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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0015, 1945-11-18.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0067

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 67 Date: 18 Nov 45


ITEM 1 Non-interference With Free Speech and Press - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full translation:
Non-interference With
Free Speech and Press
Douglas MacArthur's Headquarters
The Policy of Press Censorship
There are cases where the news sent from American news-agencies or American newspaper offices to Japan's news agencies is censored, so the spokesmen for MacARTHUR'S Headquarters explained on 7 November. It was made clear that censorship was imposed on demand or protest from the Allied Military Mission.
The rules for Japanese newspaper censorship have the end of merely preventing the publication of news which provokes antipathy toward the Allied forces, and have no intention of contributing to free speech and press and the promotion of Japanese democracy. There have been cases where the translation of the news was not precise and its meaning was ambiguous so that it was not permitted by the censor.
These items were not discarded, but were returned for revision. Any news criticizing the Allied Powers goes through the censor. At the request or protest on the part of the Allied Military Mission in TOKYO, the news is censored. Those items censored so far fell in this category.
When there are stories which may create false impressions, they are censored with extreme care. However, every effort is being made to avoid such situations.
ITEM 2 Procedure and Basis for Trying Japanese War Criminals - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full translation:
The public trial of General YAMASHITA which is being held in MANILA is attracting world attention and is causing a feeling among the Japanese who are used to court-martials shrouded in deep secrecy. Had the Japanese militarists won the war, could we have expected to administer so fair a trial to the defeated Generals? That is the question which presents itself to their minds.
We find in MANILA a demonstration of democracy at work, even in the court-martial of war criminals. It is a preview of the form trials expected to be held in JAPAN next month will assume. General YAMASHITA'S trial will establish a legal precedent for other trials.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The following was expressed by Mr. SUZUKI, Yoshio, noted lawyer and TOHOKU Imperial University professor.
"Trials of war-criminals were first held at the end of First World War. The Allied nations intended to try the Kaiser, but since HOLLAND refused to extradite the Kaiser, the trial was never carried out. As a result the real war-criminals were not prosecuted and many soldiers were punished on atrocity charges.
"Trial of war-criminals are now being held in accordance with specific regulations mentioned. Therefore, there are no precedents established after World War I. International law does not prescribe punishment forwar criminals. It merely directs that war criminals will be tried by a tribunal rather than by personal judgments. Hence, it is understood that the victors in this war will proceed along the same legal lines.
"The MANILA trials are being conducted in accordance with established legal practice in the UNITED STATES, ENGLAND, and FRANCE. It cannot be denied that the trial is fair, since the defence counsel was permitted to come to TOKYO to seek evidence favorable to the accused, and the trial itself is being made public.
"This is a typical democratic trial. We could not expect such a fairness from a Japanese court martial, which are in comparison, extremely autocratic.
"According to the Constitution, trials are to be made public, but in actual practice, important trials were conducted in secrecy. It was especially true in courts martial cases that justice was not done in the selection of the defence counsel.
Japanese trials were held only for the records, for in reality the case was prejudged. We could not expect a just, democratic atmosphere at the trials.
"It is believed that like YAMASHITA'S trial, the trial of General TOJO and other war criminals will be opened to the public. The Allies permitted YAMASHITA to have a Japanese defense counsel if he wished, but he refused, saying that it was not necessary to send them all the way from JAPAN.
"A Japanese defence counsel will attend in the forthcoming trials in JAPAN. Apart from deliberations on atrocities, the reasons for Japanese agression and other international and political questions will be ai[illegible]We must of course admit that JAPAN started the agression but as to the necessity and motives of her act will be discussed in passing judgment on the accused."
ITEM 3 Liberal Party of Japan Formed at Hibiya Public Hall - Asahi Shimbun 10 Nov 45. Translator: H. Takahashi.
Full translation:
General Meeting to Set Up Liberal Party.
The general organization meeting of the Liberal party of JAPAN was held at HIBIYA Public Hall at 1300, 9 November. HOSHIJIMA, Ichiro, presided, and Dr. KUWAKI, Genyoku, TOKYO Imperial University professor, was elected, chairman.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The meeting opened with a progress report and address by ANDO, Masazumi, followed by a statement of principle delivered by HONDA, Ichiro. HANAMURA, Shiro, then described the declarations and platform, and HARA, Tamashige, the party policies.
SHIYASU, Shinkuro then appointed HATOYAMA, Ichiro president of the body, and the new president in turn selected his committees and delivered an inaugural address at the conclusion of the business meeting. His addresses was followed by vigorous speeches delivered, by MAKINO, Ryozo; KIKUCHI, Kan; and KITA, Reikichi.
