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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0014, 1945-11-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0059

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 59 Date: 20 Nov 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 14

ITEM 1 The Japan Communist Party will hold a 4th meeting shortly - Asahi Shimbun - 11 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Full Translation:
Their leading members having been discharged from prison, the JAPAN Communist Party is taking prompt action toward the reconstruction and resuming of party activities. As preparations were shaping up, the party decided to call 300 representatives from all parts of the country to hold a nation-wide conference at the headquarters in YOYOGI at 10:00 а.m. on 8 November.
TOKUDA, Kyuichi; SHIGA, Yoshio; KAMIYAHA, Shigeo; KIN, Tenkai; MIYAMOTO, Kenji; HAKAMADA, Satomi; KUROFI, Shigenori were made members of the party's staff and preparations committee and decided to hold the fourth nation-wide meeting, at the latest, before 1 December, (the 1st meeting was in TOKYO in July 1935, the 2nd one in ICHIKAWA in March 1937, the 3rd one in GOSHIKI in December 1940 were all held illegally), The meeting will be held to state the party's manifesto, platform and various urgent policies.
At the sametime they agreed to fight stubbornly for their aims based on MARX and LENIN's principles. The practical considerations proposed for the platform and manifesto of the party are extensive, covering 25 items.
The gist of these proposals is as follows:
Abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a popular republican government.
Dissolution of all anti-democratic corporations and severe punishment for all war criminals end offenders who trampled upon people's rights.
Abrogation of the Constitution and establishment of a democratic constitution by the public; the abolition of the Privy Council, the House of Peers, the Houses of Representatives, and the abolition of all other systems of feudal privileged classes.
Formation of a popular front with all other democratic elements.
Abolition of the land tenure system and the redistribution of this land to the farmers at no cost to them.
Consolidation of all the banks into a single national bank to be under public control.
Control of food stuffs and all other necessities of life by the public.


