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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0239, 1946-01-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0747

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 747 Date: 13 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Public Spirit Yomiuri Hochi 12 Jan 46. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
As we pointed out in this column the other day, it is regrettable that social solidarity is being neglected. I knew well from my personal experience that the hardships of the people are rapidly being aggravated. However, hardships can never be the excuse for flatly showing one's egotism. Far from it, we must help each other in these difficult situations. In tramcar or in train, if we will try to make a little more room for others, a larger number of persons will be able to ride without confusion.
The recent movement for the increase in wages and salary will help only to stimulate the present high prices and the vicous inflation. Unemployed persons will be forced to endure greater hardships. To remedy this, not only the political forces but also labor unions and the farmers' unions must cooperate.
The other day, one member of the House of Representatives had his automobile break down on a slope in the country. An American Negro soldier, passing by, stopped his automobile and fixed the disabled auto. Then he stopped a truck which was passing and ordered the occupants to help push the auto up the hill. The JAPANESE used to pass by indifferently on such occasions. The American public spirit which has been shown in this example should be seriously adopted. The reason why the Japanese are discredited by the outside world will be found in the lack of public spirit as well as in their war crimes and militarism.
Usually, our people rush in and jostle each other in the doors of tramcars and the American soldier smiles at this sight. Whenever this happens, I am ashamed to look on. The same thing can be said about families. It is a matter of course that harmony impresses one more favorably than a relationship of discord. Is it time to imitate a positive movement to encourage our social spirit. Above all, I hope that young students, regardless of sex, will support such a movement.
ITEM 2 Problem Of Rice To Be Delivered To The Government - Mainichi Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: T. Naruse.
Full Translation:
First, I want to warn that if the Government authorities still idle away their time as before, the illicit dealings in rice will be encouraged, and it will become far more difficult to obtain rice to be delivered by the farmers to the Government authorities. Although the authorities make it appear as if they have endeavored to make the farmers deliver rice, actually they have prevented it, and the present lack of rice has been brought about by the Government itself. The reasons are as follows:
The Government's estimate for the production allotment of rice was so late that it was made for the first time only last November. Further

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)

ITEM 2 (Continued)

more, there were some towns and villages not included in the allotment law even by 1 December.
The collection of the capital levy and war profits taxes is causing an alarming increase of illicit dealings in rice. The wealthy would rather buy rice at illicit prices than pay taxes. Thus, the Government has encouraged illicit dealings in rice and has hindered the increase in the supply of rice.

