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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0275, 1946-01-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0863

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 863 Date: 21 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 275

ITEM 1 Foster Local Entertainments - Bocho Shimbun (Yamaguchi) - 19 Jan 46. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full Translation:
If such lamentable aspects as are evident in post-war society, namely, abstraction, discouragement, indulgence, corruption, et cetera, are left untouched, they will be considerable obstacles in solving the serious situation we now face. To solve a national crisis, we must consolidate our entire power by making our social life happier. There may be many ways to achieve this but the most desirable is a Government in accordance with the will of the people. At the same time, a way must be considered to enhance the spirit of the people to such a degree, that they can rise up themselves to the task of reconstructing JAPAN.
The shortest way to this end is the fostering of local entertainment. In this respect, the series of amateur plays, which will be held shortly under the auspices of our press, is expected to be not a mere gay pageant, but a powerful promoter of wholesome, local culture.
That such a plan should be carried out with the object of improving rural community life, or of publicizing that life among townspeople, may be reproached from the viewpoint of the art's purity. In the present situation, however, entertainment for its own sake, or for mere amusement, should not be allowed. The significance of today's entertainment should lie in its social or public function. But entertainment full of moral propaganda promises to fail. Therefore, performers must have such enthusiasm in their performance as to sway the whole audience. This applies not only to a synthetic performance, such as a play, but also to a solo performance.
A display of local entertainment will enrich the naive rural life with its culture, and also ease the nerves of the rural people, giving them renewed strength to prepare for the construction of a new world. We wish such hopes to be cherished by all the intelligent village youth.
It was reported the day before yesterday that the series of amateur plays which took place at the beginning of the New Year under the auspices of the Young Men's Society, at the MICKA Village in the YAMAGUCHI Prefecture was a great success. Its effect may not be confined to the audience alone, for the news of it has probably given mental stimulus to thousands.
We intend to encourage public plays with local areas and material as their background. However, until this is put into practice, accomplishments of individual persons, parades and annual functions should be arranged whenever there is an opportunity. Such simple entertainment will do much to sweep away the present absent-minded state of the people.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 275 (Continued)
ITEM 2 "Democratic Reconversion of Industry" - Tokyo Shimbun - 19 Jan 46. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
A long time has passed since the conversion of industry to peace industry. Why is it that this conversion does not seem to make any progress, in spite of the voices demanding it? It is naturally evident that the matter is not easy, hut we cannot hut be disappointed at its slow progress.
There are many men of enterprise who are indifferent to the revival or reconversion of their enterprises even with sufficient supplies of factories, laborors and materials. They are all alike, leaving their task, with the excuse that the prior payment of indemnities to war industry is most necessary for the reopening of production.
On the other hand, many middle or small-class industrialists, who cannot expect indemnity and haven't enough equipment to encourage them are at a loss though they fervently desire to work, aware of their, mission. Which set can be called democratic, the readers already know whether to support the old munitions industrialists qualified to receive indemnity who behave as if they are solely responsible to build up peace industry, or to support the small-class industrialists who despite their eagerness, cannot work wing to the lack of funds.
The authorities represented by the Finance Ministry regard war indemnity as the only means necessary for the revival or conversion of industry. As a result of this attitude of authorities, the middle or small-class industrialists, it is feared, will sink to a more unfavorable position, when they should be assisted, in consideration of the present social condition of our country. Moreover, the fear of their downfall threatens more and more with the enforcement of property and war-profit taxes near at hand. We cannot but earnestly hope that the Government and the old munitions industrialists will reconsider the democratic reconversion of industry.
ITME 3 "Self-Defense By Consumers" - Tokyo Shimbun - 19 Jan 46. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
The living problem of the civilians in TOKYO recently has become so serious that it cannot be left alone to be dealt with by others. We do not think it is desirable to rely on others. "Others", as defined here, means the authorities as distinct from the citizens who are consumers; and we say that the citizens can no longer rely on the policies of the authorities. Then, what should we do? The answer is simple. There is nothing for the citizens to do but set up a self-defense system from the standpoint of consumers.
The present distribution system managed by neighborhood associations, in spite of every study and effort made by the Government and the people during and after the war, failed completely in practice owing to the inefficiency and irresolution of the authorities aided by the indifference and irresponsibility of the general consumers caused by the former If the present system continues unchanged, the lives of citizens will be put into confusion and will finally, fall into a state of collapse.