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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)
ITEM 2 The Abolishment of The Office of The Keeper of The Privy Seal - Mainichi Shimbun - 11 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
The Abolishment of the Office of The Keeper of The Privy Seal Being Studied. ([illegible]).
With the resignation of Minister of the Imperial Household. Mr. KIDO, the abolishment of the Office of The Keeper of The Privy Seal will become a question. The Minister of the Imperial Household is in an important position of advising the Emperor, and he usually recommends to the Emperor the head of the succeeding cabinet.
When democracy is established, this office will become non-essential, so public opinions throughout JAPAN is favoring its abolishment. The Minister of the Imperial Household and the government are giving this much consideration, and furthermore, the advisability of abolishment and the subsequent measures are being studied.
ITEM 3 The Minister of the Imperial Household Decides to resign - Mainich Shimbun - 11 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
The Minister of The Imperial Household, Mr. KIDO ([illegible]) to Resign ([illegible]).
Responsibility of Supporting General TOJO ([illegible]).
With the end of the war there has been much reflection, concerning war responsibility among the leaders who had assumed leadership during the war. The public also has directed its attention to them and demanded their resignation. Above all, the attitude of the Minister of the Imperial Household, Mr. KIDO, has been watched with great interest by the whole nation. He has felt keenly the responsibility of recommending as a war-criminal General TOJO, who, while Prime Minister began the Greater East Asia War, and was responsible for leading the nation into defeat.
He has determined to resign his post, immediately after he secures permission from the Emperor, and he will leave the Imperial Court at the most appropriate time.
ITEM 4 Complaint on Voting Rights - Asahi Shimbun - 11 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kawasaki.
Full Translation:
Complaint on Voting Rights ([illegible]).
The Japanese Communists are opposing the practice of early mass elections under a former political order. When the general election takes place, candidates of the party will be set up in various sections of the country. The party intends to campaign vigorously in the election and in the Diet. Under the existing election law which determines the qualifications of voters and candidates, eligible persons must have resided at the definite place on 15 September 1945. Since most leaders of the party will be unable to obtain these rights on the ground that
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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
they were in prison, the party considers those jails as their place of residence during imprisonment. The Communists are determined to negotiate with the Department of Home Affairs, and the authorities to maintain their suffrage rights.
ITEM 5 A phase of the History of Japan's Collapse (cont'd) - Yomiuri Hoshi - 11 Nov 45. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full Translation:
A Phase of the History of Japan's Collapse Serial (2) Militarist Fascism.
On December 1931, soon after the collapse of WADATSUKI Cabinet, General (then Lieutenant General) ARAKI entered the SEIYUKAI Cabinet as War Minister, and in January 1932 General MASAKI was transferred from the Commander-in-Chief of TAIWAN Army to the Councillor of War and Vice-Chief of the General Staff under Prince KAN-IN. During the following two years the army was governed by these two generals. Then, why was General MASAKI driven from the post of the Inspector General of Military Education? In correspondence of Social Movements, (SHAKAI UNDO TSUSHIN), dated 24 July 1935, under the heading of "various reasons for the transferring of General MASAKI" with a sub-leading "written by the youths' League (RAKUHOKU, KYOTO), the following matters are mentioned:
"On the 10th of July the War Minister HAYASHI quite contrary to the usage of preliminary arrangement suddenly approached General MASAKI with the request for his retirement on the ground 'General MASAKI being the central figure of a certain clique in the Army, and to maintain the Army's solidarity, it is unanimous opinion of the officers that he and several other generals should retire'. But when rebuked by General MASAKI, he confessed, 'This is the opinion of General X and Chief of XX Bureau'. At a meeting of Three Chiefs, General MASAKI made a stern comment saying 'There is an outside interference regarding the present change. If I give in to an intervention into matters of the supreme command I should be bringing disgrace to the position of the Inspector General of Military Education which is under the direct command of the His Majesty and rot only that it would leave a deplorable precedent for the future. Is there any proven fact that I am doing harm to the Army's unity as alleged by the so-called universal opinion?'. War Minister HAYASHI, however, kept silent to this retort and the meeting broke up.
"Being unable to confront General MASAKI's just argument, General HAYASHI tried to carry his point in the name of Chief of General Staff, Prince KA[illegible]IN, but finding it still unsuccessful, he at once repaired himself to the Emperor and on the 16th he succeded in disposing his intimate friend under a false charge that he was interfering with the change of personnel by the War Minister. A certain general demanded General HAWASI at a War Councillers' meeting held on the 17th to show him evidence of MASAXI's misconduct, but as the former could not give an adequate answer, he was abused to his face that he was unworthy as a soldier and that he was a personification of the "Emperor is an organ" (Tenno KIKAW SeKu) theory.
"Further, or the same spot that general made clear that a certain Chief of Bureau of the War Department was the central figure of the November incident, and he also produced a plan personally written by a certain
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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Major General regarding a certain incident projected by that Chief of Bureau; informed the meeting that that official in co-operation with new bureaucrats was making various political moves, and pointed out that he was the very man who was detrimental to the Army's solidarity.
"There occurred a certain incident the year before last when an attempt was made to suppress the Army. This was planned by Finance Minister TAKAHASHI at the head, Viscount MAKINO, influencial Imperial subjects (JUSHIN), and heads of the political and financial circles. The reasons were that the existence of influence of the Army would accelerate the campaign for renovation, that it would be a nuisance for carrying out the foreign policy by those who were for status quo and that it would increase the feeling of the internal insecurity. The SAITO Cabinet, which had this object in view, fell without attaining its mission and Admiral OKADO was chosen as a second puppet.
"Among the members of OKADA Cabinet who participated, in this conspiracy were General X, Major General XX and Baron A. A preparatory process to overthrow ARAKI, MASAKI and other first men of the Army was plotted by JUSHIN, ZAIBATSU, etc., and it had been progressing during the past year or so. Thus, the shake-up among the government personnel was forcibly carried out by MAXINO, TAKAHASHI, SAITO, OKADA, SUZUKI, UGAKI, MINAMI and NAGATA through War Minister HAYASHI. Consequently the significance of this problem goes far beyond the fact. Thus General MASAKI's retirement and the defeat of the Army's moderate group (SEIGIHA) by the retirement of the three generals, indicates that the Army's personnel, which is a very important factor in the Supreme Command, has been influenced by outsiders, such as JUSHIN and ZAIBATSU.
