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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0231, 1946-01-12.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0724

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 724 Date: 12 Jan 46


ITEM 1 The Basis of English Monarchy - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Jan 46. Translator: H. Arai.
Full translation:
The problem of the Emperor system is one of the most important matters in the democratic revolution of JAPAN. Some who defend the system find some obscure comfort in cogitating the constitutional monarchy in ENGLAND. I should like to contribute to the scientific discussion of the Emperor system by adding my opinions on English monarchy.
As a result of the CRO[illegible]LL Revolution in 1653, ENGLAND took its initial step toward democracy. The revolution broke out in the period of Imperial rule, which Parliament had secured as a result of its victory in armed conflict with the Tories, lasting more than five years. Before long, however, WILLIAM became the king of ENGLAND as a result of which was enphenis fically called the "Glorious Revolution of 1688." Why did it occur?
It is reasonable to conclude that the chief cause lay not in the reconciliation of antidemocratic and reactionary forces within the Nation, but in the antidemocratic capital employment outside the Nation, that is, application of primitive capitalistic methods to colonial trade.
So that the monarchy would not jeopardize the civil rights of the people, the King was obliged to conclude a pledge with them, resulting in the Declaration of Rights of 1689. Nevertheless, in the process of Expansion overseas, foreign trade was not yet opened to all English because the tra[illegible]companies monopolized foreign commerce. Colonial trade was based upon unequal exchanges, forced trade, and feudalistic methods opposed to free, democratic contracts. The peace which the absolute monarchy purchased was necessary.
In this sense, WILLIAM III's efforts were devoted to fighting LOUIS XIV of FRANCE. At that time FRANCE was predominant in colonial trade. This fight dominated the international struggle for capital accumulation. As a result of the PARIS Agreement of 1763, ENGLAND came into power. Since the beginning of the 19th century, imperialistic occupation of colonies resulted in the movement of capital monopoly from the home country to the colonies. Hence, the democratic monarch of ENGLAND, which had theretofore succeeded in its historical task of accomplishing the accumulation of overseas capital, assumed new historical functions in gaining control over the colonies. A typical example was the autocratic Indian Government created by the English and placed under the direct rule of Queen VICTORIA Both the county councils and Parliament were powerless in the selection of a viceroy and the governors, who were appointed in ENGLAND by the king. The county council was forbidden to act on matters perta[illegible]ning to the liquidation of debts on ENGLAND or on the salary of governors. Parliament was denied a voice in decisions on all important expenditures, matters covering 80 per cent of the budget. Matters "reserved" for the vicerey and his "special responsibilities" were vertually unlimited. Moreover, the "federal system" embodied the antonomous states and many small and

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 231 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
feudalistic monarchies whose rulers were conciliated by the King of ENGLAND. Members of Parliament were elected by cunningly limiting methods In short, the result is a type of colonistic, bureaucratic absolutism, very different from a federal system, or a parliament in a democratic nation.
Forthwith, the Throne which was an instrument of Parliament in democratic ENGLAND, became the symbol of GREAT BRITAIN, which possessed colonies all over the world. It can accurately be said that the harmony between democracy and monarchy will be preserved on the strength of its governing functions and by grace of the upper middle classes. One of the important characteristics of ENGLAND is its upper middle class. Thus, so far as his undemocratic social and practical position is concerned, the king in ENGLAND will last long and gloriously.
To suppose that the Throne is supported only by a strong nationalism and to disregard the Throne's actual functions is a grave error. Therefore, proponents of the Emperor system in JAPAN, who rationalize their beliefs by pointing to conditions in ENGLAND, must remember that it is not applicable to JAPAN since JAPAN has no colonies. (INOUE, Seigen, member of the Scientists Association of Democracy)
ITEM 2 I, Electric Clocks; II, Excessive Prices for Haircuts - Mainichi-Shimbun - 10 Jan 46. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full translation:
The electric clocks which have been irregular for several years have now regained their regularity, and consequently have become reliable once more. I, therefore, advocate the restoration of the electric clocks which have been stored away or neglected. At the same time, I advocate immediate regulation of the power plants which have not yet regulated their cycle of electricity, because the role of the clock in the reconstruction of JAPAN will be important.
The correct time on our electric clocks is effected by the chronometer and the number of rotations of the generator in the power plant. The electric clock is never affected by weather or temperature, and it does not require pendulum regulation. It needs only a little motive power and can, therefore, rapidly become popular.
