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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0366, 1946-02-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-1149

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 1149 Date: 6 Feb. 46


ITEM 1 Railway Fares and Inflation-Provincial Newspaper Chugoku Shimbun (HIRO[illegible]) - 31 January 1946. Translator: NARUSE, Tadataka.
Full Translation:
The Transportation Minister has announced that the increase in railway fares will become effective on 1 March, with the increase amounting to approximately 2.5 times the present fare for passengers and about three times for freight charges.
Since the state railway was established in 1872, the fares were arranged on a mileage tariff[illegible]to b[illegible]replaced by decreasing teriff in 1899. Although since the Sine-Japanese Tax (1894-1895), the railway fares were raised to meet the expansion of the state railway's operating expanses due to the increase in wages and prices, it was somewhat similor to this new revision in railway fares in character. The reduction in rail fares was finally carried out in 1902. Then the fares were raised by 120 percent in 1918 and by 130-150 percent in 1920.
After that, JAPAN embarked on the MANCHURIA incident, the CHINA incident and then this war. As a result, the state railway's finances began to be threatened by an increase in the volume of business, a sudden increase in prices, and various symptoms of inflation. To meet this situation, the Transportation Ministry in April 1942 revised tae fares vita tae various objects of adjustment of transportation, secure[illegible]ty of the war's financial resources, and aberration of the people's increasing purchasing power. Besides, various revisions in the fares were carried out for the s[illegible]ke of the war effort.
In 1944, the Ministry concerned increased the rail fares by 130 percent for increased revenue and to prevent inflation, added a war-time special tariff, However, the agitation of the social situation still threatened the state railway's finances and the fares were raised 130 percent again for the sane reason in April, 1945. Thus, the railway fare increase had gradually lost its constrictive nature, end was replaced by a political one.
From that time on, inflation has been aggravated greatly, and it has become almost impossible to control the passenger by a mere [illegible]eralistic propagation. It may be said that this the people's reaction against the Government's extreme "thought control" and its despotism, which did not inform the people. Less in both materiel, and personal resources due to the successive air raids, and difficulty in obtaining materials, are never solved by mere fare increases. Thus, when the state railways fell into a suspended animation, the war ended. They narrowly escaped ruin.
Its various establishments have severely suffered. Despite this, the transportation authorities have begun boldly their fight to participate in constructing a new JAPAN. And the Transportation Minister on 27 January I946