"The above situation was complicated and mysterious. And a product of secret plans under this was MASAKI's retirement. The only over-sight these clever men made in this instance was, being too eager to overthrow MASAKI they did not notice that this extraordinary measure opened a way for the Military dictatorship."
Taking into consideration the various circumstances then prevailing in and outside the Army, we can surmise the causes of General MASAKI's being disliked are as follows:
Almost all those who were involved in the March and October incidents had been transferred into MANCHURIA and other outposts at the time of War Ministers: MINAMI and ARAKI. These were feverishly working on their friends in TOKYO for their return.
The policies taken up by MASAKI, when he was vice-chief of the General Staff in the Manchurian and the first SHANGHAI incidents, was a clever suppression and the plan to quit at the proper time. This gave dissatisfaction to the agressive Army men.
JUSHIN, the Political and financial circle misunderstood that, after the retirement of ARAKI, MASAKI was the leader of the young officers of an extreme inclination.
Ambitions persons in the Army thought that as long as MASAKI remained in the post, in view of his educational policy, they could never attain their ambition.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Availing themselves of the above undercurrent, the plotters worked out a very clever program, so cleverly composed that the leading papers as well as JUSHIN, political and financial circles, unanimously applauded and thanked General HAYASHI for his ability in handling the matter.
According to a secret publication then issued under the name of CHUO SASSHIN DOMEI (Central Renovation League). "In back of General HAYASHI, there stand Lieutenant General INAGAKI, Saburo; Baron IZAWA, Takio; General NAGATA, Chief of War Administration Bureau; KARASAWA, Chief of Police Affairs Bureau; and Baron HARADA, Kumao, who in conformity with the upper circles of the Army acted liaison officers in the matter".
The NAIGAI JOHO, which was supposed to be Army's organ reported under date of 21 July 1935, under the heading of "War Minister's prompt decision has thrown SEIGUN (clearing the Army) faction off guard", reported the real phase of the transfering of Inspector-General of Military Education as follows:
"The Army has up to now carried, out a shake-up of personnel four times but due to the constant strong opposition from General MASAKI at the Three Chief meetings, the attempt has always ended in lukwarm results. As Lieutenant General MATSUURA, ex-chief of the Bureau of Personnel, belongs to the MASAKI faction, and behind whom sat Lieutenant General YANAGAWA as Vice-Minister, the successive ministers, however, eager were they in the attempt, could not accomplish a noteworthy result. Since the appointment last March of Lieutenant General IMAI, who is reputed to be fair and fearless as the Chief of Bureau of Personnel, the War Minister has started the job in real earnest to accomplish the present result".
It goes on to say "The return of TATEKAWA and KOISO to the metropolis for the purposes of appointing the former as Vice-Chief of the General Staff and the latter as Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force, and also Major General TOJO, Hidekara, as the Chief of Maintenance Bureau".
The economic unrest then prevailing in the country affected some young officers to the extent of attacking vulnerable points of the JUSHIN and ZAIBATSU. Such trend was cleverly utilized by the Militarists for the downfall of MASAKI and by slavishly concurring with JUSHIN and ZAIBATSU they gradually stepped forward from the Military dictatorship to the recent rash war. The JUSHIN and ZAIBATSU manipulated the Militaristic Fascist leaders to remove the daggers from inside the country aimed at their throats to the outside and drove them to the foreign war which has resulted in JAPAN'S ruin. Here is the most guilty party, who tried to settle internal questions by a great external war. AT General MASAKI's dismissal the leading papers are said to have waited the event by printing extras before the announcement. The guilt of journalism cannot he atoned by any means.
ITEM 6 Application of Personal Protection Law - Yomiuri Hochi. - 12 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Full Translation:
Application of Personal Protection Law for Trial of General Yamashita Discussed at Defense Council's Meeting.
The Defense Council for the trial of General YAMASHITA, taking advantage of a recess of the rial on the 10th, discussed the application of the
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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
personal protection law so that the General may escape maximum penalty, even in case he is declared "guilty" as a war criminal.
A warrant according to the personal protection law is to be issued early this morning (11th). Under the American Constitution, as is stated in the law, trials based on, evidence alone have no absolute authority. And in the enemy's territories where fighting is in progress the maximum penalty is regulated to be delivered by the regular court-martial alone.
Colonel Harry CLARK, the defense attorney for General YAMASHITA, called Japanese high ranking officials and officers as witnesses and planning to make it clear that the General received orders from his homeland concerning the protection, facilities and food-supply of the PHILIPPIANS, it is reported. Against this fact, the Trial Judge Advocate, Major Robert KERR and other prosecutors are counter-charging that, though the General received such orders, it is certain that he knew the atrocities which had been committed in extensive regions, and that he took no measures to prevent such atrocities.
On the other hand, other prosecutors are making a list of witnesses still alive who actually saw the "death march" in Bataan, in order to solidify evidences of the war crimes of General HOMMA, Masaharu, former Commander of the Japanese Forces in the PHILLIPPINES. According to an authentic report, General HOMMA will be transferred to MANILA from TOKYO.
ITEM 7 Improvement of the Police will take a long time Japanese Liberalism - Asahi Simbun - 12 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kido.
Extracts:
General [illegible]. R. T[illegible]OR[illegible], Chief Counter-intelligence Corps Officer, expressed his view of Japanese liberalism approximately as fellows:
"Asiatic students staying in JAPAN sine the termination of the war are several hundreds in number. They will be repatriated at the earliest possible date for trial by their own government authorities.
"Liberalism in JAPAN is still very weak and unless we protect the liberals until they have gained firm ground, they will be crushed again upon the withdrawal of the Allied Forces.
"Improvement of the Japanese police system alone will probably require many years. Of course, several thousand police officers have already been removed but nevertheless, the deep-rooted fear complex in the minds of the Japanese people toward the police must be up-rooted.
ITEM 8 Food, Agriculture. Forestry and Fishing - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitayama.
Full Translation:
Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.
National planning based on new scientific knowledge should be under-taken. Legislation for large scale reconstruction of war devastaded areas, roads, ports and harbors should be established.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)

