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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0197, 1946-01-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0611

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 611 Date: 4 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Political Framework in the Remodeling of the State - Provincial News-paper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (NAGOYA) - 26 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Ebiiko.
Our directive concerning Shintoism may be regarded as a final push given JAPAN in her decision on the form of government her new regime should take. Our directives to be issued hereafter will probably to limited to those necessary in effecting full understanding and complete execution of the basic pledges specified so far." The above views taken by SCAP are suggestive of its policy and attitude in the renovation of defeated JAPAN.
Now that JAPAN has practically lost her capacity as an industrial and commercial state, the only way left open for her is as an agricultural state. However, her farm system has long been bound by traditional fetters. The SCAP directive for a most rational reform of the farmland sytem, is going to introduce a revolutionary change in the most feudalistic social structure in JAPAN. Next came the directive ordering the abolition of State Shintoism, which, according to SCAP, will be the last one aimed at JAPAN'S creation of her political order.
The political defects in JAPAN in the past lay in the fact that it was apt to deviate from common sense. The most important cause of all may be traced to the fact that a group of men in power have always exploited the Throne in political issues from the time of MEIJI until today. These politicians who sought protection under the shield of the Emperor, have perhaps fostered JAPAN’s downfall. Therefore, we think it is most natural that SOAP, having studied this source of political evil thoroughly from a scientific viewpoint, issued its directive on State Shintoism, and takes this measure as the last stop in speeding up the formation of a now political order.
Nevertheless, the lack of a critical attitude concerning convention or common knowledge in ordinary day life may be regarded as a national characteristic of the Japanese, compared to the Chinese who are far superior in this respect. This national character, which has hitherto been regarded as a merit, mast now be said to be a demerit, because it is one of the major causes of JAPAN's defeat. Common sense is a great factor. Therefore, we face much ridicule if we desert common sense and pay homage to mysticism. When viewed in this light, common sense is a great worldly principle. To reconstruct" a now JAPAN acceptable to the rest of the world" as SCAP directs, the first stop we must take is the construction of a now political order based on common sense.
ITEM 2 The Tax Tragedy in Largo Cities - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (SENDAI) 27 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ketel.
Colonel SAME, Chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section of Allied Headquarters, stated the fallowing on 17 December concerning the present situation in JAPAN: "Those who have evacuated to the country should not

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 107 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
return to the cities where there is a lack of food and a shortage of housing, but should stay there." On the 21st he added, "Because of the critical food and housing problems in the cities, movement of people into these districts mast be restricted." These words should not be spoken in vain. The Colonel has clearly seen the danger that the large cities will be overcrowded in no time. However, what a plight we are in! Allied Headquarters has already had to direct the attention of the Japanese three times to matters which should have been arranged by the Japanese themselves. After all, who is moving, the American or the Japanese population? Yet the Americans have to trouble themselves by courteously criticizing the Japanese in this matter.
The war evacuation plan of people from large cities was abandoned at the end of the war. Now the plan is going in reverse. Nothing has been done up until now to block that stream or even to stem it. Is there no longer a need for evacuation since the end of the war? No, not in the least. It is true that there is no more danger of raids by enemy planes, but there are other more critical conditions. For instance, the food problem, dwelling conditions and traffic facilities are becoming more critical. Instead of the revival of the industries in large cities, they are all inactive. Crime waves, lawlessness, and the danger of starvation have drawn the large cities into a dark abyss.
Is there any reason to call the people back to the cities? Why have people the tendency to gather in large cities? It is due to the fact that in large cities there are various facilities which make one's life more comfortable. However, all the people do not come from the country, but some come from small towns in the agrarian districts. The fault lies in the bad management in the country. The Government had taken measures in the past to encourage the evacuation from large cities and also encouraged country people to move to urban areas. Another strange fact was the inequality of the financial burden of the country on the large cities. The strange thing was that the burden laid upon the agrarian districts was heavier than that laid upon, the large cities. The result of the investigation on household economy shows this fact to be true.
The Statistics Bureau of the Homo Ministry made the following statement based upon its 1839 investigation. The ratio of tax expenses for a salaried man getting 90 yen a month was three times greater in SAPPORO than in TOKYO. In SENDAI, 2.1 times greater, in KAWAZAWA 2.4 and in TAGOYA 1.2 times greater then that in TOKYO. The ratio in OSAKA is said to be almost the same as in TOKYO. Now, who would not prefer the city because of the lighter tax harden? Some people believe that this inequality has been improved since the tax system in agrarian districts was established in 1937 but the results were trifling. It cannot be denied that the neighborhood system with its compulsory savings has intensified the above inequality. The present pouring of people into the cities must be stopped at once. The Government must take up strict and decisive measures.
ITEM 3 Teachers' Association Grows Strong - Provincial Newspaper Niigata Nippo (NIIGATA) - 27 Dec 45 Translator: K. Sato.
In our prefecture, too, a teachers' association has at last been organized. Its main object is to demand the improvement of conditions, stabilization of educational authority and constant supervision of educational activities. Many claims for a reasonable increase in salaries prevail throughout the country and is especially earnest among the low-salaried unfortunate teachers. A sincere Government ought to
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 197 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
solve the problem promptly, however poor its own financial situation.
There are other claims for the organization of consumers' guilds, welfare facilities, and those, also, are quite reasonable. We hope that they will relinquish their traditional meekness and boldly attempt to achieve their purpose. One point we cannot understand is the fact that the primary school teachers' association was founded separately from the youth school teachers' association, and that teachers above middle school grade were not included. However, the problems with which they are confronted concern all the other teachers. If minor associations, holding each to its own sphere, should fail to unite as a body, they will become quite impotent in gaining their objectives.
In view of the peculiarity of each district, I propose that their principles be based on conditions in respective local provinces. If they should follow the general formula of the Government, disregarding the local circumstances, it would disappoint the people of the prefecture and they would gradually lose their support. They must not fail to steer their own course. The activities of the associations hereafter should be directed to the reorganization of the educational world. Rejection of militaristic and nationalistic teachers, and reappointment of approved ones should be carried out. They should not only demand one group, but all the members should work for the association with burning fervor and firm resolve to promote JAPAN's education. For this purpose, they must pay attention to external opinion, so that they will grow into real public organizations.
ITEM 4 Only Way Open for Peaceful JAPAN - Asahi Shimbun - 31 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unaysma.
Full translation:
It has been reported that the federation of Japanese Communists has been displaying activity in YENAN, striving for the realization of communism in JAPAN under the Emperor System. It has also been said that NOZAKA, Sanji, leader of that Federation has already arrived at KEIJO and was waiting for a chance to return home.
NOZAKA, one day, while studying at KEIO University, heard a professor talk about the Communist Manifesto for the first time. This was, we hear, the start of his thinking. A Japanese magazine once published his memoirs, written on the occasion of his banishment from ENGLAND. It is also well known that he devoted himself to study of the problem CHINTA while he was imprisoned.
At present when the SOVIET UNION seems to be taking a roundabout policy in the East, NOZAKA's return home over the Korean Strait, after his long absence, may have great effects. It was announced that the Communists of CHINA had presented a proposal to the Kuomintang, at the CHUNGKING Conference for an unconditional truce. This is one of the most noteworthy affairs in CHINA since the SIAN Incident of autumn 1936.
There is no way for JAPAN but the liquidation of the principle in which she desired the disunity of the Communists and Kuomintang or dreamed of antagonism between THE UNITED STATES and SOVIET UNION, in order to gloss over her lack of power.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0197, 1946-01-04.
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