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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0252, 1946-01-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0798

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 798 Date: 16 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 252

ITEM 1 Democratic Education - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (SENDAI) - 12 Jan 46. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Summary:
In view of the imperial rescript issued at the beginning of the new year, the Education Ministry gave instructions on 13 January to those people in charge of education and to prefectural governors, stressing the impressive mission entrusted to them. The imperial rescript asserted flatly that the relation between the Emperor and the Japanese people is based upon a false myth or legend and at the same time rejected narrow-minded racialism.
It cannot be denied that the rescript presents a clear-cut opposition to what the Japanese militarists stressed end the government authorities approved the past, especially during the war. Educational circles, also, were subject to militaristic oppression. That is, all teachers who were skeptical about this trend, were either dismissed or bitterly abused as being unpatriotic. The educational world in this country has been under militaristic suppression for so long that, although the above tendency was automatically extinguished with the end of the war, some remnants of the past influences were left.
However, the imperial rescript drastically changed the past mistaken educational policy and set definitely the course of education in the future along democratic lines.
In the instructions, the Educational Ministry urged educators to fulfil their duty despite various hardships in the future. However, we cannot believe that these instructions are effective enough to make a drastic reform in the present educational world which has so far been controlled by militarists. Of course, it is easily understood that school directors will formally change their attitude in the face of these instructions. However, it is the passive, obedient attitude of educators to the authorities that may be the source of evil in the future. In order to eliminate this tendency from educational circles, and create an independent atmosphere, it is a primary requisite to sweep away outdated slavish educators. For this purpose, the Ministry of Education must actively support the movement for educators' association.
In addition, the Ministry of Education should show the relation between the present rescript and the rescript on Education which was issued by the MEIJI Emperor in 1890. The Constitution was put into effect in 1889, that is, one year before the imperial rescript on education was issued. This is liable to make us feel that the imperial rescript on education is somewhat connected with our efforts at democracy in the past.
However, the imperial rescript on education was issued during the reactionary period against westernization in the early part of the

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 252 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
MEIJI Era. Therefore, the educational principles which were based upon the rescript on education were by no means democratic. At least it may be said that the educational policy in the past, was not established in a spirit favoring the peaceful development of this country.
Accordingly, educational circles are still in a fog. Even though the Ministry of Education preaches to educators that the new year's rescript should be the code for future educational policies, educational circles are left in chaos, unless the Ministry of Education makes clear the connection between the new year's rescript and the imperial rescript on education.
Our review of educational history shows that education in this country has been biased ever since the MEIJI Era, The militarists and bureaucrats have utilized education to further the protection of their own interests, Therefore, in order to democratize education throughtly, the Ministry of Education should radically amend the educational policy which has been in effect since the MEIJI Era.
ITEM 2 A) Cornerstones in Building-Up a New ASIA B) Vain People and People without Pride - Tokyo Shimbun - 15 Jan 46. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
Bertrand RUSSELL once stated in his article entitled "Visiting ASIA", that "CHINA is the heart of ASIA." We entirely agree with him. As the disease of the heart always decisively affects the health of a man, so the disease of CHINA, "the heart of ASIA" has always throuwn a dark shadow on the stability of ASIA, Although a national revolution was started all over CHINA with the fury of a fire fanned by wind, the unification of CHINA could not be accomplished after all. It was the rivalry between the National Government and the Communist Party which hindered the unification of CHINA. This may be called the illness of CHINA. Since then, the political, circumstances of ASIA were always in an unstable state, which invited a series of important incidents.
We need hardly kick about the cause of the Manchurian Incident. The late LIN Pai-Shui was of the opinion that it was nothing but the conflict between the National Government and communists that gave a pretext to the military cliques of JAPAN. It is clear that the Sino-Japanese Incident had also a certain connection with this problem. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the SIAN Affair accerelated the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Incident. If we reflect on the circumstances which led to the recent great war, we cannot deny the international situation of CHINA as the "heart of ASIA!. Thus we can see that the "illness of CHINA", which greatly affected the stabilization of the whole of ASIA, or which caused greater threats to the peace of the world, lay in the conflict between the National Government and the Communist Party.
