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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0279, 1946-01-22.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0874

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 874 Date: 22 Jan 46


ITEM 1 The Question of the Communist Army in China - Jiji Shimpo - 19 January 1946. Transistor: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
Nationalization of the armed forces was debased at the outset of the Political Consultative Conference, which started in CHUNGKING on 10 January. In other words, the problem lies in the existance of the Communist Army. The problem is not confined to the numerical strength of the army, as seemed usual in the Nationalist-Communist talks, but includes deliberations on incorporating it into the national army. Naturally, it cannot be expected that an agreement will be concluded in one or two negotiations; there may be many talks before the question is settled. To clarify the issue, it is necessary for us to have full knowledge of the background and the character of the army, and the objectives of the Communist Party.
That the Communist Party has an army is one of the notable characteristics. This was born out of circumstances peculiar to CHINA and has been in existence nearly 20 years. We cannot dwell upon the details of its history. We recall that during the Communist period in CHINA, Soviets appeared in the wake of advancing Communist Army units, and the so-called Chinese Soviet Republic was established as a result of the unification of all the larger soviets. During the war against JAPAN, it developed into the United Government, consisting of the Governments of 18 "liberated districts," in the words of the Communists.
It is known that Communist activity is on the trinity of the Party, the Government and the Array. Above all, the army was foremost in its activities; that astonishing extension of the influence of the Party was due greatly to the existence of its army cannot be denied. The army would act, first of all, in close liaison with the party. Once established, its Government would be instituted. This is the normal procedure.
Why does the Army wield such influence? It is because of the fact that the army is not merely an armed force, but an "administrative army" or a "detached force of the Party's ideological branches." Thus, a Communist Army was necessary to the Communist Party. However, that the Communist Party, which leads national revolutions directed at the realization of independence, freedom, democracy, unification, wealth, and power for the people be permitted to retain a private army is untenable.
In this connection, the Nationalists argue that there should not be two armies with two sources of com and in a country (the Communist Army is under the command of the Communist Revolutionary Army Committee). We support this argument. The Communist Party, itself, also understand well this contradiction; it has attempted so far to ignore this issue by using the euphemism, "The army of the people."

