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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0011, 1945-11-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-0054

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 54 Date: 16 Nov 45

POLITICAL SERIES: 11

ITEM 1 Discussion on democracy was held at Yomiuri Newspaper Company - Yomiuri Hochi 4 Nov 45. Translator: K. Kogaki.
Summary:
Those who attended the meeting:
MUROBUSHI, Takanobu Critic
TOKUGAWA, Yoshichika Member of House of Peers
SUZUKI, Yasuzo Authority on the Constitution
SHIGA, Yoshio JAPAN Socialist Party
ONO, Shunichi Head of MINSHU Newspaper Co.
IWABUCHI, Tatsuo Critic
MATSUMOTO, Jiichiro JAPAN Socialist Party
Part 1:
As of 15 August, the Existing Constitution has ceased to function.
Company representative:
"There is no doubt that democracy is the only means of building a new JAPAN. But our country is filled with feudalistic hangovers and it is very difficult to democratize the national and social organs. But the government made no effort to begin. At present the most urgent problem is to democratize the constitution, but the government only deals with technical and minor points. This certainly does not meet the people's demands."
Mr. MUROBUSHI, Takanobu: "The government and Prince KONOE, it seems, only plan to investigate whether it is necessary to revise the existing constitution or not and if so, how much. But so far as I am concerned, the existing constitution has gone with the POTSDAM Declaration. Under the democracy, not only the Emperor but also the people have the right to suggest revision of the constitution. The question is not how to revise the existing constitution but how to set up a new constitution. The first thing we must do in setting up a constitution is to transfer sovereignity from the Emperor to the people."
Mr. TOKUGAWA, Yoshichika: "As of the 15 August, old things have died. Therefore, the establishment of a new constitution is necessary rather than revision. Now the question is whether on the Imperial Household should continue to exist. I believe it is not necessary to determine the new status of the EMPEROR since he existed before the MEIJI restoration. Why not just think he is the master of a house or father of a family? We have done so for three thousand years."
Mr. SUZUKI, Yasuzo: "Although the application of the constitution became restricted with the limitation of sovereignity, since 15 August, I believe the constitution still exists. In revising the constitution, those who are charged with it should be democratic, but they are not. So I am worried."

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POLITICAL SERIES: 11 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Mr. SHIGA, Yoshiro: "Why is the government and also the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal anxious to revise the constitution at a time when they are not sure that the constitution can be revised and when everyone knows there will be further revision made by the Allies and by the people in the future? It is because they want to make up a constitution which would protect them in the future before they lose everything and before changes are made in the Diet. The Office of Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is a remnant of the middle ages and should not poke its nose into constitutional problems."
ITEM 2 Ұ 10,000,000 to General TOJO. Participation of the Mitsubishi Zaibatsu in Politics - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
Information concerning the activities of the Mitsubishi Honsha, one of the "Big Four" Zaibatsu whose dissolutions has been ordered by the Allied Headquarters, was released by the Foreign Liaison Bureau of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. The following is a summary:
The Mitsubishi Honshu denied participation in politics. However, it was claimed Mitsubishi Zaibatsu presented TOJO a house.
Mr. GOKO, president of the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Presented the TOJO family a total of Ұ 10,000,000, consisting of cash, stocks, etc.
Paid-up capital in subsidiary companies under MITSUBISHI totals Ұ 1,940,000,000. The IWASAKI family holds one-third, amounting to more than Ұ 648,600,000.
The Mitsubishi had, before the war, common interests with the Westinghouse Electric Company, the Tide Water Oil Company, and other foreign concerns all over the world.
The output of aircraft in the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in recent years was as follows: 2706 in 1942; 3884 in 1943; 3569 in l044; 552 from January to July of 1945. The total output of Japan amounted to 63,724.
Gross profits in a recent year of the twenty subsidiary companies under Mitsubishi (including Mitsubishi Honsha) has amounted to more than Ұ 540,580,000.