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 366 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
announced the needed minimum increase in railway fares, taking into consideration the people's livelineed, which is suffering from inflation, to repay the deficit due to the war. According to the said Ministry, an additional income of 3,000,000,000 yen is expected by this new measure. But we are told that this plan was drafted immediately after the end of the war, the proposed rate of the rise has now become insufficient due to the subsequent soaring prices.
At present, coal is necessary to operate. The great increase in price of coal and steal, therefore, must have troubled the Ministry concerned with a new crisis. This crisis will never be solved except by raising railway fares again or by flouting a new deficit loan. The demand for bettering conditions proposed by the said Ministry's employees, must also be fulfilled. This makes the railway fare problem even more difficult.
After all, the railway fare is a form of taxation of the messes. Its unrestricted increase is not desirable, of course. However, the Government's farm policies and the people's submissive co-operation are indispendable conditions to realizing a new JAPAN. In this sense, any increase in railway fares, too, must be executed, if necessary. Since transportation is the base of economy, we should make every effort toward future redaction in railway fares.
ITEM 2 Landowner-Farmer Relations Should Become Better-Kaheku Shimpo Provinsi[illegible]Newspaper (SENDAI)-30 January 1946. Translator: T. Sugihara, K. Asaka.
Full Translation:
The landowners in the pest have expl[illegible]ted their feudalistic powers to the fullest extant in order to maintain their agricultural organizations built on the firm [illegible]asis of high rents, aiming at the domination of agrarian politics. However, at present they seem to be left behind in the rapidly progressing democratization of farm villages, due not only to their feudalistic system but also to their backward mental state.
Not so long ago in rural communities landowners were selling their cultivated lend at black market prices. In order to circumvent the land limitation law, they have supposedly disposed of their excess land, placing it in the name of, say, a relative, while actually retaining ownership themselves. This practice has brought about the existence of absentee landowners who normally are domiciled on these excess lands while actually they are not. And they have dispossessed tenants from the latter's farms, claiming that the absentee landowners would manage for themselves. Their attitude seems to be one of a corrupt and obsequious nature rather than the usual arrogance.
Even when the farm villages faced a severe labor shortage during the war. the landowners still would not work their lends. As a result a nation-wide decrease occurred in tae area of cultivated land. Nevertheless, still intending to dispossess the tenants from their farms, the landowners have become an active abstacle to the democratization of the farm villages, thus arousing considerable public [illegible]sentment.
It is demanded that the landowners immediately be [illegible]de of their shortcomings. The present land eastern cannot be considered a democratic one by any means. Obviously it must be reformed. Japanese agriculture itself is not essentially democratic nor is the landowners' laud system, which heavily favors the landowners.
So long as tae course of agricultural production does not assume a modern form, the speedy democratization of rural communities cannot be expected. At present the capital invested in agriculture is so small that the agricultural standards of JAJPAN are very low in equipment, cultivated land, and technical knowledge.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 366 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
When we consider the large population which the farm areas should soon contain, it becomes obvious that the small area of arable land available will cause considerable confusion. And a much larger rural population is expected as urban jabs become fewer, and war veterans return to farms. Even though some of the ills of the system have been corrected and tenant farmers are returning, the progress in rehabilitating the farm system has not made any appreciable gain.
Landowners, especially you cultured landowners, should not think that you have done your all towards democratization merely by opening your land to the farmers. You should make every effort for the betterment of the formers' position and cooperate with them in order to create a modern agricultural economy. The landowners have resorted to numerous devious means to further their own ends, as mentioned previously. The Government is partially to blame because of its apparent apathy to control their trickery.
The large land holdings which have been dissolved, and which will be returned to the farmers in small units are not given gratis to the farmer. Rather, the land will be purchasable by capitol, invested by the farmer and by governmental subsidy. The landowners will gain considerable capital in this manner.
If spent foolishly or allowed to remain dormant, this, capital would not work towards a modern agricultural economy. Democratization would end at this point. Consequent the landowners mist reinvest their capital in obtaining modern agricultural techniques and equipment, and developing various community benefits. Especially imperative is backing for the industries in the agricultural districts, fertilizer concerns, medical groups, and electrification of the rural areas.
The landowners must realize how much all these things are needed by the farming communities. The must work with the armers in order to protect their reinvested capitol. Aong humanitarian lines the land-owners will command considerably more esteem from the farmers if all this can be accomplished.
The Agrarian Reform Bill has liberated the firmer from a slave's existence, but democratic modernization of agriculture is far from complete. The coming generation of landowners must get away from the old ideas and work toward the development of a modern agricultural JAPAN. In that way, they will become worthy of respect, not only by farmers, but by the nation as whole.
ITEM 3 Education Department and The War Guilty-Yomiuri Hochi-4 February 1946. Translator: [illegible]ARAI, Hiroshi.
Full Translation:
Many who are no less responsible for the war than those who maltreated war-prisoners still remain as fountainhead of education. Why is there nothing done about this? These persons are text-book authors and Government education inspectors. The former suggested the war to the people through warlike textbooks, and the latter oppressed or removed democratic educators.
Every national text-book has been, for the most part censored. Needless to say, they could not help ordering every school-master to have them censored because their contents were adulatory to militarism, scandalous of AMERICAN and ENGLAND, and deceitful to Asiatic races.
After the war's end, one of them has been transferred to be a normal school headmaster, but the others have imprudently remained in their same position. They are going to compile new text-books. On the one
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 366 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
hand it is well known that the Nationality and Culture Research Associati[illegible]which compelled primary school-teachers to perform ceremonial ablutions during the war, is an agency for Red baiting. It has now cnanged into the existing Educational Investigation Society and the education inspection bureau of the Education Department. Accordingly, these organizations are, as it were the military or secret service police in the educational world.
With the delay in SCAP's removal order, nobody for anxious in action. How shameless they are! Notwithstanding the fact that a book called "The Substance of Our National Polity," which was compiled by the educational inspection bureau, has been suppressed, a certain education inspector who wrote the book still remains in office. The attitude of the Education Department is very suspicious. Futhermore, according to the projected personnel change these responsible persons have the boldness to be promoted to headmaster of a school under the direct control of the Department. In this regard, I consider the top man of that Department as accomplices. For the reformation of education and culture in JAPAN, I advocate the quick removal of all these editors and school inspectors from office. (By NOZAKI, Junichiro, a primary school-master in TOKYO)
Campaign Speech at a Parents' Gathering.
My eldest son is now in a certain primary school in CMIYA-Shi. The other day I was informed of a parents' gathering by the school. As the school authorities hoped that, if circumstances allow, woman parents would attend, my wife presented herself at the gathering instead of me. However, the guardians' meeting was quite formal and, in my opinion, its real purpose was the address of the mayor of CMIYA which was delivered after the conference. The mayor spoke on the woman suffrage problem for more that two hours. However, the import of his speech was entirely reactionary. He stated that JAPAN must conquer the world by all other means except war. Moreover, rejecting the movement for a democratic front, he emphasized that tae people must vote for only those who support the Emperor System.
It may be, of course permissible to conduct political education on suffrage at a parents' gathering. The mayor's address of that day was not one of political enligitment, but a compaign speech. Besides this, reactionary political speeches are made every day at all the primary schools throughout the city. According to the sane mayor's remark, they are made in municipalities all over the country.
I wonder if it is the Education Department that allows persons to take advantage of a guardians' gathering at a primary school to give such a reactionary and non-democratic advice to women? (By YAMAD[illegible], Gore, in OMIYA-Shi)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0366, 1946-02-06.
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