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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0230, 1946-01-12.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0721

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 721 Date: 12 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 230

ITEM 1 Important Directives and Political Responsibility - Provincial Newspaper Kochi Shimbun (Kochi) - 6 January 1946. Translator: I. Naruse.
Summary:
The two great important directives issued by SCAP on 4 January ordered the dissolution of various ultranationalistic organizations and their affiliates and the banishment from public office of all who have prominently contributed in plunging JAPAN into this war.
While not so culpable as to be tried as war criminals, those who have wielded a profound and evil influence upon the people, of course, should come forward and take conscientious responsibility. There is no need for any comment on this subject. However, we must satisfactorily know that their retirement is demanded in order to establish democracy in a new JAPAN and not as an obligation or excuse to the Allied Nations.
All persons to be banished from public office due to the directives have abused their power in conspiracy with the military caste and bureaucrats. And they plunged the people into this meaningless war at the sacrifice of the people's money, goods, labor and lives. Even though they hurried to turn their thoughts and change their attitude, their crimes and responsibilities are not cancelled.
For the present, we must watch carefully these who offer themselves as candidates for the coming general election. Of course, the Persons who fall within the terms of the new directives have no qualification as candidates. However, while not pointed out in the directives, these who once held such positions, characters, and activities as those who are named specifically should retire spontaneously on this occasion. On the other hand, the voters must make a strict elimination and criticism to prevent voting for such doubtful persons as are mentioned above. This is essential in insuring the fairness of the election and an establishing a really democratic Diet.
It is said that four present cabinet ministers are to he discharged as a result of the directives. With regard to this point, we expect the Government authorites to make the best of things consulting SCAP and those ministers concerned should take their responsibility and resign. Not only the candidates, but, of course, the cabinet ministers themselves who undertake the carrying out of the election should have clear consciences.
ITEM 2 Eradication of Militarism - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 6 January 1946. Translator: I. Hotta.
Full Translation:
Two important directives to efface militarism from the political world

