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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0260, 1946-01-18.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0818

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 818 Date: 18 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Desire New National Organizations - Provincial Newspaper Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (Nagano) - 13 Jan 46. Translator: K. Ketel.
The sudden directives from MacARTHUR's Headquarters have struck into the confused life of the Nation like a thunderbolt. They have shaken the political and economic circles which have been put into a state of collapse. The Government lacks initiative in the delivery of food and is not able to take measures against inflation. Our industrial world is continuing its sabotage. Political and economic leaders are idle and lack policy. Such circumstances will only accelerate a formidable crisis and if nothing is planned to check this chaos, a complete collapse of the Ration will be unavoidable.
Who will be able to save the nation from this crisis? While officials, politicans and economists have lost the confidence of the people, the masses alone are left. The people must spontaneously take the matter upon themselves. However, the present crisis cannot be overcome so easily. First, we must realize that it will be impossible if people instead of preventing inflation, on the contrary, continue to promote it by becoming black marketeers. We must therefore first resolve that we must have the readiness of mind and ability to meet this problem. MacARTHUR's directives already show us what to do and we need only follow them and put them into effect with all our available energy. The abolition of bureaucracy and an adequate delivery of farm produce can only be achieved if organizations like the farmers' association, which has been founded by the farmers' own initiative, became active throughout the entire country.
In the communications would, employees of a certain railway line have already carried out a magnificent set-up by participating in the administration, improving their own conditions and repairing vehicles at their own accord. A reformation of the administrative body is said to begin with the extermination of secrecy and the principle of holding one's own sphere of interest by establishing a worker's union and an employers' association. Such democratic movements are worth being recognized and appreciated.
Regulations such as the farmland improvement bill, the Election Law Reform Bill and the Labor Union Bill are all opening a way to the people for solving the critical problem. However, why didn't the Nation previously advance this way? The reason is that the militarists barred this way and MacARTHUR had to come to clear the way through the barricades. It is urgently necessary to establish functional organizations, like the farmers' associations, labor unions, and consumers' societies, which must be considerate and sympathetic to the masses. People must know that this will be the only way to overcome the present hard and critical situation.

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EDITORIAL SEREIS: 260 ( Continued )
ITEM 2 Reorganization of the Present Cabinet - Tokyo Shimbun - 16 Jan 46. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
The word "reform" is explained in a dictionary as follows, "correct and rebuild." This is the proper meaning of the word. Additionally, it is explained that "to supply the wrong part of something existing or to remake it radically", and implies the above two meanings. It is rather different from amending or repairing. Which is to say that hasty and temporary repairs cannot be called "reform". Still more, the word can be used only when it has brought about a favorable result.
From this concept, it is very doubtful whether the recent reorganization of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet can be called a reform or not. We are not greatly interested in criticizing its members. However, it was very surprising that such old-timers as Home Ministry MITSUCHI and Agricultural Minister SOEJIMA came into office. While it may sound impolite, almost all the people, excluding those who have personal connections with them, have forgotten the names of the two men.
We are inclined to make cynical remarks when we say that it is a wonder the Government has singled out such persons as those. When it is remembered that there is a proverb "like attracts like", it can be said that the recent reorganization has again shown the true character of the Cabinet.
The wide knowledge of Mr. MITSUCHI is well known to all. The bold attitude shown by him in the TEIJIN Affair is far from that to be expected from the cowardly, common bureaucrats. However, it is not easy to understand the reason why the Government was forced to pick up such an old-timer from the scrap-heap. Perhaps, the Government had no intention of selecting a member from the, younger generation, or it can well be believed that its offer was refused.
Agricultural Minister SOEJIMA has some experience of administration regarding the question of rice. However, he is a specialist of the days when rice was in excess in JAPAN. Hence, it is very doubtful whether he can solve the present food shortages from which all the people suffer seriously. Is it too impolite to say that while those who have a little knowlege of rice hesitate to take the post, a blind specialist came into office to see the situation.
