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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0265, 1946-01-19.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0829

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 829 Date: 19 Jan 46


ITEM 1 What We Expect From Our New Education Minister Abe - Chubu Nippon Shimbun (Nagoya) - 15 Jan 46. Translator; Y. Suzuki
Full Translation:
ABE, Head Master of the First Higher School has taken the post of our new Education Minister. If we seek a minister from an Educational world, a man such as Mr. ABE is well qualified. He was influenced by UCHIMURA, Kanzo, while attending the First Higher School. He synpatised with his friend FUJIMURA, Misao, and suffered internal agany so that it made him fail one year. This young philosopher of the past, now is the center of all confidence and veneration of the whole school as an Educationalist.
The deceased Education Minister, HASHIDA, while headmaster of the First Higher School was in a position completely isolated from the teachers and students. Mr. HASHIDA was a fine natural scientist, having his own philosophy and surrounded by earnest admirers; however, as a head master he did not come to our expectation and as an Education Minister, he was a great mistake. On the other hand Mr. ABE, who followed Mr. HASHIDA attained the true aim of a headmaster, which is rarely seen. It is quite natural for him to be nominated to the House of Peers.
There is nothing to worry about Mr. ABE'S dignity as an educationalist. AS we already know he is a man of firm purpose and deep honesty. Although, he looks rustic and has somewhat the featurer of a SAMURAI, he is not at all narrow-minded, reactionary or boorish. After several drinks, he would sing dormitory songs, old popular songs and nursery rhymes with beams of joy upon his white haried juvenile face. The reason why he is loved like a father by the students is because of his humanity and the fascination of his most affable character.
Even those who differ in educational views and those who contradict his iease, respect and love ABE as a person. However: ABE as a politician is an unknown quantity. Originally his speciality was occidental philosophy history, but he has been influenced to preside over the new magazine "The World." He also has stated already his educational ambitions on many occasions.
In the initial number of "The World" it was emphasized, "Present Day JAPAN needs morals more than anything. There is no other way to save her than by the moralistic power of ideas which bridge reality. The problem is, how to impress morality upon the actual life of the people and make it the basis of establishing a new culture." If so, as a man plans and self-confidence did Mr. ABE approach the SHIDEHARA Cabinet which has but a few years to live, when he accepted the seat? Of course a man like Mr. ABE who was no leaning to any political party will stay in the government no matter what her next character may be. However, such things can not be calculated beforehand, and moreover, we can not think that he is so narrow-minded as to think it is the greatest honor to become a minister, as other officials and political members do. What then are his ideas?

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 265 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Speaking frankly, we wanted him to wait until the next opportunity and have a seat in a steady cabinet where he may wield his statecraft to our heart's content. The reason is, because true democratic education can not be fulfilled with only a democratic minister and a few other chiefs. The typical educational officials who inspired militarism and excessive nationalism during the war must be banished entirely from their positions. To this end we can not help a temporary set back in the educational policy. This is a serious operation for it also has political influence. Probably the SHIDEHARA Cabinet will not spontaneously improve it without outside pressure.
Even though it is a possible objective it is doubted whether they have the courage to adopt resolute steps toward the new education minister. Although we recognize ABE, Minister of Education, as a sturdy and decisive man, from the point of where he dislikes injustice and from his conservative tendency, we doubt if he would function as the center of education in a time of such serious revolution, and satisfy our expectations.
However, once he has taken up the post, we desire Mr. ABE, himself, to lead us as a member of the cabinet. He said "I shall abandon the overbearing attitude permitted by the servile, indolent Japanese Government. He desired the government authorities and the people to have a sturdy, moral backbone. Still more, he said. "I desire that other ministers would now have frank meetings with General MacARTHUR and other important men of SCAP, without fearing about their unfair treatment." Even just putting this into practice will be the means of entering the SHIDEHARA Cabinet without thinking about results of the educational reformation.
ITEM 2 Black Market and The Restoration of Normal Commerce - Nippon Sangyo - Koizai - 17 Jan 46. Translator; H. Arai
Full Translation:
The prosperous condition of the black market in cities has become a most important economic and social problem. On the activities and legality of black markets and the cause for their existence, opinion is divided. It is, however, undeniable, that the characteristics of the recently extended black market are quite unsavory. The old street stall system was a step in the direction of black market.
Among black market dollars who congest the streets since the war's end, there are many unemployed and demobilized servicemen who have opened street stalls. The reason for the sudden appearance of these amateur dealers, is that they desire a large profit quickly. On the one hand it may well be said that they are taking advantage of the paralyzed commerce in JAPAN.
In order to root u[illegible]evils resulting from amateur black market dealings, it is necessary to restore commercial organizations, because it is virtually impossible to remove or check them. Furthermore it will produce other evils.
Normal commerce on the war control basis has been completely destroyed, and in its place is the new word "distribution." Obviously distribution control during the war was enforced not only to meet such exigencies as the diminition of consumer goods on the market, and the need for proper distribution of manpower, but also to regulate profits. It was merely a formal control instituted by bureaucrats who attached importance only to impartial distribution, serving, moreover, to hinder normal commercial activity.
Even though normal, commerce, or markets to effect delivery of the goods from the producer into the hands of the consumer, is absolutely necessary it has not yet been restored. Therein lies the reason why amateur black market dealers operate so profitably with a few oranges, or other