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
of JAPAN were issued on 4 January by SCAP. These directives demand the dissolution of nationalistic organizations as well as those organizations which admired and supported militarism and an aggressive police. They also demand that those false leaders who put these policies into practice be banished immediately from the political world.
We may think that these directives are carrying out the POTSDAM Declaration, It is necessary for JAPAN to root out the power which deceived and misguided the Japanese into the idea of conquering the world. It is indeed deplorable for JAPAN, who has promised to obey the POTSDAM Declaration to have the initiative taken by SCAP because of her own inability to tare proper measures.
We shall be very sorry if the Government and the majority of the people think that it is useless for them to take any measures of their own because the directives of SCAP are solely influential in all phases of politics, economics and culture. It is the most dangerous thought to hate the occupation by the UNITED STATES Army and to act falsely until the occupation army retires when they will be able to act as they like.
We Japanese have long been the slaves of militarism. The directives of SCAP give us a good chance to recognize the real rights of human beings and the way to live peacefully. JAPAN should bud peacefully in this hothouse although we have not as yet seen any bud. The important directives are trying to cultivate these buds. A new directive says that Japanese asked the Government to take countermeasures following SCAP directives since the control on speech and communication was abolished.
Then why hasn't the political development grown more freely and positively. As for this, General MacARTHUR stated in his report on the occupation of JAPAN that the real leaders of the people are also hesitating because they do not know how long the UNITED STATES Army will stay in JAPAN to exclude the menace of the secret police. We Japanese have spent the past hundreds of years in fear and terror. Feudalistic systems, which have no regard for human rights given by God, have not allowed us to know what democracy or pacificism is. The development of a movement always resulted in a reaction, which was often accompanied with violence. Violence instead of reasonable persuasion was used to solve a problem. There used to exist many parties and groups which were proud of violence. Policies, administration, and economics were greatly influenced by these pothouse politicians. These parties and groups were great aids to the growth of militarism and an aggressive policy. The general public has had many bitter experiences in the past, and those leaders who were really pacific and democratic always feared violence by furious militarist or nationalists.
If JAPAN had thought of effacement of militarism and her reconstruction as a pacifist nation should, she would have rooted out these before SCAP issued a beneficial directive for the removal of these evils. We must carry out this directive and root out many parties and those who were concerned with them. We see that the many demobilized persons, who have lost their jobs by the sudden change of the situation, are likely to become desperate these days. We must lead them back into friendly society.
We understand the desire of SCAP through these new directives. The people must be awakened. Every one of us is to recognize the meaning of participation in the Government so that we can establish democratic government at the coming general election. Let us do our best to brine about active political development.
ITEM 3 The Gubernatorial Election and the Fate of Bureaucratic Administration -Provincial Newspaper Hokkoku Mainichi Shimbun (Kanazawa) - 6 January 1946. Translator: Y. A. Suzuki.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Summery:
"I have lost the trust of the people, the Military, and the storm troops. Therefore, now I am the only one to take any orders." These last words of HITLER are still quite fresh to our ears. What caused the defeat of GERMANY, which seemed so tenacious and invincible? There was disaffection between the Government and the Military, and the Government and the people, caused by the NAZI'S autocratic bearing, aristocracy, and oppression.
The Germans were told that God had created them as the master race, and their political system, too, was judged by God to be the finest in the world. Moreover, HITLER was said to have been selected by God as the sacred and powerful leader of mankind. People, were told-that God ordered them implicity to obey the Fuehrer. In order to fulfill these orders, the German people were governed by the fearsome SS and SA troops. So long as GERMANY was winning the war, people kept quiet, but as the victories declined day by day, the Government gradually became corrupt as a result of their anger and resentment. This decided GERMANY's fate.
Something similar to this occurred in the Japanese Government. Did not the militaristic government and bureaucratic administration increase the pressure as the war progressed? Every little movement was decided by pressure and stern measures. The people were the property of the military and the officials. Every step and the smallest action was performed in fear of offending the officials.
Now that the military has been deposed, the Government, which was based on bureaucratic administration, has begun to show signs of democracy in the new freedom of elections. There is still a long way to go before the deep-rooted evils of local officials are eliminated. The Government had some matters to consider and has announced that are the hastening the steps for the epoch-making reform of police adminsitrative powers, complete independence of cities, towns, and villages, and the harmonious election of governors in the prefectures. This naturally follows democratic policy. We should approve it and appreciate its intent. In the public gubernatorial election we must ensure a proper Government and reject all autocrats and proponents of officialdom. As long as the power to reform evil is in the hands of the people, no criminal actions will be committed. We have experienced what evil terrorism can bring, so we want politics to be returned to the hands of the people. We desire the establishment of a bright, fearless policy, brought about with the aid of the people. Democratization of local systems is, indeed, the generative power for rebuilding a defeated nation.
ITEM 4 A Sweeping Revolution - Provincial Newspaper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (Nagoya) - 8 January 1946. Translator: J. Wada.
Full Translation:
The Allied Headquarters directives issued on 5 January ordering the dissolution of all militaristic organizations and the removal of old leaders from public office gave the Japanese Nation great encouragement toward eliminating ultranationalism and establishing democracy. By these directives, the possibility of recovery by ultranationalistic organizations is nullified for a. long time to come. At the same time many high officials, businessmen, and representatives, who have been arrogantly and egotistically blind to the current world situation, will be removed and excluded from all public offices. The people of JAPAN should breather a great sigh of relief and busy themselves filling the vacuum caused by the removal of these loaders.
Since faithful execution of the POTSDAM Declaration will require establishment of a new Government and Diet along democratic lines as well
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
as the punishment of those responsible for the war, the Government should have taken those measures resolutely before the Allies were obliged to order it.
The Japanese Government should have profited by the knowledge that [illegible]and FRANCE are in the bad graces of the leading powers because of the inadequacy of their democratization. This failure to anticipate Allied intentions and the absence of policy in the execution of the historic general election on the part of the Government clearly indicates a lack of decision and conscience, a characteristic quality in political circles. The masses should prepare themselves nor the time when they will be completely liberated from the feudalistic control of the military, bureaucratic, financial, and political cliques. The masses should absolutely favor political parties of the popular front.
While the whirlwind eliminates the old leaders, a mild spring breeze wafts over young students, bringing new flower and fruit to their thoughts. The spring breeze is the SCAP directive of 1 January, prohibiting the use of all textbooks on Japanese history, morals, and geography; the writing of new textbooks covering these three courses; the institution of the free discussion system as a temporary measure. As a result of this educational revolution, drastic changes will be accomplished in the thinking of youth, upon whoso shoulder's new JAPAN will rest. It is incumbent upon all the teachers of JAPAN to shape the thinking processes of the younger generation. The task, must be shared by the parents who are the teachers at home. In home education it is necessary that education be bilateral, as in the case of MALTHUS and his son, or MILLS and his son.
In the study of geography, the truth, about JAPAN must be disseminated. The actual and potentials figures of natural resources in JAPAN should be presented to the student in precise statistics. For example, it should be shown clearly that the amount of oil production of the state of TEKAS is 50 times that of the FAR EAST; that the steel production of the UNITED STATES is 10 times as great as that of JAPAN. Comparison of production figures alone will be enough to do away with Japanese arrogance. It was the people instilled with, just such an attitude who applauded JAPAN'S withdrawal from the League of Nations and rejoiced at the opening of hostilities with AMERICA and ENGLAND.
The importance of compiling, and teaching a new Japanese history is Self-evident. Since the study of history illuminates current events, history must not be biased with the intention of emphasizing tradition and relating mythology to actuality. It must be remembered that superstition, inconsistency, the notion that we are the chosen race, and the admiration for aggression in our history have, denied us the quality of introspection.
Textbooks have been filled with materiel extolling good conduct and behaviour of an extremely individualistic nature. The deeds of politicians and warriors were praised. Influenced by such texts, it is natural that students aimed at individualistic, worldly success, disregarding the study of co-operative societies. This is precisely why Japanese arm selfish and individualistic, unlike people of other nations.
We believe that the cramming system in all courses, especially in literary field, should be abolished and a system of self-teaching and free discussion be instituted. AMERICA and EUROPE attach far greater importance to this method. Both PLATO and CONFUCIUS transmitted their ideas to students in precisely this manner. This is, fundamentally, democracy in education.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0230, 1946-01-12.
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