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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0222, 1946-01-09.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0694

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 694 Date: 9 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 222

ITEM 1 (A) On the Character of the Coal Miners (B) We refuse to participate in a Special Attack Corps (C) We require Labor Service by the Youth - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Jan 46. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full Translation:
There are, in the present coal shortage, such causes as the shortage of labor, food, and materials and the riots of the Chinese and Korean miners. However, even if these problems were solved, coal production could not be expected to be favorable. There is the problem of the bad miners. Those who have been looked down upon by the people are now lawlessly rampant, are causing disorders and are unable, to understand the true meaning of liberalism and democracy. Furthermore there is the sabotage of the workers supposedly caused by the food shortage.
This is a major factor in the coal shortage, they sometimes instigate their partners to resist their leaders, or on the pretext of the food shortage they stay in the mine for only four or five hours a day. Some of them actually work for two or three hours, and others do not work at all. Meanwhile the coal mine operators have not considered any measures, because they fear that their measures in this predominant age of workers may be criticized as capitalistic oppression. They fear that they may bring on the blame of society or that if the miners go on strike, coal production will be greatly decreased.
The treatment of the good and honest miners must be improved, but those wicked miners, who have brought disorder and sabotage to the coal mines, should be properly punished through social justice. The employers must be expected to boldly dismiss the bad workers. At the same time the Nation must also encourage the powerless employers and make every effort to awaken the wicked ones. Their discharge is liable to be mistaken as an oppression of the workers, but this is the right of the good workers.
(OHKUCHI, Hiroshi, a coal mine expert, HOKKAIDO)
Nothing but an increase of miners has been considered as a measure against the coal shortage. We coal workers hope that more scientific measures will be taken. Specially, since the period from now to March, is a point of gas explosions, drastic measures should be taken.
A large number of people seem to think that coal is still being dug by shovels or pickaxes. However, a modern mine requires mechanically powered coal diggers, such as cutters or picks, and delicate gas measuring apparatus. The coal mines are not at all like hell. They are factories. Machines play an important part. The people do not to realize how important we are with the broken machines. These machines and the mine interiors, which had been ruined during the war, must be repaired or adjusted as rapidly as possible.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 222 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
What we eagerly want are such tools [illegible]veying instruments, anemometers, and gas measuring apparatus. Gas measuring apparatus is especially indispensable in our daily digging. In the present gas explosion season, it is the staff of life. A skilled worker should not enter a mine without it. Over half of these staffs of life in every mine are broken or are not used due to the shortage of dry batteries. If these broken instruments are repaired and gas measuring apparatus are used, [illegible]an increase in coal production may be anticipated. We shall flatly refuse to participate in a special attack suicide corps in the coal mines.
(YAMAZAKI, Eiichi)
If more laborers are required to overcome the coal shortage, it may be vice to call the youth of the Nation from 18 to 20 irrespective of class, and have them dig coal for a year or two. This should be carried out as their labor service. In such a way, the Government can lighten the national expenditure for wages, and the young people will not only gain sound minds by the collective training, but the unemployment overflowing in the great cities will , to some extent, be relieved. However, when the Government takes change of them, it should absolutely avoid such military training as in the HITLER Jugend.
There are many difficult tasks the reconstruction of a new JAPAN. Accordingly, it is not improper to require labor service of the youth, who are free from military service, not only in digging coal but also in any other national tasks. The young men should voluntarily participate in such labor service to train their bodice and minds for the new age.
(TAMAURA, Yoshijiro)
ITEM 2 "Each Party should Co-corporate in Solving Problems’ - Yomiuri Hochi - 8 Jan 46. Translator: R. Fu[illegible].
Full Translation:
Shocked by the "purge" directive, the SHIDEHARA Cabinet is struggling for survival by attempting reorganization at the last moment. The reorganization of the Cabinet, however, is most difficult in view of the present critical situation, and it should never be allowed, even if it is possible.
This powerless and reactionary Government should be overthrown at once. Meanwhile, we see a shameful attempt to establish a coalition Government by those who expect the collapse of the present Cabinet. At this time when the life of the people is on the bri[illegible]of ruin such political dealings in the dark should be crushed by the peoples own hands. But how is it possible to crush those dealings? This is the most important question on which the people should concentrate all their political influence in the present critical situation, This is the first step for the people to take in solving the present crisis by themselves. To be sure, the political attack of the people or the formation of revolutionary groups lags far behind the speedy advance of the "MacARTHUR Revolution".
It cannot be denied, to our regret, that the power of the people is very weak. We must not, however, neglect the ugly conduct, and plots of the reactionary influences due to the weaknesses of the people's power. In this critical situation, effective means should be looked for, and we believe it to be possible.
The present crisis in JAPAN demands that the next Cabinet be organized around a popular front, in which old democratic elements be combined. For this purpose the three largest parties, the Liberal, Social-Democrat, and Communist parties are required to co-operate with each other,
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 222 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
when each party is thoroughly organized. The co-operation of the three parties for this purpose, however, will meet with difficulty in organization of each party or in agreement of common politics. So the co-operation cannot be expected at once while the reorganization of the present cabinet and the establishment of a coalition cabinet is being planned. However, the Liberals, as their leader Mr. HATOYAMA stated are opposed to both the survival of the SHIDEHARA. Cabinet and the appearance of a condition cabinet. This is of course identical with the Social-Democrating and Communists stand. On this point, the three parties agree completely. This agreement, is no doubt of a very partial and negative nature. At any rate the agreement exists, and the three parties should unite on the basis of it. Their co-operation ought to be made to this extent and this shows it is actually possible.