In reality those who serve in banks, companies and factories, or the officials of lover grades run madly about seeking food in rural districts, neglecting their work, and the street-venders or black market dealers are overflowing into the so-called "free market". The significance of these facts is already clear without explanation. The consumers at large are already practicising self-defense for their respective lives.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 275 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The self-defense system which we propose to set up, however, does not mean such an unsocial, uncontrolled and individualistic one, because this kind of self-defense will develop inflation and will have a suicidal effect on us, if it tends to continue without any reconsideration.
In the above sense, the same can be said about the co-operative distributions of materials lately carried out by companies or factories for the purpose of welfare. It cannot be recommended as it is based on collective individualism, though somewhat different than dealing with mere individuals in rural districts.
We believe that the general consumers should organize themselves in defense systems for the purpose mentioned above. The reason we urge the above is that the organization and management of general consumers in TOKYO is most suitable for the establishment of social solidarity and a sound social organization, and more results can be expected. For instance, you may imagine the time when the distribution for employees now made by a respective company or factory is included in that of town associations on a regional basis, and then spreads all over the country. The control of consumption by officials or people themselves will expedite production and delivery of food. The psychological effect will result in eliminating antagonism between cities and agricultural villages by connecting producers directly to consumers, and further it can even be expected that a new national morality will be cultivated. Thus the work of construction of now JAPAN can get powerful support through the above methods
ITEM 4 First Step Towards Establishment of Permanent Peace - Mainichi Shimbun - 19 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
The first general meeting of the United Nations Organization is now in session in LONDON. The circumstances which led to the establishment of this organization, and the expectations of the whole of mankind for it may be compared to these of the time when the League of Nations was inaugurated after the First World War.
After the First World War, most of mankind sincerely desired the extinction of war, and each country co-operated in the inauguration of the League as an organization for establishing permanent peace. However, this historical organization for the maintenance of the peace of the world collapsed within a quarter of a century after its inauguration. Moreover, most of the world was stricken with such severe fighting as could not have been imagined at the time of the First World War. It was an unprecedentedly great tragedy which had an effect beyond victory or defeat. What made the League of Nations collapse, or what led to the Second World War? We believe that the statesmen who lead and maintain the newly established United Nations Organization are taking deep consideration of these points.
The UNITED STATES, which was expected to be the most powerful supporting pillar of the League when the latter was established, stood outside it. Moreover, the SOVIET UNION was refused admission to the organization in its early stages. It was proved by fact that, however right its aims may be, or whatever machinery it may have, any peace organization is destined to collapse, after all, without devoted co-operation and a certain degree of self-sacrifice on the part of every big country.
In view of this fact, the formation and maintenance of an international police force is to be discussed at the present United nations Organization Conference as one of the most important problems. This aims at strengthening the authority of the United Nations Organization, not only by
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 275 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
idealistic support, but also by the combined armed power of the participating countries. This may be said to be the realization of sincere efforts towards securing the permanent peace of the world. As was stated by British Premier ATLEE, if the participating countries, especially the big countries which are in leading positions, "will devote themselves, with courage, endurance, and self-sacrifice, to the great task of establishing and operating the United Nation Organization", they will be able to fulfill the hope of all mankind, and overcome all obstacles which may confront them.
If the United Nations Organization aims at the extinction of war and the establishment of permanent peace, it must be based upon justice and fraternization between the whole of mankind regardless of race or boundaries. If justice itself does not underlie the peace of the world, such a peace may be as vain as a dream-castle, or it may be a deceitful one with hidden disputes and antagonism within it. The Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council, formed within the United Nation Organization will play important parts in securing peace. These councils must function on the principle of justice which is not affected by the strength or weakness of each country.
We do not say that the League of Nations was operated while justice was ignored, yet it is true that it was used too often for political purposes. As a consequence of this, the participating great countries often quarreled among themselves behind the scenes, and the small countries were antagonistic to the tyranny of the great countries. This was the chief reason for the collapse of the League. The present United Nation Organization, which was established in accord with the new world situation, must learn something from the history of the dissolution of the League of Nations in order to accomplish its great objectives.