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 265 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
goods. That normal commerce has not yet been regenerated has been attributed to the destruction of shops, and to transport incapacity, but the perpetuation of a wartime commercial system is a more fundamental cause.
Unless prewar commercial methods are revived, black market dealers in cities and the increasing number of peddlars who barter goods for rice in the country, will not be eliminated. By their profiteering, the rise of prices is accelerated, and they can continue by their very existence to have on evil influence on society. Yet in truth, consumers find them used
To besure former commercial methods have many faults that need correcting. Toward developing a more suitable medium of trade, movements for co-operatives have become more active. Co-operatives could be based, however primitively, on prewar commercial methods.
The whole nation as well as leaders of the movement must examine the adequacy of the prewar co-operative system, since co-operatives will be instituted throughout the Nation. The new movement should be based on a new commercial system; and whatever it may be called, it will certainly have much in common with prewar commercail systems.
To cling to the evils and rely on the superficial results of the former system, and to deny the real potentialities in a commercial system is a serious mistake. The more critical conditions become the more urgent the need for restoration. Therein lies the means for stabilization of conditions.
ITEM 3 Four Letters - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Jan 46. Translator: B. Ishibashi
Full Translation:
For Prompt Publication of Text Books
In one of our national schools recently, one fourth of a class failed to get their text books. What is the reason? If such a condition continues, the grades of students without texts will suffer, and they will find themselves unable to prepare for examinations. Moreover, it will be impossible for them to study in their beds at night. Those who have books should loan them to their less fortunate friends.
The very same applies to the middle schools. Such selfishness as neglecting the needs of others must be discouraged. There are actually many students who refuse to loan bocks to their comrades. I do hope they mend their ways.
Authorities are punishing innocent students for incompetence. The problem would be now satisfactorily solved if printing establishments scattered throughout the nation were made to publish text books. This should be done as soon as possible.
(Tomita, Masamichi, NIIGATA Middle school Student)
We Want More Reference Books
We are frequently admonished by our school teachers as being not as astute as students in the past. That may be so, but let us examine conditions closely. The only available text material deals exclusively with theory, and lacks a more practical substance. Moreover, we of the third year class have not one single book published by the Education Ministry. In our chemistry classes, we have no chemicals for experimentations. Under such conditions, we cannot study.
We want chemistry, physics, mathematics, and English reference books, and hope that texts will be distributed for the third year class as soon as possible. Though we understand there is a critical paper shortage, we urge the authorities to see that paper alloted for meaningless novels be used instead for scientific texts or good cultural material in order to gratify our need for books.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 265 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
(HAYASHI, Tatsuo, SHIZUOKA Middle School Student)
Encourage the Spirit of Criticism
Existing history and geography books are written deductively. Students were instructed to memorize them, and regard them as morally infallible material. In this manner they would successfully pass examinations. There was no room for creative learning. For, for that matter, was a positive method of study permitted to emerge.
I hope the proposed new text books will be so designed that students may study along fixed lines and be encouraged to think for themselves. A collection of materials such as statistics, maps, cuts, photographs, historical data, and chronology tables will suffice for these text bocks.
With the free study of such texts, the evils of the existing uniform educational system will vanish, and the people will feel free to criticize. This is one of the most important factors in the adjustment of education to fit the needs of the youth, destined to shoulder the national burdens of the future.
Be Practical
In the middle schools, there are many subjects found in text books that are scarcely related to practical application. No matter how conscientiously the student may study this material, he hasn't acheived enough knowledge to build a crystal set, nor would he have the slightest idea of what the functions of the various parts of an automobile are. In new physics texts, electricity is considerably more emphasized than in the past. But how a student can build or repair real motors, for example, is utterly neglected. This is only one instance. Remember middle schools days, and the trouble we had with physics and chemistry. Have all those painful hours of study since proven useful in domestic or social life? A recently published mathematics text may confuse some teachers, but the authorities say it teaches "practical" of mathematics. Their efforts to present the course, however, are grossly inadequate.
Recently I read a reference book written by a college professor, and used by a technical school in AMERICA. The subject matter was forests, wood, and timber. I fee1 this book could very well be used as a text book. Before writing the book, the author consulted experts in the Department of Agriculture, the Timber Association, and furniture manufacturing companies. The book was lavishly illustrated with photographs. The author emphasized it is most essential that students be trained with special aids such as tours, moving pictures, and still projections. In his explanation of these methods, he used such expressions as "intelligent text material" and "intelligent education." He further states that if in the process of this "intelligent education" hours are apportioned for simple, fundamental experiments, students will use practical and constructive methods; and it further offers safety in future experiments. He states that forest fires are a frequent occurrence in mainteinous area[illegible]of AMERICA, prescribing methods of building and extinguishing fires when cooking in the open. In greater detail, for example, he advises that when putting out a match flame, the stick should be broken without fail. In such a manner, he coders not only the technical, but also the practical field as well. This is a method that might profitably be emulated in cur method.
(ISOBEDATE, Shigeo, TOCHIGI Teacher)
HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0265, 1946-01-19.
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