However, the conflict which lasted for about 20 years is, at any rate, to come to an end at last. For sometime, it was feared that the conflict would spread into an internal war, concerning the problem of the disarmament of the Japanese Army following the end of the great war. However, the National Government and the Communist Party agreed on a compromising policy at the conference through the intervention of AMERICA. Moreover, according to foreign dispatch of January, the political conference is progressing satisfactorily after the issue of the order for the suspension of the war for both Armies. The Communists demand the establishment of an Associated Government, while the National Government insist
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 252 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
on the national control of the army. In the present situation, these principles ae expected to be realized one by one along the line of mutual co-operation although there may be some difficulties in these problems. This will not only accomplish the unification of our neighbor CHINA, but it will also mean a complete, recovery from the "illness of the heart" of the Orient. This is the cornerstone in the construction of the new ASIA, which will contribute much to the peace of the world.
The stage of "constructing a new CHINA by defense", as advocated by Generalissimo CHIANG Kai-Shek, is over. Now the "construction of a new CHINA by peace" is to begin. They desire to remove the private ownership of the army and the dictatorship of one party. They aim at "thorough democratization", which gives us many suggestions. We hope that the leaders of each party in CHINA will do their best.
Vain People and People without Pride.
The number of unemployed in JAPAN totals 3,100,000, according to the Extra-ordinary National Registration. This number is far less than the five or six million estimated by the Welfare Ministry. However, according to the investigation which was made later, the true state of affairs seems very different from the result of the National Registration. It is said that many of the unemployed reported as if they had some job, merely because they hate it to be known that they are unemployed. In other words, their sense of vanity has made them do so.
Vanity is one of the powerful factors in the maintenance of social order. Yet an excessive sense of vanity leads to such results, and produces mistakes in establishing the policies. Hence, vanity must almost always be forsaken, However, if it is completely forsaken, a sense of pride in also apt to be forsaken. Such an example is seen in those who are bent on black-market dealing. This is a difficult problem.
Is there any policy which enables them to give up vanity and yet retain pride? If we merely preach how to behave, the effect is doubtful. After all, there is no either way, except to achieve a policy which enables every one to eat. Nowadays the life of the Nation is in extra-ordinary condition. Therefore, the policies must also be extra-ordinary, and thus the distribution of staple food and necessities of life must be regulated under the supervision of the nation. The only duty of the present cabinet is to manage the general election and take emergency measures. It must not make the nation vain, but, on the other hand, it must not make them a people without pride.
ITEM 3 Punish Paganish Financial Clique As War-Criminals - Yomiuri Hochi - 15 Jan 46. Translator: T. Naruse.
Full Translation:
The democratic revolution of Japan will not be accomplished without a thorough investigation of war criminals and war responsibilities. The investigation itself is a process of revolution. War Criminals have been found in not only the military clique, the bureaucratic clique, and the financial clique, but all fields of education, religion, etc.
Let us investigate the practices which deserve punishment in regards to the temple of SHINSHO, NARITA, CHIBA-Ken. The observances, which the temple authorities in question have been practising day and night, are ones which are entangled with superstitions or paganism, not
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 252 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
by rightful religion, All of these queer observances such as a great holy fire for invocation or for exercizing foreign invasion, a divine tablet substitutes for one's life, a charm against bullets etc., have been openly practised not only before and during the war but since the end of the war. It is needless to say that these observances have no bearing on educational science.