We dare say that these parties should be called betrayer of the Japanese people if they are reluctant to unite. By their combined power, the three parties, as the former GOKEN-SAMPA (Pro-constitutional three parties) did, could crush the present cabinet and smash the political plot to establish a non-party Government. The matter cannot be neglected even for a moment. The three parties should meet immediately in joint conference for this purpose. Other small factions, if they are truly democratic, may be allowed to participate. The first step will be taken to tide over the crisis by the joint conference held by these Parties. If it be too difficult to continue the conference, further stops may be abandoned. If matters go well, co-operation may be limited to only recommending the succeeding cabinet.
The succeeding cabinet which the conference recommences may be carried out by the parties or may be demanded of the throne for sanction. It does net matter if the conference at least demands that the succeeding cabinet be organized, not on the recommendations senior statesmen, but on that of leaders of each party. It is a matter of course, however, that every effort should be made to organize the Cabinet on the popular front, as the "GOKEN-O-SAMPA" organized the co-operative cabinet in former days.
The theory and practice of the popular front is already deeply rooted among the masses. The time is coming when those who ignore this fact will be left behind. Among the Social-Democrats, those who advocate the popular font in union with Communists have already grown powerful. Union is a matter of course for the Social-Democrats, who desire to fight for the people without prejudice. It is the came with the Liberals. It is natural for the brave Liberals who are willing to contribute to the people's interact without no other ambition, to act as do the sincere Social-Democrats. To that as it may, we propose for the present, that the joint conference of parties reject the tacties for an undemocratic solution of the political situation.
At the same time, we give a brief suggestion to the Emperor as to how he should behave at this moment. It is the inefficient SHIDEHARA Cabinet which brought about the present crisis in the people's lives. It should never to allowed to reorganize this cabinet or to reappoint the came Premier. To order the organization of a non-party Government would be inefficient and would in affect serve to increase the hellish condition of inflation, starvation, and unemployment. A constitutional monarphy, which the Emperor says is desirable, is the other alternative, Each politica1 party cannot prepare, for the election by doing nothing. Politics and the Government should be entirely entrusted to these Parties, as democracy requires. To practise this, the Emperor may confer with the leaders of each political party by himself, or other ways can
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 222 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
be considered. At least, the Emperor should consider the above-mentioned idea for the necessary political change. In the civic circle, the voices for the abolition of the Emperor system are becoming speedily louder, and it might not be impossible to imagine the appearance of a Government without the approved of the Emperor.
ITEM 3 Japanese People's Attitude Toward Science - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Jan 46. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
SCAP has lately ordered that banquets for the Allied Forces are prohibited because of the food crisis. In truth, this has been done because SCAP cannot overlook the fact that self-seeking follows among the Japanese are making a cat's paw of foreign quests and eating black market dishes to their heart's content. Indeed, it must seem absurd to foreign guests that many Japanese fawn upon a foreign guest and dive or exchange good wishes with him at Government expense. We should not wish to witness in democratic JAPAN a recurrence of former conditions wherein executives of munitions companies, presumably while in the service of the Army and Navy, ate sumptuous dinners in restaurants.
To promote the development of science, various organizations such as the Technical Board, Science Research Institution and Science Promotion Society were set up during the war. They controlled their own funds, but the total amount of their funds was far less than the cost of one atomic bomb. We pointed out that each organization had an antiquated elder scientist at its head, and that almost all the members of these organization were engaged in duplicating each other's efforts. On one hand, we often advised that the research of descriptive science as well as natural science is indispensable, and that all these institutions should be brought under the jurisdiction of the Education Department. New these matters have been under consideration.
Although the naval authorities paid a bounty of less than 700 yen for even great scientific achievements, the military authorities sometimes offered a prize of 100,000 yen for such a trivial discovery as a new design for an existing pattern. Looking back now, we remember that this was a very stupid undertaking.
ITEM 4 The Surplus of Revenue and Inflation - Tokyo Shimbun - 8 Jan 46. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
According to the draft budget for the next fiscal year, the estimated amount of revenue, is about 13,300,000,000 yen, and estimated expenditures is nearly 12,800,000,000 yen. The Government will have a surplus of revenue of about 500,000,000 yen, the great feature of the draft budget for the next fiscal year. It is a long time since the budget included no provisions for the sale of war bonds.
When comparing the budget with household budgets, people other than the writer may become filled with consternation. However expensive fish and vegetables may be, if a person can live on the food distributed, he can get along on his income. Since he can hardly subsist on the rationed rice alone, his income does not rover the expenses.
Such is also the case with state finance. How is the budget for the coming year related to goods? On what is the standard of prices based? In other words we wonder whether or not the sum appropriated
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 222 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
in the coming budget will bring things indispensable to administration. Only if the Government’s plan is as successful as the bill which was drawn up will revenues exceed the expenditures by about 500,000,000 yen. If inflation makes rapid progress, and prices rise several times as high as prices on which the budget is based, every task will be more expensive. Government officials' pay must be raised.
The more aggravated the state of affairs in society becomes, the greater the requirement for special measures; the more the unemployed, the greater sum of money the Government must appropriate for the purpose of relief.
Considering these facts, it is obvious that even the large sum of 500,000,000 yen will disappear rapidly. That estimated revenue will exceed estimated expenditures is a rather premature nation, and does not indicate that sound finance has been established in JAPAN. The existence of a revenue surplus is totally dependent upon the Government's ability to avert inflation.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0222, 1946-01-09.
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