ITEM 8 (Continued)
The promotion of education and the bettering of living conditions in the agricultural villages and towns should he undertaken.
Plans for the development of agricultural areas, such as cultivation of waste land, opening up of rice paddy-fields, drying, out of marsh lands, readjustment of rice-fields, etc., should be done at government expense.
Improvements in the agricultural land system should be made immediately. Extension of small holding system and payment of reasonable farm-rent should be considered.
Farming with domestic animals must be more widely employed and measures for securing foodstuffs should be taken.
Production of fertilizers, agricultural implements and other materials necessary for agricultural produce should be carried out.
The compulsory suppling of rice, barley and wheat to the government by farmers should be relaxed. Allotments should be rationed, and prices of rice and barley supplied by farmers be raised as high as possible.
Measures for exploiting undeveloped resources should be taken.
Plans for importing foreign rice and cereals necessary for the people's existence should be taken.
Immediate abolition of government control of fruits, vegetables, fish and shells should be carried out.
Construction of fishing boats should be planned as well as the construction and repair of harbors and docks. Material necessary for fishing should be secured.
Reformation and reconstruction of agriculture, forestry and fishing organizations on a democratic basis should be carried out.
Labor and Society:
The legitimate position of labor should be confirmed and labor conditions bettered.
Social legislation for the security of the working man, and other necessary measures should be carried out rapidly.

Measures for Women:
Along with suffrage for women, the following measures concerning them should be adopted:
Equal opportunities should be given to both men and women for education.
Laws and regulations controlling women's activities as such should be revised, or abolished.
Measures for the political education of women should be taken.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 14 (Continued)

ITEM 8 (Continued)
Arrangements for home education for women should he made.
Home economy should be directly connected with politics.

War Responsibilities:
Those, who taking advantage of the war, amassed illegitimate profits in conspiracy with the military or the bureaucracy, should be denounced. Thus a political reformation and renovation of the national life should be effected. With this object in view, we should establish a post-war special court.
Women Also in the Party:
Moreover it has been decided that at this inauguration ceremony women may join the Party.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0014, 1945-11-20.
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