The government authorities should have taken strong measures before they urged the delivery of rice. The authorities should have investigated and accounted for rice which has been concealed and taken away by the military or owned by the Imperial Household, and should have endeavored to distribute this rice to the people. After that, if the authorities openly appeal for the delivery of rice, the farmers will never refuse. The Government's measure which tries to win the farmers' favor by gifts of sake and rubber-soled socks. It is natural that the authorities should deliver necessities to the farmers, but it is a question unrelated to the delivery of rice.
If the Government takes necessary steps with dignity and impartiality and practises the policies which satisfactorily persuade the farmers as well as other people, the delivery of rice will be accomplished without difficulty. It is too late now to criticize the movement to promote delivery of rice. (KURIHARA, Mitsuzo, NAGANO).
ITEM 3 The Evils of the Normal School Curriculum. (II) All Political Parties! Announce Your Economic Measures - Yomiuri Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: Y. A. Suzuki.
Full Translation:
What clearly symbolizes the normal school, with an atmosphere half feudal and half democratic, is the scholarship system. The reason is because this system is so similar to the slave system in the middle ages. It is an illogical system restraining freedom. That is to say, normal school students have to study, and incur debts every month in the name of scholarship. These have to be repaid when they get out of school. At a glance, it seems quite normal, but in reality freedom of study and the search for truth are being stamped out among many students. This also forced and entrapped every student into temporizing.
The debt repayments were heavy burdens for those who lived only on their small salaries. Therefore as the debts increased each year, students merely carried out orders announced by the Education Ministry and the school, regardless of whether it was right or wrong. Hence, to criticize or accuse them meant a threat to their livelihood. They were crushed under the weight of debts and lost the desire for study. These evils caused by the scholarship system extended into the elementary educational sphere as an obligatory term of service.
When teachers objected to the Education Department's orders or showed any sign of discontent to the school, they were immediately dismissed and requested to pay their debts. Teachers, afraid of the police, had to teach lies plausibly. Yet, some people blame the decline of the people, which caused the defeat, on the teachers. Education was built on lies. The chief blame lies with the makers of the normal scholarship system, which restricted the teachers' liberty in spreading truth.
Moreover, with whose money did they pay the teachers? It came from taxes squeezed from the people. They established Education only to maintain their own benefits. What happiness could be gained while educational authority was in such hands? We must abolish such an anti-demo
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
cratic system of educating teachers and let the people themselves share in educating teachers. JAPAN's democracy may never be attained unless this reform is carried out. (Letter from KURATA, Tetsuji).
There were no objections in any age to the unity of polity and economy. However, measures for food, clothing and houses should become the first objective of polity at such a time, when the people are facing starvation. Everything is based on the economic side of polity, such as prevention of vicious inflation, improvement of rice shipments, and building of houses.
Although the people are enthusiastic for food, clothing and houses, that is to say, the economy, they have practically no interest in polity. The reason is the present political movements and political reeducation of all parties neglect this side of affairs, furthermor, that is really the side which should be looked upon with interest. Why don't the parties announce their economic measures which are of the greatest moment to the people? We may say that the people's lives are grasped in the hands of the coming political parties and cabinet. Nevertheless the people have no idea what kind of measure the parties have in mind for the stability in living.
One might as well talk to the wind as reason with empty-headed people who advocate democracy vociferously and discuss the Emperor-System. What standards will the people have in electing their party in the general election? I desire an announcement of the united ecomonic measures of all parties as soon as possible. (Letter from MARUYAMA, Kiyoshi).
ITEM 4 Demands from Our Intelligentsia - Tokyo Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full Translation:
JAPAN is now undergoing a bloodless revolution. What about the attitude taken by the intelligentsia in this situation? Some among this class seem to be at a loss, most seem to wish that this revolutionary storm would be quiet before long. That is to say, most of the intelligentsia still continue in a hothouse-like existence and their political activities remain unchanged and as dull as ever. What causes this?
Hitherto, our intelligentsia have inclined to emphasize knowledge too much and undervalue practical application. They are acute enough as well as rational in theoretical criticism. However, they are apt[illegible]to abstain from practice. The late Prince KONOE's memorandum may well be cited as a good example of this. Is it not high time for our intelligentsia to correct their own weak points and offer themselves for practical application of their knowledge? There once existed forces which prevented them from doing so. But today these obstacles are removed. Yet they still remain inactive. Accordingly, it is necessary for our intelligentsia to overcome whatever obstacles there are and offer themselves for political activities in particular. In view of the current and future situation, we earnestly wish for their more active efforts in this respect.
ITEM 5 The Most Important Problem is How To Live - Tokyo Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
The formation of a popular front or the development of a common struggle is now being talked about. Notwithstanding the fact that the Communist Party has made three overtures of co-operation to the social-Democratic
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Party, they have not borne fruit. That is really a matter for regret.
Everyone knows that there is a difference between the opinions of the two parties on many problems, including the Emperor system. It is plain that the people must solve quickly the problem of how to live by developing a united front even under the present Emperor system. Accordingly, we cannot understand why no coalition between them has been effected, even for the solution of the rice shipment problem and public management of food.
The Government is prostrate, and the official world is being sabotaged. The results of the rice delivery are very poor, and the food distributing agency has lost public confidence because of its scandals. There is nothing far us to do but take charge of the food, which indispensable to life. This is not a matter of theory or policy, but an instinctive and lawful act of human beings. It is beside the point, which plan it is, the Communist Party's or the Social Democratic Party's. We intend to carry it out simply because it is absolutely necessary.
In some towns and villages people have set about carrying it out and have obtained the expected results. However, a methodical execution would be far more effective. The development of a combined struggle aims at that and will solve it. We don't know whether in former days the Communists deceived the Social-Democrats or not, but since things have come to this stage, their give-and-take on scandals about this matter is quite embarrassing to us. That reminds us of the political muc-slinging battles of the past. Considering the fact that in local districts away from the complications of the metropolis, a combined struggle has started, the leaders of both parties showed reflect on their conduct.
ITEM 6 A Responsible Government - Tokyo Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: K. Hirota.
Full Translation:
The terms of the POTSDAM Declaration demand that JAPAN encourage democracy. To meet this demand, we must establish a responsible cabinet. As long as this task is not thoroughly accomplished, JAPAN will not be permitted to exist as an independent country. Figuratively, the Allies are a teacher and JAPAN a pupil. The teacher is a severe marker. JAPAN, the pupil, should not consider its given task as easy work. However, the task is not too difficult for us to accomplish. The Allies expect that JAPAN is equal to the task. The Allies are also kind enough to show JAPAN how to study to pass the examination
JAPAN is now busy preparing herself for the examination. Properly speaking, the Japanese Government should assume the leadership of the Nation. However, the question is whether or not the Government is really fit to be the leader. If the Government is unfit to be the leader or lacks diligence, the people should strive to study by themselves to pass the examination. From this point of view, the responsiblity for establishing a responsible government weighs heavily upon the people. The people should exert all their efforts to: pass the examination. It will surely prove profitable and will show loyalty to our country.
Viewed from this angle, the Government has done nothing satisfactory toward the guidance of the Nation since the end of the war. The Allies have always taken the initiative in everything. The Nation cannot depend upon the Government any more. Therefore, the people themselves should establish a responsible government and strive to accomplish the task quickly.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 239 (Continued)
ITEM 7 Current Affairs and the SHIDEHARA Cabinet - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Jan 46. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full Translation:
Judging from the easygoing attitude of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet in dealing with the necessary requirements for the revision of the Constitution, we can estimate just how much the Cabinet understands current affairs.
After the retirement of politicians, worthy of the name, who had been in office since the Restoration of 1868, among the jostling crowd of the bureaucrats of the 'law-is-everything' sect were the diplomatists, like an incarnation of court etiquette and diplomatic language, the party men, who still have a mercenary spirit, and the militarists, whose unchecked course ran riot and brought about the present confusion.
It is therefore, clear as to what kind of disposition should be made and what kind of policy should be adopted by the Government, which is to deal with the new situation. The importance of fulfilling the tasks of every day must always be kept in mind.
From the Imperial Edict at the termination of the war to the Imperial Rescript on New Year's Day, the Emperor's mind made progress in two bounds, while the Cabinet and the upper class politicians are still standing on the same ground. Such being the case, the present crisis cannot be tided over by the SHIDEHARA Cabinet.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0239, 1946-01-13.
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