The new officers are as follows: President—HATOYAMA, Ichiro; Advisors—OZAKI, Yukio; MINOBE, Tatsukichi; ARITA, Hachiro; OGUCHI, Kiroku; Managers—MATSUNO, Tsuruke; ANDO, Masazumi; SHIYASU, Shinkuro; KUWAKI, Genyoku; MAKINO, Ryozo; UEHARA, Etsujiro; HOSHIJIMA, Jiro; HIRATSUKA, Tsunejiro; KIKUCHI, Kan; GO, Bunkei; SHIMANAKA, Yusaku; MATSUOKA, Toshizo; KITA: Reikichi; BANDO, Kotaro; FUJIO, Yasutaro: OKUBO, Tomejiro;
First secretary—KAWANO, Ichiro; Assistant Secretaries—HANAMURA, Shiro; SHOJI, Ichiro; OKAMOTO, Dennosuke; HONDA, Ichiro; KARAHASHI, Shigemasa; HARA, Tamashige; YAMAGUCHI, Kikuichiro; FUKAMIZU, Yoshitake; HANASHI, Shingoro; MATSUOKA, Matsuke; SUZUKI, Masafumi; YOSHINO, Shuzo; SHINOMIYA, Hisakichi; ETO, Natsuo;
President of Political Affairs Investigation Section—ANDO, Masazumi;
Vice-presidents—USHIZUKA, Torataro; SHUTO, Hideo; YAMAMOTO, Katsuichi; KAKEGAI, Senzo;
Urgent party policies:
To endeavor to regain international confidence with complete cooperation of the whole nation, and to take necessary measures to join the United Nations as soon as possible.
To make thorough amends for anti-CHINA policies.
To maintain our national polity and to reform the constitution toward establishing a responsible administration.
To establish the House of Representatives as the central administrative body by reforming the two-house system.
To enable the Diet to exercise its power even when not in session by setting up permanent working committees in both Houses.
To put woman suffrage into practice by reforming election laws, and at the same time to extend the franchise to lower age groups; and to discontinue bureaucratic control of elections.
To secure respect for human rights and the assurance of freedom by abolition or reform of laws.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)
To abolish the bureaucracy and reform the existing official system along more efficient lines.
To remove many useless government officials in order to improve conditions for the remainder.
To correct system of appointment of officials.
To carry out public election of governors.
To reform completely existing self-government systems.
To simplify the tasks of prefectural self-government.
To devise counter measures of inflation by subsidizing the reconversion of war industries.
To extend the time for payment of war debts and to decrease the interest rate.
To obtain foreign currency by selling government property on a small scale.
To nationalize public debts.
To limit issue of currency.
To reform the pension system.
To cut administrative expenditures.
To endeavor to increase the production of consumer goods, especially food, and to begin importing goods.
To compensate for the wartime measure of imposing subscriptions on the people by:
Reorganizing the tax office and thus investigating the property and assets of citizens.
By imposing taxes based on the above findings.
Economical and Industrial
To abandon government control except where unavoidable. For example:
To instantly abolish the total mobilization and consonant laws.
To abolish immediately the wood control law.
To liquidate the economic police system.
To endeavor promotion of the exportation industries, such as silk, other textiles, art products and so forth; and to join the International Trade Bureau as soon as possible.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)
To reconstruct small Industries, and to help large industries prosper.
To foster small industry.
To create a Japanese democracy distinguishable from other democracies by a strong union between sovereign and subjects, as well as to exclude narrow nationalism; and further to establish a Government Cultural Research Institute.
To reform the University law (which provides for mil. training)
To adopt the three year system for higher or preparatory school, and the five years system for middle schools.
To search for new views on instruction, and to get rid of standarized and compulsory education.
To provide practical and spiritual education for the people.
To remove unjust differences between government, and private schools, eliminate thereby the academic cliques.
To improve material conditions for educators and to recognize their prestige contribution by regarding teachers in public schools as officials.
To free religion and liberal arts from bureaucratic control.
To sponsor and popularize sports.
To foster entertainment.

ITEM 4 Popular Front Programs of the Japanese Communists - Asahi Shimbun 12 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Popular Front Program of the Japanese Communist Party
( [illegible])
Leaders of the JAPAN Communist Party have decided on a popular front program on a previously published platform. They are expected to form a united organization.
The platform includes political, economic, and social demands which basically provide for the Emancipation of the oppressed people, and emphasizes the fact that the abolition of the Emperor system and semi-feudal land-ownership is the foundation for social democratic reforms.