ITEM 3 507 Political Criminals Released with the Abolition of Political Police - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Summary:
The following was released from Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Powers on 7 November l945: In accordance with the directive issued by Allied Headquarters dated 4 October, titled "Abolition of Restrictions on Religious and Political Freedom, and Human Rights," the Japanese Government has taken the measures listed below: Concerning this accomplishment, MacARTHUR's Headquarter stated that "We have had some progress until now, but considerate time may be required to carry out all items in the directive."
As of 22 October 1945, 507 political prisoners were released. This number includes 39 citizens of Allied and neutral nations, and White Russians released, by the Ministries of Justice, War and Navy.
Dismissal of 977 "Protective Surveillance" officials.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 11 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)
Discontinuance of protective surveillance by the Ministry of Justice of 2,026 person.
Dismissal of 4,958 police officials.
However, according to an investigation conducted, by Allied Authorities, 37 political criminals are still imprisoned under such charges as murder, theft, etc.
ITEM 4 Communism Proposed, by MORI, Hideoto - Mainichi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: S. Kido.
Summary:
Community Spirit Proposed. Urges Conscientious Living. Administrative Forms Advocated.
Exposed to popular attack, the structure of the autocratic forces is now shaking. The so-called New Autocracy that was formed since Prince KONOE's New-System movement lost its foundation simultaneously with the military defeat. Mr. MORI, Hideoto and HINOBE, Yoji, former leaders of the New Autocracy Union, have resigned their imperial appointments as inspectors in the Investigation Bureau.
Discussing the reconstruction of a new Japan, Mr. MORI who has been with the Finance Ministry and Planning Bureau has submitted the following article: "Since August 15, 1945 Japan has become the only country without secrets. The administration of her affairs, too, has also become open having got rid of her tradition of secrecy. Japanese politics and administration were not scientific and could not, therefore, suit actual needs society. To alter such a condition, we must first of all, rebel against statistical administration and, by firmly establishing modern statistical techniques, introduce organizations, which enable the administration to be operated efficiently. I propose first of all to conduct a census using the modern methods of the United States.
We should go a step further end develop new organizations for the whole people. JAPAN, since the MEJI Restoration has made herself a modern stat with complete national unity, but she has at the same time neglected social development. The result has been the opposition of the state to the formation of modern communities. preventing thereby an organic development toward modern living and political concepts, and further making religion and education only instruments of the state. It is responsible for the so-called Japan's feudal characteristics. In this revolutionary period, it is our duty to create modern communities as the foundation of our country. This is essential if the democratic idea is to grow in Japan.
During periods political and social growth, there is a mistaken tendency to not regard Japan from an objective, realistic standpoint. That is to say, these movements are mostly based, on methods of some great national period, pursuing great power practices. It must, however, be kept in mind that JAPAN has become an impoverished minor nation and, therefore, Japan must adopt the method and principles of a minor nation. The basis for democracy in Japan must lie in regional self-government.
It follows that our most urgent need is for a concentration of our energies toward the acceptance of scientific methods in agriculture.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 11 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Japanese science should devote itself to dietitic and biologic research. With the application of science and training of specialists we can belie the claims of those who state it is impossible to feed 80,000,000 people with the produce of this small nation and its outdated agricultural system. It was exactly this type of thinking that permitted the rise of militarism.
The farmers' increased purchasing power should, be utilized for development of agricultural methods, division of land, and redistribution of work, and not for centralization of control in the government under the guise of savings programs.
The consumer's cooperative movements in the cities should be developed, thus furthering concepts of group life, and eventually bringing together the city and the village socially and economically.
The desire to lead conscientious lives seems to be lost and must be recovered if we are to progress along sound lines.
I have never been in direct contact with the Allied authorities, but from the observations of my colleagues I have been forced to the conclusion that the people are less concerned over their salvation than the allied authorities. I have repeatedly told young officials that without principles and conscience all efforts to convey ideas to the people are futile."
ITEM 5 First Executive Officer's Meeting - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Extracts:
The first meeting of executive officers was held at the residence of the Premier at ten o'clock on the morning of the 7th of November. The meeting was attended by TSUGITA, Chief Secretary of the Cabinet, and other Cabinet members. KIGURE, Vice-Minister of Commerce and Industry, and YAMAMOTO, Vice-minister of Finance were appointed mediators.