The temple concerned has swindled the so-called lower classes of properties and now is abusing these paganisms or superstitions, and reigning through the prefecture as a great financial clique and a great landowner. The only power which the temple wields is its great financial ability. Whenever the prefecture governors or the head classes of a section change, the said temple gives a parting present of money to them. And all of the money, which cannot be paid from the prefecture's estimate, are similarly presented from the temple of SIHNSHO. For example, when the publication of small newspapers in the prefecture had forcibly been discontinued and they had become Government organs, all of the expenses had been offered from the temple concerned. Besides, by the never-failing contribution to the prefecture authorities, the temple authorities have won over the police authorities, and they still have continued with their superstitious evil deeds. On the other hand, to deceive the public, they say that they have undertaken five great acts. What they exaggerate into five great acts are a kindergarten, a girls' school, a middle school, a library, and the Renovation Society (SHINKO KAI), which they have been running. In these schools or agencies, however, there is no freedom of education and no autonomy of management. All leaders of these agencies are concerned with the temple of SHINSHO. They have brought under their power all the sources of expenditures, rejecting the independence of these agencies and persons, and they have strong power to banish all those who are against the said temple's interests.
In these agencies, one of the most reactionary is the Renovation Society. Since the year of 1929, the society has been enforcing militaristic education at the Renovation Society School (SHINKO GAKUIN), which was more reactionary than that at the young mens' school. By taking in the boys who cannot enter middle school owing to unavoidable circumstances, the Renovation Society School authorities have educated them in a fashion similar to the military training one year's course. Moreover, they have set a connecting net in every quarter, appointing the principals of the young men's schools and the magnates of many towns and villages to the heads of their branches. Thus, they have forced their reactionary education, holding various meetings, lectures, pictures, and reading or publishing papers as a measure to promote it.
Even if it is an exception to the other four undertakings, the [illegible]activities and organization of the Renovation Society must be broken down because it is a hotbed of the reactionary forces! They offered money and airplanes to the Government authorities during the war. to co-operate with the military clique and to instigate the war. On the other hand, however, they must have earned vast war profits by the various queer observances mentioned above. Yet they have no intention of publishing a list of their own property and land; on the contrary, they are still exploiting the people whom they have openly dragged into the way of superstition under the guise of religion.
Such religious war orlminals are not only found in the temple of SHINSHO, of course. However, they have no equal in the scale and evil nature of their activities. The seizure of such properties, the dissolution of such financial cliques, and the prohibition of all such activitois should be the urgent need of the moment. (YAMAKAWA, Mitsuwo)
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EIDTORIAL SERIES: 252 (Continued)
ITEM 4 The Old and New Powers - Mainichi Shimbun - 15 Jan 46. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
NOZAKA, Sanyo, a veteran Japanese communist who recently returned here, said that JAPAN is now in danger of ruin. This word is used by all social strata, to preserve their separate entities, and their old power, and by the new and democratic influence for the purpose of attaining its object. In any case, the fate of JAPAN is undoubtedly hanging in the balance. One of the two parties must have the wrong idea as to how to tide over the crisis.
However, it is not easy to decide which party can form a democratic front, the left or he right. When the communists carry out a great political and economic reformation of the current capitalistic system, as Mr. NOZAKA mentioned, the formation of the left democratic front will become possible.
If we consider the reasons why party government in JAPAN met with a sudden collapse, we must feel that it is a very difficult task to complete the democratic revolution. Although the reactionary influence is cowed into silence, it has not become necessarily feeble. If things take a turn favorable to the reactionaries, there will be a good opportunity for a HITLER to appear in JAPAN, as happened in GERMANY after World War 1.
In order to ban Catholicism, the TOKUGAWA Shogunate compelled people to step on a copper tablet of the crucifix. After the opening of this country to Europeans, the prohibition on foreign religious was not removed, and the NAGASAKI Magistrate arrested many Christians for heresy in URAGAMI-Mura and HIZEN-NO-KUNI. Over 3,000 Christians were livided among many feudal clans, and those who had become penitent by stepping on the copper tablet of the crucifix were regarded as Japanese people.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0252, 1946-01-16.
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