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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0345, 1946-02-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-1074

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 1074 Date: 2 Feb 46


ITEM 1 The Existing Cabinet and the Change of Provincial Governors - Provincial Newspaper Kochi Shimbun (Kochi) - 27 Jan 46. Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Full Translation:
When the election of local governors by a public vote is expected, it is rather peculiar that the present interim Cabinet which cannot settle down to work has carried out such a large seals reshuffle of governors. However, this is natural because governors were obliged to resign according to SCAP's purge directive. This is also positive action towards the absolute removal of the militarists and the general election of Diet members for the reconstruction of a new JAPAN. However, the delivery of rice and other important problems should not be disturbed as a result.
Since this is the first personnel administrative act by MIZUCHI, the Home Minister, who is recognized by everyone as being competent, it may be expected. As a spokesman of SCAP said, it depends upon the support of our people and in turn upon the results of the new governors. Anyhow, the fundamental indication of this change is indeed positive. It is natural that heretofore the provincial governments were branches of the Hone Ministry, but hereafter they should be branches of all ministries. Judging from the present situation, is it possible for then to be branches of all ministries? To accomplish this, the Home Ministry is said to be removing its bureaucracy in order to become familiar with the prefectural governments and civilians. This is only an ideal. However complete the Ministry reform, it would not exert its influence upon the local governments, to say nothing of other ministries. Therefore, the government's policy is positive as a policy but not practical.
It is fine that technical and former public officials have risen to the rank of governor or director. However, it should still include more civilians. The selection of only five civilians out of 28 new governors is insufficient. Though in this change the number of civilians increased slightly compared with the former, we are not satisfied at the selection from such limited circles as farmer directors of companies, members of the Diet and attorneys. It should include men of ability from a bread scope.
The Government declared that it selected the governors from the viewpoint expressed in negotiations with SCAP. SCAP, as the spokesman stated, cannot concern itself with personal affairs. Therefore, the statement by the Government is not worth mentioning. We do not like such an opportunitic attitude, even though it agrees with SCAP. Anyhow, the government itself speaks too much on the change of provincial governors. We prefer results to advertisements. The longer the Cabinet is an exterim one, the greater is its responsibility.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 345 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Raise Political Consciousness of Women - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichi Nichi Shimbun (Miyazaki) - 27 Jan 46. Translator: I Hotta.
Full Translation:
It is hardly necessary to say that the coning general election has an important function in our history. Why is the coming election more important than any of the past 21 general elections? No one can deny that it is because JAPAN is now in a serious situation of defeat, which we have never experienced before.
The election aims at the democratization of JAPAN under the POTSDAM Proclamation. The struggle for woman suffrage and eligibility for election these past 15 years will be ended at the coming election. It means that women have an important position upon which the democratic movement in our country depends.
As regards the electors, the number of women electors is greater than the men by 2,700,000. It is not therefore too much to say that the result of the general election will be decided by the women. Nevertheless, the general public, especially women, is little interested in the election, as has been previously mentioned in this newspaper. They may well say that the food problem is far more serious to them than politics. However the coming election will accomplish the democratization of politics.
Politics will then be closely connected, with the kitchen, and the housekeepers, who are least interested in politics, will be obliged to pay attention to the Government. A vote given to a member of Parliament may decide the loading party and also who is to be Prime Minister. Food problems, which are the greatest concern of the public, will also be solved by this vote.
From such a point of view, raising the political consciousness of women is vary necessary for the construction of new JAPAN, and this movement is the pressing need of the hour.
We shall cite one example here: We collected essays on woman suffrage the other day. The essays we received from women were on the whole more serious and lively than those of men. However their words were vague in general, and most of their essays were written out of such rebellious feelings as concerned the discrimination between man and woman in the past or on the partiality of the family system. Few of them seemed to have definite or original ideas. In short, their opinions are borrowed plumes which are unworthy for housekeepers to listen to.
Formerly women advocated that they should study politics and hold meetings to enlighten themselves. However we have not heard that such a meeting has been held since the vote was given to them. One may well1- blame the confusion among young ex-soldiers, but what do young women of HYUGA think of it? We eagerly desire them to think of their important position instead of spending time going to the nonsensical "AIZSN KATSURA" (TN: Name of a film).
Even in democratic AMERICA, it was not until 1920 that the vote was given to women. We cannot say that political consciousness had been encouraged among women before them. In AMERICA, nine women have held seats in Congress, and there are many women politicians. We too have to take every possible step to raise women's political consciousness. Fortunately the date of the general election was postponed and women have been given time to
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 345 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
study politics. The political movement by the women's department in each party is growing more active, following the examples set in AMERICA.
