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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0211, 1946-01-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0655

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 655 Date: 7 Jan 46

EDITORIAL SERIES: 211

ITEM 1 Producers and Consumers - Mainichi Shimbun - 5 January 1946. Translator: H. [illegible]rai.
Full Translation
It may well be said that the increse of burglars, who have banded together to break into other people's houses, and the appearance of black market dealers, who are dealing in goods at exorbitant prices in the streets, are the two greatest evils of the present phase of life in defeated JAPAN. When the conditions of society become stable, such groups are sure to disappear. However, far from disappearing, they are presently likely to increase. When everybody thinks for himself about what to do, he finds that he is unable to carry out plans. If he does not think he should take steps by himself and gets others to help him, he will be able to find ways to break the present situation.
Almost all burglars or black market dealers have formed into groups. As a means of overcoming the food situation, this is understandable, but no exactly beneficial to others.
It is true that the capitalists were saboteurs. However, a way has now been found to make them active. The workers have formed labor unions and pressed them for work.
Hearing of the black, market dealers' private circumstances, we understand that normal transactions would be impossible under existing circumstances. Customers were lost as a result of the retrenchment of enterprise, and wholesale stores were wiped out by air raids.
The street dealers who were night stall operators in former days, are traditionally proud of their trade; therefore, they don't make unreasonable profits. It is due to the high cost of goods that the selling price is so high. The high cost of goods is due to the high price of rice being traced in illicit transactions.
Among the street dealers, those who are making exorbitant profits are only the casual traders. They lack the moral sense of merchants and think that the higher the prices are, the more profits they can make. When one who is enraged at then deals in the same articles at lower, prices, buyers suspect that there are faults in the articles. We hear that an article wasn't sold at a low price but that it brought a higher price in another place.
The producers and consumers must form unions or consumers' associations and have regular transactions with each other. Otherwise, they will not escape from the present situation.
ITEM 2 On New Year's Day In Connection with Building a New Japan - Provincial Newspaper, Kochi-Shimbun (Kochi) - 1 January 1946. Translator: S. Inoue.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 211 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Summary:
How shall we discuss this New Year? This year is one in which hardships and poverty must be borne. We must realize on New Year's Day that, although the war in over, another bloodless war will have to be fought for peace and rehabilitation, in the name of a cultured and moral state.
President TRUMAN said on the first Chirstmas Day after the end of the war, "We, along with conquered enemies, must endeavor to establish a permanent peace, and winning a peace is as hard as winning a war." This is a message sent to nations all over the world, rather than to the American people alone. At least, this is the year for us to carry out the principles of this message. The suggestion is that the establishment of a peaceful moral state is as difficult as defeating a nation by force of arms. What makes it worse for us than for the Allied Nations, is that we are handicapped by the many burdens imposed upon a conquered people. The imposition of reparations is one of them. As was revealed by an interim report on reparations by Mr. PAULEY, they are very heavy. However heavy they may be, we must bear the burden and achieve full payment as a responsibility imposed upon the whole Nation.
We have far more problems, politically and economically, to be dealt with at home; politically—revision of the Constitution, enforcement of a general election, and the problem of the Emperor System; economically—measures for the currency, stabilization of the prices of commodities, and the problem of unemployment. Moreover, there are the problems concerning food and war damages, which must be solved immediately.
Thus, more difficult problems succeed previous ones. However, as we go on solving these problems, our reponsibility for the war will lessen, and we may be able to derive some benefit from a world peace, built upon the POTSDAM Declaration, in order to clear away for the establishment of a new JAPAN. We feel very glad and at the same time bound by duty to realize that this will be attained neither by the policies nor the directions of militarists or bureaucrats, but by the concentrated democratic powers, wielded by a nation of 80,000,000 people.
When we try to form a new JAPAN on a cultural and moral basis, in accordance with the spirit of a national mission, we must be thoroughly inbued with democracy. In this sense, this is the year for a thorough democratization of the Japanese nation. This must, of course, be realized in the actual management of the coming general election in accordance with the revised Election Law, and in the agricultural problems, according to the agricultural Lands Reform Law, as well as the labor problems through the enforcement of the Laborers Union Law. We must realize that the first New Year for JAPAN in defeat is, in this way, of the greatest significance to us.
ITEM 3 Construction With Our Own Hands - Tokyo Shimbun - 5 January 1946. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
