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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0244, 1946-01-15.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0772

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 772 Date: 15 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 244

ITEM 1 Frankness in Fertilizer Problem - Provincial Newspaper Shinano Mai[illegible]chi (Shinano) - 9 Jan 46. Translator: K. Sato.
Summary:
We are confronted with the serious problem of feeding our dense population of 80,000,000 from very limited resources. The vicious inflation, now threatening the Nation with corruption and ruin, cannot be overcome so long as the food problem is not solved. Democracy, liberalism or any other social policy will never be accepted by the masses if the Government does not establish a definite policy for increasing the output of food.
Construction of dams, designed as projects for the unemployed, requires food, cement, and other materials. Every policy should now aim to help fulfill the paramount need for an increase in food output. Can we be so simple as to expect 3,000,000 tons of food from our enemy of yesterday? As a means of feeding ourselves using our own resources, reclamation of wild land and production of fertilizer are advocated. The question of fertilizer claims priority in this, because without fertilizer, reclamation will be futile.
In the 89th Diet session, the Government decided on an increase in production of fertilizer. However, the question is the method to be used in carrying out this decision. The Minister of Agriculture declared with conviction that a production of 750,000 tons is expected this year, and 2,000,000 tons, next year. This includes ammonium sulphate and nitro-lime. Meanwhile, the output of nitrogenous manure in December did not even reach 20,000 tons. This figure does not warrent any optimism.
The fertilizer industry is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. As the fertilizer industry is of a chemical nature, it should be transferred from the Department of Agriculture, which is technically not qualified to handle its problems, to the department of Commerce and Industry, which controls coal and electricity, and has the technical experience in the management of chemical production.
The production cost of nitro-lime is quoted, at present, as exceeding 1,000 yen per ton. The government purchase price is between 200 and 300 yen. Before the Government can take further steps, it must abolish this unreasonable price system. The Government should then be able to surmount all other financial difficulties and reach its final objective.
What farmers desire most at present is fertilizer. Without fertilizer, we cannot increase the output of food, and without an increase in the food output, inflation cannot be overcome. One ton of nitrogenous manure is necessary to produce 50 koku of rice. This year, the people ought to concentrate on the production of coal and manure.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 244 (Continued)
ITEM 2 House of Peers' Reform Bill - Tokyo Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: T. Naruse.
Full Translation:
The original bill for the reformation of the House of Peers, which had been drafted by the Legislative Bureau, has been approved by the cabinet council. According to the gist of the bill, the peerage members are to be considerally reduced in number, and representatives, who are classified by their occupations and districts, are to be elected in the future. The course of the House of Peers from now on has been generally cleared up since it is to be directly connected with the people by this reform bill through representation by occupation and district.
Therefore, as progress is being made and the number of peerage members considerably reduced, the title of the House of Peers is unsuitable. On this point, the reform bill is still unsatisfactory. However, unless the existing constitution is reformed, no matter who drafts the reform bill, there is not much to choose between its shortcomings and the insufficiency of the constitution. Also we find here a practical reason why constitutional reform must be accelerated to establish democracy.
The step that reduces the present 200 peerage members to 30 is said to be too drastic a measure in reforming the existing constitution. However, when we think its principal point is that the House of Peers should be the seat of the representatives of occupations and areas we can not easily be persuaded to understand why. As many as 30 members should be elected from the privileged classes of the peerage.
Now that only the man who works has the right to eat and to participate in politics, the peerage members also (on the assumption that the peerage system will still be continued in the future) should be elected by their occupations or areas, and not by their ranks. This theory should also be applied to the members of the Imperial family, of course.
There is room for discussion in that occupational representatives are nominated by a special body and not by their functional organizations. On the other hand, we have many more objections to the method of classifying occupations, which has been restricted to a narrow range: education, agriculture, and forestry, stock-breeding, fisheries, the manufacturing and mining industries, commerce, financial operations, communications, and the medical and legal professions. Now, the ideal is that the occupational members should represent all of these functions. And if distinction is made between the manufacturing and mining industries, or if only the medical and legal professions are selected from free occupations, there will be many more types of occupations not represented.