Among the communist groups, there is no unity on the entire platform, but it is agreed that if only one point is found acceptable to all, a united front will be organized on the issue.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
The program of the party is listed as follows:
For the formation and the expansion of a co-operative front by mastering the total energy of democratic forces. For the abolition of the Emperor system, and the establishment of a democratic government.
For realization of the POTSDAM Declaration and the support of the peaceful governments of democratic nations.
For dissolution of all undemocratic bodies, and the strict punishment of war-criminals and autocratic government officials.
For the abolition of oppressive laws: and complete freedom of speech, assembly, press, religion, discussion, and demonstration.
For abrogation of the existing constitution, and for the enactment by the nation of a democratic constitution.
For the reduction of working hours; for enactment of a minimum wage law; for higher wages and improved working conditions.
For a workers' administration of important industries, banks; and for control by a democratic government.
For confiscation of the lands of the parasitic landowners, and for their redistribution to the farmers.
For the reduction or elimination of farm tenancy, and abolition of foreclosures.
For abolition of trespass laws, and for aid to war victims, the unemployed, and families of the war dead.
For turning over to the people food and other necessities of life; and for providing homes for the homeless.
For liquidation of militaristic, imperialistic laws and educational system propounding such ideas.

ITEM 5 A Partial Reformation of the Government Official System to be decided Asahi Shimbun - 12 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
The Partial Reformation of the Government Official System Will Be Decided at the Cabinet Conference on 13 November ([illegible])
Administrative Readjustment will be Realized Gradually. ([illegible])
The Cabinet has determined to carry out administrative readjustment measures in keeping with the policy of the former Cabinet, and established a conference for administrative readjustment in the Cabinet.
The Conference has instructed each department to submit a concrete plan for reducing the number of officials created during war-time, back to the number before the Manchurian Incident.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
In general, the number of government officials will be reduced 50 per cent, but the number of officials in enlarged departments will be reduced about one third.
The government intends at the same time to reform the government officials system by simplifying official rank, separating rank from salary, and reforming civil service appointments. These problems have already studied. Unfinished business will be concluded at the Cabinet council on 13 November.
When the conference for administrative readjustment was established, the government requested that completion of the bill by the middle of October.
As the government has accelerated its activities, a part of the reform of the government officials system will be considered at the 13 November cabinet meeting. The decision on administrative readjustment will then be gradually released, to be published in its entirely in the very near future.
ITEM 6 The Lecture Meeting of the Youngi Men's Constitutional party - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full translation:
A Lecture Meeting of the Young Men's Constitutional Party Will Be Held Every Saturday ([illegible])
In the Inquiry Section of the Young Men's Constitutional party there has been established a Board of Inquiry for the reconstruction of Japanese culture. A special lecture meeting will be held at the party's council room in MAINICHI Hall at YURAHU-CHO every Saturday at 1300. The meetings will be held every week from now on. The schedule is as follows:
10 November: "National Socialism" (IKKOKU TEKI SHAKAI SEUGI), by SANO, Gaku.
17 November: Comments on "Pure Jurisprudence", by MINAMIMURA, Seiji.
24 November: "Profound Philosophy", by SUZUKI, Shigeo.
ITEM 7 Extraordinary Session of Diet Jo Encounter Troubles - Tokyo Shimbun 12 Nov 45. Translator: H. Takahashi.
Extraordinary Session of Diet To Take Considerable time.
The extraordinary session of Diet, which will be held on 1 December, is expected to take a considerable time, as it is easily understood how important the election law reform is. Despite that, a large part of the bills to be offered by the government in the coming extraordinary session will concern various war time laws suspended or abolished after the end of the war. There will be no new important bills other than that of the election law reform. The Labor union law which is being drafted by the welfare authorities, will not have its technical details completed in time for the extraordinary session. Hence, it will be proposed at the special session of the Diet after the general election, together with other bills, such as bills concerning
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
the reform of the constitution or new kinds of taxation laws.
Concerning the original draft of the election law reform decided by the government, there are fears about adopting the limited plural balloting system in a large electoral district. In every political party, it is being discussed widely because the fate of the present representatives depends directly upon it. Therefore, more troubles will be encountered in the deliberation of the same bill. Notwithstanding such a situation, the administration and legislative plans by the government authorities, are still as negative and ineffective as in war time. Besides, the government is likely to hold the opinion that election law reform could not be adequately satisfactory with this bill alone, but that it must wait until after the next general election. when new representatives based on popular vote are elected to the Diet.
ITEM 8 Police system change slow. Japanese Liberalism still feeble, declares Thoroe - Yomiuri Hochi - 12 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Several years required for improving the police system. Japanese Liberalism still Weak, declares Thorpe.