Now we have to convince women that a comfortable life will be created out of good government. They should be awakened to political consciousness now that the significant general election is in sight. They should impress on their mends that this is the only way to create a new HYUGA and also a democratic JAPAN.
ITEM 3 "Simplification of Complex Problem of Emperor System" - Provincial Paper Kahoku-Shimpo (Sendai) - 28 Jan 46. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
The discussions on the Emperor System are becoming hotter mid hotter as the general election and the constitutional amendment are approaching. The opinions of each party for this issue were set down in our paper some days ago. We cannot but be doubtful of the knowledge of the general public about the scope of the problem. Without defining clearly the meaning of the conceptions and terms used in the discussions, the issue will cause confusion, in people's minds and be of no benefit. Above all, whether the sovereignty should be vested in the Emperor or in the people is the question most frequently discussed.
Originally, the prevailing theory of state law was that the sovereignty (more correctly the governing power) rests with the state. The so-called "organ theory" holds the view that tie sovereignty rests with the state and the Emperor is an organ who exercises it for the sake of and in the name of the state. This view is the most adaptable as the legal interpretation of all the phenomena effected by state power, and the jurists adopted this in general. This theory, however, is only a legal interpretation of the governing power of the Emperor. This theory cannot make any contribution to the solution of the problem of the Emperor System.
The discussions on the Emperor System at present do not aim to interpret legally the sovereignty excercised by the Emperor. It is debated whether or not the sovereignty of the Emperor should be justified and whether it is adequate or not. In other words, the problem lies in the judgment of the preceding facts which the old legal theory of state is intended to interpret. From this point of view, the Liberals' plan of amendment must be regarded as nonsense when it says that the state is the sovereign body. The matter being such, the problem, the Emperor system is related to two points; one is the reason why the Emperor holds the position as the supreme ruler; and the other is about the merits and faults of the Emperor system as a state institution.
The phrases "the Emperor's sovereignty" or "the peoples sovereignty" which are now used so often are in reality terms which were produced in connection with the discussion on the former point. That is, those who favor the Emperor's sovereignty argue that the Emperor's position as a state organ is ascribable to his original power and is not derived from any other. Consequently, an explanation for the basis of the Emperor's original power is required, if the theory of Emperor's, sovereignty be admitted.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 345 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
In our country, the Emperor's power seems to have been assumed on the basis of historical facts. The preamble of the Constitution in which it is stated that "succeeding the distinguished deeds of our Imperial ancestors and coming to the Throne according to the line of emperors unbroken for ages eternal" shows the traditional belief. It holds the view that the Emperor is the descendant of the Imperial ancestors who set up the foundation of the country, and so he is duly qualified to govern the country. The Government is reported to adopt the theory of the Emperor's sovereignty. The Government's motive in adopting this theory is not manifest in detail, but the original meaning of the theory of the Emperor's sovereignty is as above-mentioned.
The opponents of the Emperor's sovereignty insist that the people should be the state organ due to their natural rights. This view is called the theory of the people's sovereignty. The social contract theory is the historical basis for it. The contract theory was originated by those who argued that the state was based on the free consent of the people in its origin and consequently the sovereignty should naturally rest with the people. According to this argument, all the state organs outside the people can stand only as the people's representatives. The plan drafted by the Constitution Investigation Association manifestly represents this idea, as is shown in that plan which declares that "the sovereign power emanates from the Japanese Nation or "the Emperor performs the state rites as the representative of the Nation".
As can be judged from the above whether the sovereignty should be vested in the Emperor or in the people is a purely theoretical problem on the basis of the Emperor's or people's power as a state organ. Accordingly, it seems to be unrelated to the second problem, of merits and faults, while in reality is not so. For instance, if it is correct that the Emperor is sovereign, and he is originally qualified to be a state organ, the abolition of the Emperor System means the cessation of the existence of the state which is the same as the change of state polity in the above sense. On the contrary, if it be not so, the abolition of the Emperor System means only a change in the form of government. Therefore, the problem of sovereignty has a deep practical significance.
The problem of the Emperor System has many complex points to be discussed, as can be seen in this brief explanation, Since the Emperor System is one of the important subjects in the coming general election, each party should make a more precise explanation of this problem for the people in clarifying their attitude toward the Emperor system.
On the side of the people, it is necessary to grasp scientifically this problem or at least the points of discussion to determine their attitude towards the election. For both the parties and the people, to act in such a manner as the above is quite necessary for solving this important issue calmly and reasonably without making it a mere sentimental conflict.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0345, 1946-02-02.
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