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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0271, 1946-01-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0846

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 846 Date: 20 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 271

ITEM 1 I. Change of Prefectural Governors in Crisis - II, Decision of Social Democratic Party - Mainichi Shimbun - 17 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
I
The general election, which marks the beginning of the advance to democratic JAPAN, will be held soon. Of equal seriousness, the problem of rice delivery by the farmers will determine the fate of 80,000,000 Japanese. Thus, the duties of the prefectural governors have become of unprecedented importance.
Prefectural governors were once the servants of a political party, and later they became militaristic rulers. Hereafter, they must be good officials who really serve the Nation. The time for blind obedience to the order of superior officials, and yielding to their every whim has disappeared. They must hereafter be judged by the quality of their contributions to the masses, and the degree of accomplishment attained.
The SCAP purge directive is responsible for the change of governors. The exclusion of governors who were once the chiefs of provincial sections of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association seems to be included in this directive. Some Government officials do not think so, because "the duty of the governor is to administer the affairs of the prefecture. The positions of the chiefs of provincial sections of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association are only the subordinate posts imposed upon them by regulations."
This is an astonishing apology. The remember that it was vigorously discussed whether these positions should be occupied by the prefectural governors or by other civilians. Was it not the officials of the Home Ministry who, taking advantage of circumstances, forcibly seized these positions when the Imperial Rule Assistance Association was formed in the autumn of 1940? It is too impudent if they say that these positions were "the additional duties imposed upon them by regulations"? We do not insist on the uniformity as directed in the recent order for the exclusion of head policemen. Neverthless, we do not think that the problem can be settled by the voluntary resignation of the governors as is the intention of the Home Minister, who asserted that a thorough knowledge of the conditions in each prefecture will be one of the important requisites for the appointment of new prefectural governors. Hence, many heads of administrative sections of the prefectures will be promoted to the governorship.
One of the evils practiced by officials of the Home Ministry was the exclusiveness of their cliques about which all officials gravitated. The administration of the Home Ministry is not so special a task that it can be accomplished only by experts; it is one of the tasks which can be performed by anyone. Toward removing such non-democratic tends, it is absolutely necessary to change the members of each of the ministries and to take civilians into the Home Ministry. Unlike public