General THORPE, Chief Counter-Intelligence Officer on General MacARTHUR Staff, stated recently. "The Japanese have given special police training to many Asiatics and, after the withdrawal of JAPAN's armies from other parts of Asia, the police will remain. Asiatic police students in JAPAN at the end of the war totaled several hundred. They will be sent back to their homelands for trial. At present there is trouble in JAVA, BURMA, KOREA, MANCHURIA, MALAY, the PHILIPPINES and FRENCH-INDO-CHINA.
"Japanese liberalism is still very feeble and we must protect it until it has gained a firm base. Otherwise the Japanese liberals will, upon the withdrawal of the Allied Forces, again be crushed. Improvement of the Japanese police system will require several years. Several thousand police officers have already been removed but this means nothing unless the fear of the police is also removed. This fear has been created over a period of 500 years and its removal will take a long time.
ITEM 9 Civic Education Section in the Education Ministry - Asahi Shimbun 13 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Civic Education Section in the Education Ministry
With a view to making the people more politically conscious for the coming general elections, the Ministry of Education decided on the 12th to organize a Civic Education Section in the social education office. It appointed as a general director. Chief of the Archives and Documents Section NISHIZAKI, Megumu, sectional directive of the Science Education Bureau.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 10 General Inaugural Meeting of the Liberal Party - Asahi Shimbun 13 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Inaugural Meeting: of the Liberal Party ([illegible]
The NIPPON Liberal Party held its inaugural meeting on the 12th and set up the following sections and section heads:
Organization, MATSUNO, Tsurubira; Executive OTSUBO, Tomejiro; Publication MAKINO, Ryozo; and Finance HIRATSUKA, Tsunejiro.
They further decided to establish a special Constitution-revision Committee with OKEMI, Senzo at its head to study Constitutional revision; and a special committee to study the food situation.
A regional section will be inaugurated at which opening ceremonies Mr. HATOYAMA, Mr. MAKINO and KITA of the headquarters will be present.
ITEM 11 Trial of Japanese war criminals ([illegible]) Asahi Shimbun & Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
The National Bar Association was recently requested to recommend 20 lawyers by the War Ministry and 15 lawyers by the Foreign Ministry to act as counsel at the trial of the Japanese war criminals scheduled for next month.
Mr. HAYASHI, Itsuro ([illegible]), president of the 2nd TOKYO Lawyer's Association, Mr. TAKAHASHI, Yoshiji ([illegible]), president of the TOKYO Lawyer's Association, Mr. TOYOHARA, Seisaku ([illegible]) president of the 1st TOKYO Lawyer's Association, acted together to recommend the following lawyers:
For the Army:
Dr. HAYASHI, Ichiro ([illegible]), Dean of the faculty of Politics and Economics in HOSHI University.
TAKAHASHI, Yoshiji ([illegible]), president of the TOKYO Bar Association.
TOYOHARA, Seisaku ([illegible]), president of the 1st TOKYO Bar Association.
OKUYAMA, Hachiro ([illegible]), UMINO, Shinkichi ([illegible]), Dr. INUI, Masahiko ([illegible]), former professor of the TOKYO Imperial University.
INAMOTO, Jonosuke ([illegible]).
Dr. KIYOSE, Ichiro ([illegible]), member of the House of Representatives.
MATSUNAGA, Higashi ([illegible]).
TSUKAZAKI, Naoyoshi ([illegible]). former president of the TOKYO Bar Association.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 11 (Continued)
HANAI, Tadashi ([illegible]), professor TSUYO University.
TADAI, Shiroji ([illegible]).
Dr. UZAWA, Somei ([illegible]), president of MEIJI University.
NAKA, Tsutomu ([illegible]), President of the Osaka Bar Association.
And other six presidents of Par Associations.
For the Foreign Ministry:
HAYASEI, Ichiro ([illegible]); OKUYAMA, Hachiro ([illegible]); UMINO, Shinkichi ([illegible]); INUI, Masahiko ([illegible]); INAMOTO, Jonosuke ([illegible]): KIYOSE, Ichiro ([illegible]); MATSUNA, Higashi ([illegible]); TSUKAZAKI, Naoyoshi ([illegible]); HANAI, Tadashi ([illegible]); TADAI, Shiroji ([illegible]); UZAWA, Somei ([illegible]); HOZUMI, Jui ([illegible]); Dr. ARIMA, Chuzaburo ([illegible]); ICHIMATSU, Teikichi ([illegible]), member of the House of Representatives. Dr. SOMIYA, Shinji ([illegible]).
Other lawyers are expected to be recommended as counsel for those committing crimes against war prisoners and interned nationals of the United Nations.
