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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0214, 1945-01-08.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0665

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMAMDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 665 Date: 8 Jan 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 214

ITEM 1 Democracy and Education - Provincial Newspaper Niigata-Nippo (NIIGATA) - 3 January 1946. Translator: T. Unayama.
Summary:
The extension of suffrage, the revision of the Constitution and other laws, and the abolition and establishment of several systems and organizations centering about the Diet, especially the Lower House, do not mean the achievement of democracy.
The disappearance of the great landowners and the lowering of rents by the new Farm Land Reform Law have not acheived democracy in the farmvillages. The passage of the Labor-Union Law, the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU, and the taxation of war-profits and property, although they wiped out the great capitalists by bringing about equality between capital and labor, have not brought about democracy in industry.
These are, in effect, the fundamental measures for making politics agriculture , and industry democratic. To give life and permanancy to these fundamental measures, persons who will take charge of and carry out these matters are needed. Likewise, the problem of national culture must urgently be considered.
The education authorities are now exerting efforts for the revision of textbooks and the disposal of books edited by themselves. The aim is to eliminate militarism, the conception of a divine land, and the belief in a superior race. Since this is an urgent matter and since it is a fundamental condition of the Educational Revolution in JAPAN, it should, of course be carried put completely. However, raising the standard of national culture and infusing it with the spirit of co-operation should be accomplished with a really revolutionary concept.
We must conclude that the education of JAPAN since the MEIJI Era has been an imitation of that of the West, and too much importance was attached to intellectual training. As soon as it betrayed its weakness during the recent war, the authorities , in a flurry, changed it to primarily an education in moral training. However, to our great regret , this was an education of militarism and of self-conceited seclusionism based on the idea of the elect.
Now, we ardently hope that all concerned with education in all parts of the country will bear close to their hearts the idea that the association of virtue with knowledge is real culture. Also, the association of culture with the spirit of racial co-operation should be the basic principle in the education of new JAPAN.
ITEI 2 l. Education and Democracy 2. Watch Out for New Men - Tokyo Shimbun-6 January 1946. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full translation:
The rapid development of a democratic government is the impressive mission