One of the most urgent and real problems which the present General Meeting of the United Nation Organization must solve is control of the atomic bomb. The British Premier ATLEE stated, "The invention of the atomic bomb is the last warning that horrible destruction and ruinous attacks are the common fate of almost all the civilized nations if its destructive power be not properly supervised. I agree with the plan that the problem of atomic power be wholly entrusted to the Atom Supervision Committee of the United Nation Organization". JAPAN is the only country which experienced herself the great, horrible, destructive power of the atomic bomb. Yet it is not merely JAPAN who wishes that it shall be the first and last example of the self-destruction of mankind. We believe that this is the most earnest wish of the whole of mankind.
The establishment of an international peace organization which is strong and effective enough to prevent completely the use of the atomic bomb is what is longed for by everyone the world-over. Moreover, we might well assert that it is a lofty duty of the great countries towards mankind, for they must cherish the United Nations Organization and must lead it. However, it is not sufficient for the United Nations Organization to prevent the use of the atomic bomb. We expect that the United Nations Organization will make efforts to utilize atomic power for promoting the welfare of mankind, and we hope it will succeed in its peaceful efforts.
The World War is over. Yet we cannot always say that peace has come, for the world still remains in a state of unrest and chaos, both politically and economically. Only the great and conscientious actions of the United Nations Organization can give us hope, for reconstruction.
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ITEM 5 To All Housewives - Asahi Shimbun - 19 Jan 46. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full Translation:
One of the greatest concerns of every housewife today is the food problem. The same is true of the politicians, for it is now an important political issue. There is a serious political problem involved, even by the cup of rice served at the table. Women can vote in the coming general election, thanks to the recently obtained women's suffrage. Every housewife can participate in politics through her votes. If the food problem is her greatest concern, she can freely discuss it with her husband.
We have had a bitter experience as to the results of political apathy by the masses. In spite of achieving women's suffrage, it will prove only a waste of time if a woman abstains from voting or casts her vote without a definite purpose. Political issues may be difficult matters for ordinary women. However, it is important for a housewife to discipline herself politically concerning the current food problem, which is now one of the gravest political issues in JAPAN.
Let us examine here, with rural, as well as urban, housewives throughout the land, the political significance of the current food problem.
First is the necessity of importing staple food from abroad. According to the estimates of the Agricultural and Foreign Ministries, 43,000,000 koku of last autumn's rice crop will not be enough to meet our demands. Even under the current ration of two go and one shaku per person per day, the deficiency will be 18,000,000 koku. Thus, the situation will be critical as early as May in urban districts. This is the reason why we need food imports. For this purpose, the SHIDEHARA Cabinet previously asked the permission of SCAP to import 3,400,000 tons of staple foods. This petition was conveyed to the American Government through SCAP. It is for the Allies to decide the amount and date of these imports.
Can we expect permission to be given? It is dangerous for us to take an optimistic view in this respect, but what shall we do? Here lies a grave political problem which all housewives must seriously consider. Today the rich are illegally paying for more staple foods than necessary, at a time when we are suffering from an absolute shortage of rice and must manage without imports if we can. Thanks to these illegal dealings of the rich, the food crisis will come sooner than expected. As long as we do not correct this "artificial famine" by our own hands, we have no right to ask permission to import.
It is necessary for JAPAN to become totally democratic, as quickly as possible, and win the good will of the Allies in order to obtain that permission. The Allies will be more friendly to JAPAN when we have a real democratic Government. The food problem involves, in itself, grave international, as well as domestic, problems.
Second, we urban people owe much of the farmers' delivery of agricultural products to the Government, However, what are we giving to the farmers in exchange? Some may say that we are paying money for the rice. However, at present, farmers cannot purchase fertilizer, agricultural tools, or working clothes, because the productive activities concerned have not yet been fully restored. At present, it is the farmer alone who is producing. If fertilizers are not produced, we will surely suffer from another short rice and wheat crop this year. Therefore, the urban people should think and reflect, before every meal, whether they are producing at all. On the other hand, farmers must see to it that the rice delivered to the Government is fairly distributed among urban consumers, and, in addition, any other service in the production of agricultural necessities. Indeed, it is a serious political problem to consider what sort of political or economic structures are necessary for such distribution of rice as will serve to stimulate the production of necessities other than rice. Unless this is solved, the production of rice and wheat will undoubtedly decrease.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0275, 1946-01-21.
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