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 271 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
selection of the prefectural governors, it is very difficult, at present, to pick able civilians for positions in the prefectural government, Yet it is necessary to introduce new life into the administration.
However, the problem which must be most seriously considered is the interchange of personnel among the ministries. It was said that recently 70 per cent of the tasks of the prefectural governors have been those belonging to the Home Ministry, and 30 per cent to the Agriculture Ministry. However, if we consider their two great missions of carrying out the general election and administering the delivery of rice, we cannot decide which task is more important. Thus, the interchange of personnel between the Home and Agriculture Ministries ought to have been made more frequently. Moreover, feudalistic circles of the Home Ministry officials must be destroyed by the exchange of personnel with other ministries.
The personnel affairs of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet are, as seen in the present reform of the Cabinet, inclined towards an easy-going attitude. It is an indication of indolence to trust the retirement of the prefectural governors to their voluntary will, or to promote many of the heads of administrative sections in each prefecture to the governorship. However, in times as stormy as these, such lackadaisical measures are quite ineffective, both in personnel affairs and political systems. We sincerely hope that government will fully recognize how important are the trends of the times, and the prefectural governors will be made thoroughly aware of how important their missions are,
II
The Central Executive Committee of the Social Democratic Party met on 16 January for the first time since the formation of the party. The discussion was focused on the problem of a united front with the Communist Party, in response to the latter's request. They agreed that it is too early to form an united front. In their opinion, the most urgent need for each political party is to appeal to the Nation on doctrines or policies unique to each party. Hence, the Social Democratic Party will ask the right and left wings to form an united front after the general election. At any rate, it was revealed in this decision that the party intends to take the initiative toward unity after the general election.
Actually, neither party is fully organized, The Social Democratic Party is occupied in policy-making for the general election; it is not far wrong to say that it ignores efforts for the organization of labor and farm unions. As for the Communist Party, TOKUDA and SHIGA have heretofore been the center of this party, but, it seems that the policies have been somewhat changed since the return of Mr. NOZAKA. Moreover, the activities of Mr. SANO and others, who are considered converted Communists, have not yet become clear. In such a situation, it may be said that the organization of these two parties has not yet been put in order. Obviously, a joint front of two disordered groups is destined to failure.
Moreover, we must point out that the basic condition for the formation of an united front is friendship and mutual respect for principles.
The Social Democratic Party stated that it would appeal to the Communist Party and the Liberal Party. It aims to pull out progressive elements from the Progressive Party, as well as modify
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 271 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
the radical position of the Communist Party. On the other hand, the Communist Party has been insisting up to the present on an united front under its leadership. The "loud-speech" era has passed for socialistic parties in JAPAN; they had better quit mud-throwing. This may also be said for criticism within the parties. They need not exclude any men, unless they are men of undemocratic principles. The most poisonous factor is sectionalism, which has been hindering the development of their own parties. Whether or not the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party will grow, or whether or not they can achieve an united front depends much upon mutual friendship.
Obviously, the Emperor System is one of the most important problems, but they must always remember that the stabilization of the living conditions of the starving is no less an important problem. Political parties with roots among the laborers and farmers must be developed through the daily activity of these partiese. We hope that each democratic party will rapidly develop its organization and that a time democratic front will be established as soon as possible.
ITEM 2 Economic Policy And Economic Law - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 18 Jan 46. Translator: S, Ota.
Full Translation:
Economic control during the war was very shoddy yet it cannot be denied that it checked to some extent the vicious inflation which was thought to be inevitable with war. Just as it is incorrect to believe that economic control is absolutely effective, so it is also incorrect to underestimate its value. Nevertheless, we must not think that we can control economic phenomena such as the inflation by non-economic forces or actions, merely because we were able to check inflation by control. To be sure, control was effective for checking inflation. However, this was effective because the controls were economic, based upon economic laws. Economic phenomena cannot be controlled merely by power or suppression. It must be attributed to ignorance or an underestimation of the importance of economic laws that much of the official supervision has failed or was conducted clumsily. They thought they could control economic phenomena merely by political edict.
We must now check inflation on one hand, and stimulate economic activity on the other in order to stabilize living conditions. In such cases as this, when we must aim at two contradictory objectives, supervision or suppression will necessarily fail. A good example may be seen in the "mechanical" low price policy, which hinders the production of commodities and thus accelerates inflation.
The policy against inflation which does not take into account national psychology is destined to fail, for inflation is partly a psychological phenomenon. We will not discuss here whether or not economics arise from the desires of men, However, it is true that economic actions aim directly at the fulfilment of realistic desires. This must always be taken into consideration, not only in anti-inflationary measures, but also in all economic policies.
Selfishness is surely an evil, yet if it cannot be removed, we must regard men as being selfish in relation to real problems. Moreover, a sound selfishness may be a most powerful motive for the improvement of conditions. It must not simply be denied;
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 271 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
it is important to direct it in proper channels. The principle that public welfare has priority over private welfare is still the basis of the present as well as wartime economic morality, although its concrete basis is now changed to some extent. However, this does not absolutely deny private welfare. The idea that public welfare is in conflict with private interests belongs to the past, private interests and public interests must be combined in the new economy. The idealistic denial of "selfishness" often meant, in fact, the fulfilment of the selfish aims of some people or of certain classes. Such a deceitful attitude must no longer be tolerated, be must admit that psychological actions, especially selfish aims, underlie economic laws, and as such we must make them coincide with public interests.
Every one of us is aware that if supply increases, the price is lowered; or if purchasing power increases, the price is raised. We are apt to make light of these laws merely because everyone is aware of them, but these laws are so universally applicable that they are known by everyone, and economic policies which ignore these laws find success difficult. There was an attempt during the war to control economy by political restrictions, but it failed. Yet in many instances, the attempt to control economic matters by non-economic forces is still practiced, in utter disregard of economic laws.
Economic laws of the past are not always applicable to present situations. The contente and interpretation must evolve naturally. Yet if idealistic policies which ignore economic laws are persistently enacted, it must be expected that results entirely contrary to the intent may appear. Such has been the case in several recent instances.
ITEM 3 How Will We Reconstruct National Economy? - Yomiuri Hochi - 18 Jan 46. Translator: H, Arai.
Full Translation:
What is the duty of the capitalist in the democratic revolution now in process? Can the capitalist work toward this revolution in co-operation with us? We feel that these problems are appearing currently.
JAPAN has lost economic foundation, upon which the imperialistic monopoly of capital stood, by the loss of colonies, the destruction of the munitions industry, and the reduction of heavy industry. The feudalistic land system, which fostered tae imperialistic exploitation for profit, has been reformed, and capitalism in farming districts is taking a new turn, Feudalistic remnants, who organized trusts and reduced the standard of living of laborers to increase their profits, are expected to be removed. Moreover, the ZAIBATSU, which oppressed the people in conspiracy with the State, has been dissolved.
The above is the economic manifestation of the bloodless revolution in JAPAN. It goes without saying that laborers and farming people must be the main force in the revolution. Nevertheless, the above characteristics do not include class struggle because it does not deny the business ability of capitalists, nor does itdeny the validity of profits, Futhermore, we consider it consistent with the interests of the capitalists that in its realization, their capital as well as the national economy be saved from confusion.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 271 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
When the agricultural revolution is accomplished, and capitalism in agricultural section develop, the home market and offer profitable markets, it will be extended to the capitalists who cannot expect too much from foreign trade. It may be said that this is also the case in the improvement of working conditions and the exaltation of the will to produce by bringing about democracy. Not only laborers and farming people, but also some progressive capitalists have participated in the present democratic revolution which has spread all over the world. It is based on the similarity of interests.
In the present national situation, it is really a matter of regret that among the capitalists there are many men of progressive spirit as compared to the few men of progressive conviction for participating in this historical reform. They have been quietly resisting, sabotaging, or maintaining a spiteful neutrality since the defeat. The revolution will be carried out by the people without regard to sabotage of the capitalists, which serves only to cause futile friction and struggle.
If such a serious situation occurs, they are responsible. We think that in order to understand the quality of the revolution and to participate in it, they must overcome their fear complex concerning the revolution and labor.
With NOZAKA, Sanji's home-coming, a movement for the formation of a democratic front has been realized. How can we restore the national economy? What measures must we take for the reconstruction of industry? What enterprises must be nationalized?
These problems are still unsolved. To solve them, the capitalist must put his ability and experience to practical use and co-operate with labor. That is not only his mission, but a measure to avoid economic collapse. For that reason he should take part in the democratic front.
From an economic point of view it is quite impossible for all capitalists to participate in that front. Men from munitions enterprises, monopolistic capitalists, and representatives of the ZAIBATSU must be excluded. Minor capitalists are expected to become progressive. The participation of such progressive entrepreneurs in the democratic revolution will result in only small sacrifices.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0271, 1946-01-20.
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