ITEM 3 Reorganization of the Cabinet and Social Unrest - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
Week long political unrest has at long last been settled by the reorganization of the present cabinet. The Prime Minister, at first, intended to remain by effecting a reorganization. Then his decision wavered. He made up his mind to have the Cabinet resign en bloc. However, even then, he failed to act. At last, the final decision was made to remain in office. We cannot but be amazed at such
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 244 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
wavering on the part of the Cabinet. However, this lack of decision is an evil common to the old political forces. The government leaders cannot even decide on their own attitudes. Their indecision is nothing but a final effort to cling to their existing status or to find a new one for themselves.
Such hesitation is bound to hasten the inevitable collapse of the Government, and is a characteristic phenomenon found in the course of every revolution.
SOO, Tung-Po (a famous Chinese scholar) wrote as follows: "There is no greater evil in administration than the lack of consciousness of the real state of affairs by those in office. It can be said that they are merely waiting for rebellion without doing anything."
Surely, the present Cabinet is already outdated. Nevertheless, it cannot even step out of office at the proper moment. Social unrest, under these circumstances however, is, to a great extent, due to the fact that the people fear the future. Of course, revolution is inevitable. In order to achieve a revolution, flexibility in the people's thinking, is needed most. When that has been acquired, the revolution itself will be accomplished rationally and with little confusion.
As we remember, the first step taken by SCAP after the demobilization order was to remove all the restrictions on free speech. This was intended to enable the Japanese people to know what ought to come must come. Another reason for the directive was to wipe out the needless fears and confusion of the people and let them have clear ideas about the future.
Free speech, free judgment, and free selection are the most appropriate means of effecting social reform rationally. I believe that the Japanese public, in general, will be readily awakened before long, and will not be frightened by the revolution which will take place. On the contrary, the old political forces are now in utter confusion, not knowing what to do. Such being the case, social unrest is felt only by the old political forces. In fact, there is now some degree of disorder among the lower classes. However, this should not be feared too much.
The cause of the increase of robberies, as reported in the news, may be attributed to the incompetence of the present Government. Moreover, in reality, there has been no increase of criminal offenses, as is rumored, particularly since the occupation forces have arrived. This has been made clear by SCAP. The existing social unrest is caused by the unsettled condition of our politics. It must be stressed that the inflation, the unsuccessful results of compulsory allotments of rice, the shortage in coal production, and the utter confusion in railway service, are due to the incompetence of the present, interim Cabinet. Change is not to be feared. Rather, we should fear the continuance of that which should be changed.
ITEM 4 Letter to the Editor-Friendship - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
During the four months since the end of the war, we have been perceiving an imminent crisis. I say the cause for the impending crisis is due to a lack of friendship. Everyone has lost his gentility and protests that only he is right and others are wrong.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 244 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Why do not people conciliate with one another? It has been demonstrated by this war that no peace can result from any struggles. Let us reflect quietly upon each other. Nothing but friendship can bring about true liberty and peace to us. (Sent by Mr. SUGA, Kyoichi, a repatriated student, AKITA)
ITEM 5 Acquaintance of Young Men and Women - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Jan 46. Translator: I. Hotta.
Full Translation:
Let me lay my wishes before you concerning the traditional marriage system. It is usual for the Japanese to marry through someone's good offices. According to this system, however, an interview with the object of marriage is conclusive though it is nothing but a formality. It, of course, does not allow the parties time to get acquainted with each other before they marry. What is worse, one sometimes decides to marry merely by looking at photograph of a prospective bridegroom. This often causes tragedy because of the insincerity of a go-between.
Marriage should be based on love, but notwithstanding this, the present system has no regard for love. One is not allowed to associate with the other sex in JAPAN. If one does so against the others' will, one will be treated as an offender. It is unnecessary that a person become acquainted with the other person before marriage. We cannot know what kind of a person the other one is simply through the formality of a preliminary interview. We can only see their appearance.
Let us associate with the other sex more freely. This is not just a rash statement. We should associate with the other sex moderately and should be permitted to use our own judgment in choosing a good person to marry. There is a saying in JAPAN that a boy and a girl must not sit together after the age of seven. However, this is an old idea. People should change their minds and recognize a free system. (SUZUKI, Hisae)
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