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 279 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
The concept of the army of the people was founded by SUN Yat-Sen in recent Chinese history. He attempted twice in the course of a lifetime to wipe out the military factions of North CHINA, and failed. He discovered that the cause of his failure lay in his depending upon old military forces, called "associate armies," In November 1924, when he went North to save the situation, he declared that each of the armed forces connected with imperialism is bound to be defeated, while those which maintain close relations with the people and endeavor to facilitate the development of national revolution will win the day. He added that it is necessary to combine the Army with the people, thereby forming the army of the people and preparing the only means by which national revolution can be achieved successfully.
The Communist Party is pressing the Nationalists for an answer by frequent allusions upon the above statement of SUN Yat-Sen. MAO Tse-Tung stressed in his administrative address at the 7th general assembly of the Party, held in April 1945, that "it is right to say that an army is of nationalistic character." MAO continued, "There should be no nation, without its own army. CHINA will become one of the new democratic nations. Hence her Government should be a coalition Government based on a new democracy, and all of the armed forces in CHINA should belong to this Government." When a coalition Government and headquarters of the Army have come into being, we will willingly turn over our Army of the liberated areas to this Government. However, we claim that at the same tine the Nationalist army, as well, should be delivered up to this Government. The great SUN said in 1924 that it is necessary to connect the Army with the people in order to form an army of the people. Such being the case, the Nationalist Party should respect the spirit of SUN and reorganize its own army."
The Nationalist Party says that two armies of different sources of command cannot be allowed to exist in a single country, and the Communist Party empahsizes that the Army must belong to the Nation. These views are both right, and it would seem that there is no room for controversy.
Then, why is it presumed that negotiations will inevitably run into difficulty? It is because of the significant provision in the statement of the Communist Party on the establishment of coalition Government. The meaning inferred in MAO Tse-Tug's address is that the Communist Party intends to maintain its on army as long as no coalition Government is established. Such being the case, the issue of coalition Government is a again under serious consideration. We believe that, if only this question is settled, other problems, including that on the Communist Army and of local government systems, will be easily solved. With this situation being deliberated, we feel it important to watch carefully future steps taken by the Political Consultative Conference.
ITEM 2 An Open Letter to Mr. Muto, Teiichi - Yomiuri-Hochi - 19 January 1946. Translator Y. Ebiike.
Full Translation:
Riding on the tide of militarism, you vigorously stirred up jingo feelings with bombastic words, while chanting the praise of militarism. However, we understand that you now run the JIYU SHIMPO (Liberal News), changing from your old stand. We are more angered by your attempt to make fools of the people than surprised at your apostasy in thought, which has been completely reversed. You, yourself, as well as the others will acknowledge that you are anti-Semitic and severely attacked the Jews, driving them into Jew-phobia. We are not so generous or peaceful as to be deceived by you, a downright militarist and anti-Semite, even though you address us in disguise under the beautiful name of liberty.
Some time ago KODAMA, Yoshio, was accused of apostasy in this column.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 279 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
He had already been designated as a war criminal. Both you and he rendered service to the military clique, you with pen and he with action. You are both equally guilty, but we would not like to see you share his fate. Now is the time for you to retire and meditate on the catechism of liberty, if you have conscience enough to recognize the error of your writings against the State and the people. We venture to write this letter as we are seriously concerned about your future. (Sent by HAYAMA, Juzo.)
ITEM 3 Problem of Electric Line Cars - Tokyo Shimbun - 20 January 1946. Translator: K. Sato.
On the 20th of this month nearly 60 new vehicles will be supplied to the Government electric lines. They will serve in some measure to alleviate the crowded transportation conditions. Also, coal output is calculated to exceed 1,000,000 tons. These prospects lighten our hearts to some extent.
However, the insides of our tramcars remain as dark as ever. While it is impossible to read newspapers or magazines, we cannot even recognize a neighbor's features. There is no doubt that the production of electric bulbs has been hindered by the shortage of coal. Nevertheless, it has been five months since the end of the war. We cannot believe that bulbs are so scarce that we cannot equip tramcars, which should have priority.
One night while I waited nearly an hour at TABATA Station to change trains, I happened to talk with a carman. In passing the time, our conversation came to the subject of electric bulbs. "There is distribution," he whispered, "but the people screw them off and take them away. It is very troublesome."
When railway employees demand improvement of their conditions and pay, they can prepare extra trains for themselves and can threaten the staff with a strike. Passengers, however, cannot claim reforms in service by refusing to ride on cars. Passengers have the weakest position of all. Their only recourse, therefore, is to appeal to the good sense of the operators. We implore the operators to light up the inside of cars and replace the broken straps. If you can see your way to repair the broken windows, so much the better.
According to the report, instructions were despatched from headquarters to repair cars immediately, and they have already begun work on this. Please keep it up for the sake of the passengers. The passengers will always be ready to take your side.
ITEM 4 Neighborhood Associations - Mainichi Shimbun - 21 January 1946. Translator: T. Naruse.
Full Translation:
While the maintenace or abolition of the Neighborhood Association is frequently debated, no solution has beer, found. The concern felt about the various compulsions imposed by the authorities during the war is not unreasonable, even though opponents have claimed that the people would not tolerate such restrictions now. However, there are also many individualists among opponents who claim that since they have gained their liberty, therefore, whatever neighborhood they may be in, they will run their homes in their own way. This obviously is mistaking liberty for something else. That we have obtained our liberty does not mean we have lost our social responsibility. We can enjoy true liberty only in a society which lives-and-lets-live, with a spirit of mutual understanding.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 279 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
The Japanese people are exposed to such various dangers and social unrest as famine, and increased crime incidence. The magnitude of these dangers is not less than that of the danger from the air during the war, against which the fire groups of the Neighborhood Associations fought, co-operating with each other. At that time, the Air Defense Authorities were utterly unreliable, but now the Government is similarly uncertain in warding off current dangers.
In every nation, the neighborhood association system has been fostered with the aim of self-reliance and the maintenance of public peace. In JAPAN, in the past, the five-member group system which differs somewhat from that of foreign countries in its special features was developed as the authoritative organ for good morals and manners. Those five members always acted as a consultative body in case of an emergency.
At present, we cannot be expected to maintain order with Japanese swords or pistols, but the Neighborhood or Street Associations should advocate various substitutes such as whistles, night-sentries or streetlamps. On the other hand, the Co-operative Guild is in similar circumstances. With the war over, the. Japanese must step forward toward establishing true social living.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0279, 1946-01-22.
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