The arresting factor in the popularity of the electric clock is, first of all, the lack of unity of the cycles. In KANTO district, the number of cycles if 50, and in the districts west of SHIZUOKA, some are 50 cycles a[illegible]others 60. If we operate a clock set for 50 cycles at 60 cycles, it will gain about half an hour a day. After the end of the war, those concerned planned unofficially to accomplish, within two years, the regulation of cycles to 60 throughout the country, but, to my regret, the Department of Commerce and Industry has not yet stated its policy plainly.
The second deterrent to the use of electric clocks is the frequent breakdowns of electric current due to the popular use of electric heaters. When I see electric heaters coarsely made with a view solely toward making profit at street-stalls, I am ashamed that they should be seen by the soldiers of the Allied Armed Forces. What will they say of the things made in JAPAN when they return home?
On this occasion, I ask for the conscientious efforts of clock manufacture The clock is an ornament as well as a piece of machinery. The clock makers, therefore, should be conscientous in both the technical aspects of machinery and industrial art in the manufacture of their products. (Letter from KOMATSU, Masao)
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 231 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Nowadays, I don't wonder at high-prices in our stores, but I was really surprised a few days ago after having my hair cut in a barber shop, and being charged three yen for a crewcut. I've been unemployed since the end of the war. I cannot afford such a fee for a haircut. Do the authoritie[illegible]recognize such an extraordinarily high fee in all parts of the country? Or is this an unlicensed barber's black market fee? (Letter from HIGUCHI Hiromichi, SHIBA-Ward)
The other day I went to a barber shop and taking my six year-old daughter with me, had her bobbed hair cut only on the back of her head. I was charged three yen. The barber said he demands three yen for cutting hair making no distinction between persons. Even in these days of high-prices isn't this undue profit? (A poor mother, NISHITAMA District)
A shampoo fee is now included in the cost of a haircut, and barbers dema[illegible]the full fee, even though they do not wash one's hair. This unreasonable system should be reformed, and the prices for a shampoo and haircut should be charged separately. Barbers, bear in mind that your customers may not be only Japanese hereafter! (Letter from SAKAMOTO, Jujiro, SETAGAYA-Ward)
ITEM 3 (a) Women's War Responsibility (b) Japanese Women's Graceful Behavior - Asahi Shimbun - 10 Jan 46.- Translator: Y. Ebiike.
Full Translation:
(a) Women's War Responsibility.
The purge directive issued the other day did not surprise the people so much, but they received it with the feeling that at last came the order which they had long expected. Judging from the passages: "This list shall not be understood to include all that should be purged" or "It aims at making the public know the true character of political associations," we realize that this directive does not only require the abolition of associations, groups, or personnel indicated in it, but also shows the ba[illegible]principle of the purge. If so, the task of extending the purge directive should be left in our hands. Therefore, I want the directive to be appli[illegible]to the Agricultural Associations and Distributing Corporations which are now a scourge to provincial administration, since the people can do nothi[illegible]for themselves.
When viewed from the women's standpoint, I can not but express my utmost regret at the attitude of those women leaders who admired the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and rendered service to the military clique and the bureaucrats during the war. For example, the Greater JAPAN Women' Association has already been dissolved, but what action will be taken about the Women's Co-operative Assembly? Almost all of its members, not just "more than 25 per cent," are former members of the Greater JAPAN Women's Association, and this obviously violates the "purge" directive which states, "More than 25 per cent of its membership is composed of those who were formerly members of an organization or organizations abolished or prohibited in accordance with this memorandum."
I am also against the idea by which the Womens' Co-operative Assembly has begun a movement of women's political education, inheriting 1,000,000 yen from the Greater JAPAN Women's Association through the Welfare Ministry. Feminine as they are, the responsibility of these women who assumed leadership in the Greater JAPAN Women's Association should not be underestimated. It was they that bustled about at the militarists' and bureaucrats' beck and call, raising war funds, and collecting war material.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 231 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
There must be many other organizations and personnel as well as the Greater JAPAN Women's Association and Women's Co-operative Assembly which I have mentioned as examples. If they try to obscure their responsibility[illegible]under the excuse that women did not play positive roles or were not given important positions, after all, it is nothing but a sophism carried too [illegible]They should decide to stand or fall by themselves, consulting their own conscience and constancy. At any rate an immediate measure is required by those who are convinced that Japanese women should not be left in their present condition. (KAMICHIKA, Ichiko, a critic, TOKYO)
(b) Japanese Women's Graceful Behavior.