ITEM 3 Speedy Peaceful Unification - Asahi Shimbun - 16 Jan 46. Translator: J. Wada.
Full Translation:
Through the efforts of the three-man committee, consisting of General MARSHALL, the UNITED STATES special envoy to CHINA, one representative of the Nationalist Government, and a representative of the Chinese Communists, most of the obstacles to the peaceful unification of CHINA have been swept away. On 10 January, the orders, agreed upon by the three-man committee, directing the cessation of hostilities and the restoration of communications were issued. The dark clouds of internal strife which had been threatening to cover the whole country have been lifted by the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 260 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
cease-fire order. We can well understand the great impression and gratitude on the part of the people of CHINA by the fact that all Chinese newspapers took up this topic as the most sensational news since the surrender of JAPAN and GERMANY, paying great tribute to General MARSHALL.
We expect that CHINA will make great progress in its peaceful unification by this cease-fire order. Peaceful unification of CHINA, which has set out on a difficult road, will be that much ahead through solution of the three major problems, which are actual enforcement of the cease-fire order, the establishment of democracy by the Political Consultative Committee, and the promulgation and application of a new Constitution.
As for enforcement of the cease-fire order, a military executive headquarters will be established immediately in PEIPING. The headquarters will consist of three commissioners: a member of the Central Government, a Communist, and an American. The necessary instructions as ordered and unanimously agreed upon by the three commissioners will be issued in the name of CHIANG Kai-shek, president of the Nationalist Government. Moreover, a military investigation committee will be organized. The investigation committee will consist of eight impartial commissioners elected by the Political Consultative Council. The Commission will investigate and report on military and communications conditions in the wartorn areas and on all other affairs connected with the restoration of peace. As a result, the cease-fire order will be carried out very smoothly.
The only military problem in which the Nationalists and the Communists do not agree is that of the reorganization of the Communist troops. It is hotly argued whether or not that problem should be dealt with by the three-man committee as stipulated in the combined declaration of 10 October. The Nationalists insist that the problem should be taken up by a military sub-committee, while the Communists stick to their argument that all problems regarding the organization of troops should be discussed by the political Consultative Council.
As for the new Constitution, the Nationalists intend to call a session of the National Congress on 5 May with its objectives confined to establishing a new Constitution. A general election will be held under a new Constitution sometime after June. Thus, a new National Congress will be formed to carry out the new Constitution. On the other hand, the Communists blame the present National Congress for being composed of members appointed on the arbitrary authority of the Nationalist Government, and advocate the immediate reelection of the members.
Doctor SUN[illegible]Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, expressed his disapproval of a re-election and his aim to allow an increase in the number of representatives, which indicates the difference between the two sides.
With regard to the address made by President CHIANG Kai-shek at the beginning of the New Year, the Emancipation Daily, official organ of the Communists, objected that the President had made no statement on President TRUMAN's statement and the Foreign Ministers
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 260 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Conference at MOSCOW, insisting that the Political Consultative Council should be entrusted with all power to stop internal strife, to abolish one-party despotism and the military or private dictatorship by CHIANG, and to establish a democratic coalition Government in which all democratic elements can enjoy a broad, equitable, and effective representation. However, since the Nationalists and the Communists have agreed on a fundamental policy of peaceful unification, it is natural that both parties are active in political bargaining.
At this moment the Political Consultative Council, opened on 10 January at CHUNGKING, has been enlarged in its jurisdiction in order to deal with such political problems as the structure of the combined Government, the unification of the Nationalist and the Communist armies, and the appointment of major officials of the provincial Governments now under Communist control. This is in spite of its original mission to discuss technical problems such as the procedure for the assembly of the Congress. Although there is great difference of opinion between the Nationalist and the Communist Parties, this difference should be considered not as a threat to Unification but as a motivation for a more complete unification and stability, he believe that the task of peaceful unification of CHINA will show speedy development.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0260, 1946-01-18.
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