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM: 2 (Continued)
entrusted to our country. Since democratization must be predicated upon democratic education, it follows that the Education Ministry is in a position of great responsibility for the creation of a democratic JAPAN. In this connection, it must be remembered that true democracy in education cannot be achieved simply through democratization of school curricula and educational principles. True democracy in education will be realized only when, on the basis of highly democratized school curricula and educational principles, all of our people are well-educated and "united in their civic life." This was emphasized by the Emperor in the New Year's Imperial Rescript.
It is a matter of regret, however, that the educational authorities today seem content merely with the elimination of militarism and ultranationialism from text books and classrooms; they do not take further steps.
Looking backward at education since the MEIJI Restoration (it was modelled after the European educational system), we find that students in JAPAN have received only the cultural training of European education. As a result, not only has intellectual training been poor, but morals have been practically neglected. This fault of education in the past was brought to light by the CHINA Incident and the present great war. The educational authorities were shocked by the situation and adopted a so-called "policy of relating virtue to intellect." Nevertheless, that policy proved militaristic and was intended to imbue students with the narrow-minded idea that the Japanese are the chosen people. It is an inevitable, natural consequence that JAPAN involved herself in the CHINA Incident and the great war, to be subsequently defeated . It may be said that the poverty of culture in JAPAN was the cause of the CHINA Incident and the war, and is accordingly responsible for our defeat.
Throughout this war we were made to realize how much advanced scientific knowledge is required to wage a war alone. In order to establish a new JAPAN as a cultural Nation among other powers, our peoples' knowledge is required to be limitless in scope. Knowledge without virtue does not breed culture but vice. Intellectual culture must always be accomplished by moral training. The authorities must bear in mind that virtue and intellect should be joined in the civic life of our Nation, based upon the spirit of mutual co-operation. This is the first requisite toward the development of a truly democratic JAPAN.
Education in future JAPAN should be along this line. For this purpose, however, school rooms should be extended to farms, factories, kitchens , and so on. It is an urgent matter that the Education Ministry should be the ministry for the education of the whole Nation.
II
The directive ordering the removal of a number of persons from public offices and from Diet seats was issued by Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers on 4 January. It is quite natural that those men should be removed, because they are not only responsible for the war but because they have been a barrier to democracy in JAPAN. To our great pleasure, the present step by Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers will undoubtedly remove the feudalistic atmosphere from public organizations and the Diet. The present measure will contribute a great deal to the realization of a new democratic JAPAN.
However, we cannot expect that this step alone has sufficient force to completely remodel feudalistic JAPAN into a truly democratic JAPAN. Feudalism and officialdom are so deeply ingrained in JAPAN that, frankly, even the present resolute step cannot eliminate them completely.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Such being the case, we must be very careful in welcoming new men to replace the old. Even the so-called "new buds" in bureaucracy have grown up under the old environment. Even among the candidates who have never been elected to public office, there are same who have been connected with the past degenerate political world. Accordingly, these new men often lack established and fundamental knowledge. The people should exercise caution by not placing implicit confidence in them simply because they are new men, else the present bloodless revolution will lose its merit.
ITEM 3 Form A .Popular Front Cabinet - Yomiuri-Hochi Shimbun January, 1946. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full translation:
The directive issued by SCAP on 4 January dealt a hard blow to the SHIDEHIRA Cabinet. The Cabinet, it is clear, has neither the power nor the ability to carry out the general election, the main duty of an inter-mediaye cabinet. We can see that the reason for the issue of this directive is the lethargy of the cabinet in dealing with such matters as making preparations for the election.
We have repeatedly pointed out that the present Cabinet is very reactionary, but now we must emphasize that if this Cabinet is permitted to exist any longer, the national economy will face a vital crisis .
The SHIDEHARA Cabinet is based on all the old parties. Therefore, in spite of its land talk, the Cabinet has unblushingly trampled down the Nation's democratic demands. It has executed the Allied Powers' directives with reluctance, and sometimes deliberately misconstrued them. Making every effort to obstruct the progress of a democratic revolution, it is keeping the interests of its own ruling class secure. For example, the Cabinet is going to indemnify nationally the loss of the munitions industry and by abolishing price control over vital goods and perishable food without any preparatory counterplan; it thus is letting the war profiteers lead a luxurious life. Further, by delaying the levy of a war profits tax and a property tax, it is giving tine for taxdodging and property concealment. Meanwhile, it is not considering any countermeasures to relieve war sufferers, unemployed, and demobilized servicemen. The life of the people is at stake because of the shortage of food and the inequality of its distribution. On the streets starving people are falling one after another, social evils are increasing and the organization of the police has come to naught. The Nation, quite correctly , is whole heartedly complaining of the pernicious politics of the Cabinet.
A cabinet which takes the place of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet should be a popular front cabinet that is composed of the Liberal, the Social-Democrat and the Communist parties, based on the wishes of the general public. Any acting intermediate cabinet would not have power enough to rule over the existing food crisis. A political power that would unite completely the proper democratic parties should be set up. Excluding political adventures, bosses, and reactionary persons, the people should form a fresh and powerful cabinet from among themselves or from newly-risen political powers.
If the Nation misses the chance to elect just and true democratic element s, they will not only be missing the chance to take the first steps toward democracy, but will also find it very difficult to execute directives from SCAP to eliminate antidemocratic elements. In our country, reactionary militarism is deeply rooted, and those who were once secret policemen have not yet been swept away. Such persons are posted at Government
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
offices or at social control agencies . Unless we eliminate them our advance will be impeded.
The political sense of the masses is being rapidly improved. If we now make further efforts, we shall not find it difficult to form a popular front cabinet . The proper democratic powers in and out of Parliament should unite to carry out a democratic rebolution thoroughly and passionately by giving up their habitual narrow-mindedness. If we do not take measures instantly to solve the present food and inflation problem, It will be very difficult for us to surmount the crisis we now face. Furthermore, if we do not adjust political power clearly by forming a popular front cabinet, cabinet shall be able neither to carry out a proper election nor carry out speedly and efficiently a democratic revolution by our own efforts.
The SHIDEHARA Cabinet , it is rumored, is now struggling to continue its existence by reorganization. We can assert that the present social evils have been brought into existence by the inability and reactionary policy of the Cabinet. It has none of the qualifications necessary for developing a democracy. We, in the name of the Nation, demand the resignation of the entire cabinet.
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