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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0277, 1946-01-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0871

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 871 Date: 21 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Carry Out Prompt Democratization of Cur Economy - Magazine: Shinnihon Keizai - Jan 46 Issue. Translator: Echigo.
Full Translation:
The road which the democratization of JAPAN's economy is to follow was distinctly printed out in a directive issued by MacARTHUR's Headquarters on 26 November. The directive exposed the financiers and wartime entrepreneurs who had made fortunes during the war, and who are now trying to patch up matters and justify their enormous war profits. Indeed, it is these war profiteers, together with a large portion of the privileged classes, who stand in the way of reconstruction. Heedless of the starving masses and the vicious inflation which is approaching with the force of an avalanche, and concerned only with saving themselves and these profits, they constitute the principal obstacle in the path which new JAPAN must follow.
The Government must heed the unvoiced will of the masses. It is earnestly hoped that the Government will vigorously and resolutely carry out the necessary democratic reforms: that it will levy the confiscatous war profit's tax, eliminate the payment of indemnities to war industries; and put into effect the agrarian reform program without delay.
ITEM 2 The Strengthening of Food Control - Asahi Shimbun - 20 Jan 46. Translator: J. Wada.
Full Translation:
Although it is high time for rice delivery, the quantities delivered by the farmers by 20 January were only 28 per cent of the scheduled amounts, and threaten to bring about a serious food situation. At last, the Government has decided to take measures for strengthening food control by the issuance of an Imperial Ordinance. In the Ordinance, there will be included the compulsory purchase of crops.
The unfavorable results may be ascribed to many factors, one of which is the delay in notice for delivery. There has already been a general anxiety about the result. We have often in this column, warned the Government of the possible results. It is too late at this time for the Government to decide on the adoption of compulsory measures. Again, we can only lament the incompetence and inability of the present Cabinet. Their power is not almighty under the present serious conditions. The Government should recover political power as strong as the projected compulsory measures. The farmers, on their part, must reflect on their own responsibility for forcing the Government to take such steps. The thorough self-examination by the Government, the farmers and the consumers, and the closely combined efforts of the three are needed to obtain good results from the emergency measures. The hampering elements in delivery, which have hitherto prevailed, should be fully re-examined, and maximum use should be made of the new devices.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
First, farmers can not obtain necessities except by offering rice in exchange. This situation must be remedied. In the linking of the distribution of necessities and the results of delivery, the system will be meaningless unless the necessary minimum for reproduction is assured by the fulfilment of delivery. The mere strengthening of the link system will not do. An investigation made last year by a certain agricultural association in HOKURIKU revealed that an average of two to (TN. About one bushel) per farmer was set aside for the purchase of necessities. The Government has again declared its intention for a greater production of farming necessities, in relation to the strengthened control of food. However, farmers are complaining of being unable to get farming necessities through legal channels. Thus, the Government should do its best in prohibiting all illegal transactions by producers of farming necessities. Further, farmers are usually required to pay in rice for medical treatment. Farmers with large families are suffering from this burden. What measures will the Government take to control this conduct by practitioners? Even if plain requests for rice are controlled, doctors may be very unkind to patients who do not bring rice. If so, the control will be only nominal.
Secondly, the Government should enhance its political power. After the defeat, the police have been unable to supervise illegal trade strictly because of their lessened power. A trip to black markets will suffice to surprise farmers at the abundance of food in cities. A prerequisite for the stimulation of the will to deliver is to eliminate such unfair markets. The weak police power is a reflection of the weak political power of the Government. Now, when the center is in collapse and the ends are in paralysis, heavier punishment may bring only the antipathy of the farmers. It is, of course, necessary, in the present situation to restrain some vicious people, but the Government should, first of all, muster its power to promote morality and raise the sense of solidarity among the farmers.
Thirdly, one of the causes for the bad results of delivery is the current inflation. The price problems, such as the discrepancy between the prices of staples and those of subsidiary food items, and the lack of equilibrium between official prices and black market prices. can not be solved by raising the rice price. Any rise in the price of rice will not keep pace with the rise in the black market prices of subsidiary food items. The buying up by city consumers and the holding back by farmers are closely connected with the planned property tax and demand our special attention. Farmers, who now have a considerable sum of cash or deposits, consider their own interests and believe that they had better hold rice in kind, since tax payments for delivered rice will be levied. They consider that cash and deposits will be made known to the authorities when they are to be changed for new currency, while rice-bales can easily be concealed. The only solution is to end the property levy as soon as possible to assure farmers that they will be secure from the property tax for the money to be obtained after that date. Even such a decisive measure as to exempt payments for the delivery of staple food from the property tax is worth studying.
ITEM 3 (I) Political Parties and the People (II) Insuring Fertilizer and its Distribution - Tokyo Shimbun - 20 Jan 46. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full Translation:
Strictly speaking, none of the existing political parties are connected with the people. Both the Social Democratic Party and the Communist party are still in the process of getting into closer contact with the people, as are the Progressives, the Liberals and others. The forthcoming general election will undoubtedly be responsible for the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
advent of a union between the political parties and the people. That is the reason why all parties, especially the Progressive, Liberal and Social Democratic Parties are attaching importance to the general election. It must be remembered, however, that a connection between the parties and the people will be impossible except through the general election, and that the matter are now striving to cope with various headships confronting the Japanese people today. The assumption of power may be one of the actual steps of each political party towards the realization of its ideals, to be sure, but from the standpoint of their connections with the people, all parties should first make public their respective policies with clarity.
All the parties have thus far revealed their aims and with the general election coming nearer, they are expected to demonstrate their aims more concretely. However, it is necessary that each party exhibit before the people its concrete measures designed to meet present issues. This process will lead to a closer relationship between the political parties and one the people. For example, if all parties publish their respective policies in regard to the present ever soaring prices and some of them agree with each other, a united front may be established to achieve their proposals. General attention should be focused on this point.
The decline in the productive capacity of farms due to the fertilizer shortage is largely responsible for the present poor crop. Especially in growing of rice and barley, it may be said that the decrease was entirely due to the shortage of fertilizer. The labor shortage during the war too, was surely responsible for this decrease. However, there is now abundant labor for farming purposes in the villages. Accordingly, it is the supply of fertilizer that is essential for increased production. Increased production of rice and barley requires chemical fertilizers. Since the Government is striving to secure fertilizer the situation will improve this year.
Considering the present coal situation and the poor prospects for importing fertilizer, it may be impossible to supply farmers with sufficient fertilizer to meet their demands. However, the authorities should see to it that all fertilizer secured should come into the hands of the farmers at the appropriate time and at official prices.
The question of channels for fertilizer distribution has often been discussed. In the days when these channels were under the control of merchants, farmers could not get good fertilizers. Since the distribution of fertilizer has come to be made through the Agricultural Associations, the Purchasing Guilds of JAPAN (ZENKOREN), or the Industrial Associations, these organizations have been assuming undue authority and distribution has not run smoothly due to red tape.
Considerable discussion has already taken place as to whether merchants or organizations should distribute fertilizer. Under present circumstances, if merchants have charge of fertilizer distribution, they will necessarily use fertilizer in exchange for other goods. In view of the delicate relationship between the current rice allotment system and the distribution of fertilizers, there seems to be no alternative but to distribute fertilizer through government organizations.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Nevertheless, bureaucracy should be avoided at all costs. The general public as well as the government authorities are expected to take cognizance of the fact that the providing of fertilizer and its fair distribution, is one of the most important factors in solving the food problem. Unless the farmers are assured of a fertilizer supply, the food problem will never approach a solution.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0277, 1946-01-21.
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