KORO, Vice- Minister of Agriculture and Forestry discussed the urgency of the food problem, and views were exchanged by the executive officers concerned. It was agreed that while measures must be taken to alleviate conditions soon as possible, the Government must secure the understanding and assistance of the Allies. The need to enlight officials who are not fully cognizant of the nature of total defeat, a factor which had obstructed the settlement of a number of problems. It was further agreed that dissension between that rivalry of ministries must be eliminated if the administration is to function as a united body.
Meetings will be held 9 o'clock in the morning of each day for a thorough study of various problems.
ITEM 6 Prosecution of war criminals of all categories urged by the Executive Committee of the JAPAN Socialist Party - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The central executive committee of the JAPAN Socialist Party had a discussion on the execution of its program. A sub-committee will
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POLITICAL SERIES: 11 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
be organized in the settlement of both food-problem and housing of war-victims in order to have a definite plan in a short time, and will request the minister concerned to put it into practice. A committee will also collect materials for prosecuting war-responsibles and will prepare close cross-examination of war criminals. At the same time, the publication of the party organ magazine, the establishment of the NIPPON Political and Economic Inquiry Committee outside the party, a political school etc. will be taken into effect. The establishment of branch chapters are being speeded up.
ITEM 7 Inauguration of JAPAN Liberal Party Held Tomorrow - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
The inauguration of the Liberal Party of JAPAN will take Place on 1300, 9 November at HIBIYA Public Hall. The procedure is as follows: The chairman will be HOSHIJIMA, Jiro. Recommendation of the chairman; the opening address end report on the progress resulting in the formation, by ANDO, Seijun; the name and rules of the Party, by ONO, Mutsuichi; Speech and program by HANAMURA, Shiro; policy, by HARA, Tamashige; recommendation of the president; recommendation of officials; the greeting of the president; the closing speech: After discussion, several men will make a speech.
ITEM 8 Trial of the Japanese war-criminal - Asahi Shimbun - 9 Nov 45. Translator: S. Sano.
Full translation:
Gen. TOJO Fooled His own Country's Diplomatic Corps.
Huge amount of evidence collected for his trial.
The Supreme Headquarters for the Allied Powers announced on 6 November 1945 that the opening of the trials of General TOJO and other war-criminals is awaiting an important directive on the trial of Japanese war-criminals expected soon from WASHINGTON.
It was also announced that a huge amount, of evidence on General TOJO as a war-criminal has been collected.
Among this evidence is information that General TOJO withheld details of his plan to start the war from the Japanese diplomatic corps, who had been doing their best to avoid war.
This fact will verify Admiral NOMURA's statement that he did not know at all about the plan to attack PEARL HARBOR. An officer investigating war-criminals said that Ambassador KURUSU was only a puppet who came to WASHINGTON for the peace negotiations without knowing that General TOJO had planned war.
The fact that General TOJO fooled his own diplomatic corps indicates his intention of going to war. According to General THORPE, chief of counter-intelligence corps., the trial will not be started earlier than a month from now.
The American Government has issued no directive concerning jury members, probably, this will be decided by the Far Eastern Advisory Commission, nor have the prosecuting attorneys arrived from AMERICA, or the counsel for the defence been appointed as yet.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 11 (Continued)
ITEM 9 Government policy for the coming session of the Diet - Yomiuri Hochi - 9 Nov 45. Translator: H. Kato.
Summary:
TSUGITA, the Minister of State and the Chief Secretary of the Cabinet was interviewed by the press association afternoon on 8 November 1945. The questions and answers exchanged are:
Question: The Government intends to request the Throne to call an extraordinary Diet session on 10 December 1945, and to dissolve the Diet, after the new election law is passed. Why was en Imperial Rescript issued for the convocation of an ordinary session of the Imperial Diet?
Answer: The Imperial Diet is to be convened every year and an Imperial Rescript was issued, as its procedures had to be taken 40 days before the opening of session. But if the Diet is to be dissolved at the previous extraordinary session, the convocation will be impossible. Some scholars say that it is against the Constitution not to convene the session, if the Imperial Rescript is issued. But the government thinks it is not a. violation of the Constitution and the House of Representatives will not necessarily be dissolved, although the Imperial Rescript was issued.
Question: Has the day for convening an extraordinary session been decided?
Answer: The result of population census will be published on 20 November 1945, and the government will produce the revision bill of the Election Law to request the Privy Council to call the session on 1 December 1945.
Question: Will the House of Representatives be dissolved at the extraordinary session?
Answer: The government thinks that the people wish to have the general election aa soon as possible. But it is troublesome for both voters and candidates to have the general election without the revision of the Election Law and then revise it at the new session.
Question: Have you any new ideas for the election?
Answer: The government thinks that a documental campaign should be limited only to an official bulletin for the coming election and the Communication Board is preparing to establish a radio-broadcasting station in every electrical district in place of an ordinary political meeting. This will be decaded by the Dist. In a great electoral district lacking transportation facilities and such a district as TOHOKU with heavy snowfalls isn't this method preferable?
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0011, 1945-11-16.
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