These were selected on the basis of their status in the legal profession special study, scholarship, age, health, and experience as criminal lawyers.
Mr. KIYOSE, Ichiro ([illegible]), one of the lawyers picked by the Japanese Government to act as counsel for Japanese war criminals, once acted as special defense counsel for the soldiers in the May 15th Incident ([illegible]). His intention on the coming defense he stated are as follows: "In civilized countries at present, a lawyer is just as necessary in a trial as a judge and a public prosecutor. This is especially true in an age when public opinion has a. voice. A counsel has more than the duty of avoiding the guilt of the accused and should be a protector. The coming trial in own country has the following three details;
Who is responsible for the war?
Who has carried on the war?
What breaches of international laws were violated?

The reason the first and second items were made legal issues is because our country concluded an anti-wars pact and joined the League of Nation's outlawing an aggressive war. Nevertheless, JAPAN started the war.
Now the question is, were the leaders of the nation guilty or were they subject to other influences. In either case we must endeavor to give a fair trial to each of those accused."
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 12 Inaugural Meeting of Democratic Party (MINHON-TO) - Asahi Shimbun 14 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full translation:
The inauguration ceremony of the Democratic Party (MINHON-TC) (a temporary name) will be held at 1400, 16 November at MARUNOUCHI Public Hall. An oratorical meeting will be opened at 1300, 22 November at HIBIYA Public Hall.
Speeches will be delivered by Mr. SAITO, Takao ([illegible]); OTA, Masataka ([illegible]); Mr. TANBE, Tadao ([illegible]); and Mr. TSUMMU, Yusuke ([illegible]).
ITEM 13 Delegates to Inspect Occupation Conditions - Tokyo Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: H. Naoji.
The Far East Advisory Committee Will Send Delegates to Inspect Occupation Conditions in Japan.
According to a San Francisco broadcast of the 12th, the Far East Advisory Committee will dispatch several representatives to JAPAN in order to inspect the practical application of basic occupation principles.
ITEM 14 Socialist Party Proposals for Election law Revision - Asahi Shimbun 14 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full translation:
The Japanese Socialist Party is preparing to present its own proposals for the revision of the election law to the extraordinary session of the Diet.
ITEM 15 Emancipation of Farmers - Asahi .Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: J. Kitayama.
Full translation:
Emancipation of Farmers in the Near Future Present Stage of Occupation Policies Statement by MacArthur's Headquarters.
On 12 November, General MacARTHUR'S Headquarters made the following statement concerning the general conditions of JAPAN since its occupation. It has already been stated that the object of the occupation forces is as follows: (1) To break up former systems, (2) To make JAPAN atone for her previous wrongs, (3) To establish a nation able to live a democratic life permanently.
These objectives must be effected through political enlightenment, guidance, and education. It has now been proven the world over that permanent advantages can never be brought about morally, spiritually, materially, territorially, or economically, through aggression. The measures which the Allied Forces have taken for this achievement on their occupation policies have delivered to the feudalistic and priviledged classes in JAPAN such a serious blow as staggers the imagination. Owing to the diplomatic measures and directives effected by the Allied countries, Japan's spiritual and economic control organs are suffering damages similar to that which the land, sea, and air troops of the Allied forces have inflicted. The effect
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POLITICAL SERIES: 15 (Continued)
ITEM 15 (Continued)
of these two facts seem to train JAPAN that feudalism and aggression will in the end never prove successful. Thus, the Japanese nation has come to be given a guarantee that it can get rid of government and control from above, and this has been accomplished through the dissolution of the ZAIRATSU abolition of diplomatic formality, and security guaranteed through freedom of speech, publication, religion, and education. The abolition of secret societies, and militaristic and feudalistic systems has also been effected.
This gives testimony to the fact that freedom is maintained, inviolably by a liberated nation. A new constitution will become an organ to secure of this freedom permanently. The measures which have recently been taken to emancipate the working classes of JAPAN from all ties and bonds have given them the opportunity of improving labor conditions, and the right of negotiating as a group for a raise in wages. Measures which are already in effect and which will be carried out before long will serve to root out many systems under which farmers and their families are fettered to drudgery. And freedom of markets without any controls will be re-established.
In order that the Japanese nation may learn what American democracy means, it is necessary that it should methodically be taught freedom through education, guidance and culture. This is also necessary for bringing the whole of the Japanese nation to a sense of their responsibilities for the treacherous war they waged.
Only then, and not before, when they see that aggression never succeeds, and when preparations are made for them to live the life of a free nation, will the objectives of the POTSDAM Declaration be attained. An easy life can never be expected by the Japanese nation until it is received into the international world as a peace-loving nation.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0015, 1945-11-18.
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