I have come to love JAPAN with deep affection during my 15 years stay her and one of the reasons is certainly the graceful and discreet behavior of you, the Japanese ladies. Your truly elegant manners, your modest attire, and your prudent manner of speech have impressed me with the feeling that you are indeed the ideal of femininity. Therefore I, a Catholic nun who has always lived on truth, have hitherto openly dedicated my respect to you for your graceful demeanor.
Of late, however, don't you seem to forget your traditional elegant manners? I often witness your really dishonorable conduct on the streets whi[illegible]I have never seen before. This is the very thing which makes my heart tremble, lamenting deeply for you, to whom I have paid my greatest respect up to now. I a Catholic nun, pray for you from the bottom of my soul to keep your graceful behavior discreet and, at the same time, beautiful to the end. Please keep your gentle heart and the noble customs of your country. Adopt the merits of foreign nations, but never abandom Japanese women's elegant manners. And, then, aleays bear in mind that it is your graceful behaviour that fascinates those who love the true, the good, the beautiful, and the ideal. (MICHISURAO,* a Catholic nun of MIROHANA, a Catholic Church, NAGASAKI)
ITEM 4 Revision of the House of Peers Law - Asahi Shimbun - 10 Jan 46. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full Translation:
On the eight, the Cabinet meeting decided on a revision of the Upper House Law. However, this is yet far from satisfactory on the basis of fundamental reform. A drastic reform which would meet thoroughly the current revolutionary demands of democracy would be premature at a time when constitutional reform is not yet settled. Therefore, we must be content with examining the extent of the substantial renovation brought about by the new revision, as well as the probable course along which future drastic reforms will be effected.
According to the revision program, the number of House members selected from among the peers is to be cut from two hundred to thirty and only those members of royalty aboe thirty years of age nominated by the Emperor can take seats in the Diet, This will serve to advance the structure of the Upper House toward democracy. It is not reasonable in these democratic [illegible]that noblemen should enjoy political privileges merely because they are of noble birth. The time has come to examine fundamentally the peerage system, itself. The name KIZOKU*In (TN House of Peers,) can not escape changes in the near future.
Under the current system a prince and marquis were unconditionally permitted to take seats in the Diet. This was abolished. Hitherto, also, a court, viscount and baron respectively elected one another as their own representatives. However, this is meaningless since there is no reason for members of each title to differ in social interests. Rightly, they
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 231 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued
must represent the interests of all the peers. Therefore, it was simplified and it is desired that members lacking ability be more or less removed from the House as the result of t[illegible]e new revision.
As opposed to the decreased number of the titled members, the CHOKUNIN members have been increased in number. As for their types, members by Imperial nomination and those selected from among the Imperial Academy still continue to exist. Members representing the highest taxpayers have been abolished. Instead of the latter, however, two categories of representatives, vocational and regional, have been introduced. Agriculture, foresty, industry, commerce, finance, transportation, medicine and law are included in the above vacational division. In a strict sense, this is however, a transitory system, which must be encouraged to develope into a real representative vocational system in the future. It is to be acknowledged that the new revision is still not thorough enough in vocational representation, the Imperial Academy above is a little too limited to be an electoral unit. In short, the present system of vocational representation shows much which must be examined in the future.
In comparison with the above system, the system of regional representation is far more thorough and clear as introduced into the revision. The reduction in the numbers of peers' representatives and the increase of regional representatives are presumably the main aims of the reform. Along with a study of the peerage system, the importance of peerage representatives will be gradually lessened, while the expansion of the system of vocational representation will, and must, be inevitable in the future.
As was so often pointed out, the so-called members by Imperial nomination are those selected according to the Cabinet's personal view from among those who gave meritorious service to the State or are learned. Accordingly, they are apt to be made tools of rewards granted by the Cabinet.
A new selection agency is to be set up under the new revision to remove this evil. The term of office, was generally curtailed. However, it must be shortened still farther in the future. The Nation is hoping for a radical reform of the Upper House. A sign of the reform is in sight in the new revision which must be encouraged still further.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0231, 1946-01-12.
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