The construction of new JAPAN must be undertaken by the Japanese Nation itself. The Nation stands at a loss with so much burden imposed upon it. The people could not find a way to proceed unless they were given directives from Allied Headquarters. Such was their miserable status. Allied Headquarters ordered the complete abolishing of feudalism, mysticism without scientific basis, the unreasonable idea of the superiority of the race, militarism and the privilege of some classes or strata. This suggests that any steps forward by new JAPAN must be
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 211 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
made by the nation itself. What have we done thus far to cope with those directives?
The Government is bent upon following directives ordered by Allied Headquarters. They ignore any efforts to oppose fate. This may also be said of the people. They have spent the past five months since the war's end idly in absent-mindedness, their only effort being to cry about the coming food crisis or to bestir themselves in getting food. Is the reconstruction of JAPAN possible under such conditions?
The obstructions which hindered the construction of democratic and peaceful JAPAN have been removed by Allied Headquarters. Furthermore, if we take advantage of the prestige and power of Allied Headquarters, we think that it would be to our own detriment. When we look at the directives hitherto issued by Allied Headquarters, we are rather astonished by the fact that they are attentive. They are formulated as if they were teaching a thoughtless child. Is the Government or the Nation ashamed at receiving such attentive directives? If there is anyone who still needs to be aided by the Allied Powers, he is surely not qualified to undertake the great task of building the new JAPAN as an independent country.
The situation of JAPAN since the war's end is not an easy one, of course. The obstacles, at least those in sight, have been removed. Yet the groundwork for constructing the new JAPAN, as well as the plan to lay the cornerstones, is left for the future. These must be accomplished by the Japanese Nation itself. However kindly the parents may lead a child, he cannot walk unless he himself makes an effort to walk. Is JAPAN or her people so feeble that she cannot make the effort?
We exhausted our energies in the past. Moreover, we did so for an unworthy cause, in executing the war, which was completely lost. Thus, it may be rather natural that we are disappointed and have lost our self-confidence. However, the new aim has been set before us. This aim is quite different from the ambitions of the past which were betrayed by revelation of reality. Our new objective is a hopeful one, that is, the construction of democratic and peaceful JAPAN. The way to this objective is not a smooth one. Nevertheless, it is not impossible to rach this objective if we work diligently by ourselves. Let us cease relying on other nation's power from now on! Of course, we must obey the orders from the Allied Powers. However, we must seek the way by ourselves before we are ordered to do so by the Allied Powers.
ITEM 4 The Public Market - Tokyo Shimbun - 5 January 1946. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Summary:
Mr. MATSUMURA, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, in replying to a question at the 89th Diet admitted the necessity of establishing public markets. The Public market system was established in our country at the end of the TAISHO Era as a result of the rice riots, which were caused by the maladministration of the erstwhile Agricultural Minister, NAKAKOJI. The rioters sought fair rice prices. I think that the establishment of public markets is one of the most important measures which our Nation must take to check the present dangerous inflation. I have no time to dwell on the conditions of the public markets of that time. At any rate, it is necessary that consumers should be supplied with commodities at reasonable prices. Public markets are sure to be efficient in giving the public practical lessons as to what fair prices are.
While prices are now publicized by broadcasting, the efficiency of this method is doubtful because the general public has come to the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 211 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
stage where it has little knowledge of the quality of goods. Prices should be made known to the public, and at the same time, genuine goods should be specially marked. In the suggested public market system, leaflets were distributed to instruct the public on how to discriminate in determining the quality of goods. Of course, prices are settled by the elements, and supply and demand; however, the official price system of today is unreasonable and does not fit the real state of affairs. At present, because of shortages, the prices of goods of superior quality are unsettled, while goods of inferior quality are sold at exorbitant prices. here is no stability in our price system. High prices would be natural if they were due only to the shortage of goods, and so unduly high prices should be regulated. I hope that public markets will be established, as soon as possible so that their prices may be set at a reasonable level and prices, in general, may become normal.
Public markets were abolished at the beginning of the SHOWA Era. This happened only because the price in the markets became similar to the general ones. At any rate, the public market system should be taken up as an important national measure. In putting it into practice, use could be made of the black markets, now found everywhere in our country. Their development should be assisted by sending officials to decide on fair prices. If public markets were established on a par with black markets, it is likely that there would be many kinds of goods of superior quality in the black markets and too little in the public markets. Such being the case, it is necessary to establish markets which will conduct business fairly and to make them take the lead. I hope that public markets may be established as soon as possible, so that goods may be circulated openly and in abundance. (Letter from ITOKAWA, Shozo.)
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