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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0182, 1945-12-30.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0573

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 573 Date: 30 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 182

ITEM 1 Tide Over the Crisis of Fate - Provincial Newspaper Niigata Nippo (Niigata) - 24 Dec 45. Translators I. Hotta.
Summary:
Severe winter has come and brought many difficulties. Besides food difficulties and fuel difficulties, the inadequacies of medical treatment will cause the spread of disease this winter. As people's resistance against sickness is lowered, one is easily taken sick, and the number of absentees due to sickness is increasing in every profession. Most people will suffer from sickness and malnutrition if present circumstances remain unchanged. At present influenza, typhus, and other diseases are raging in this prefecture.
The shortage of food and coal has had a great influence on medical treatment. Imperfect heating apparatus makes an operation impossible, and the shortage of blood for transfusion, which is indispensable to a surgeon, is causing great concern in the medical world since saving life depends upon it. The number of those who supply blood for transfusion has greatly decreased because of malnutrition. This fact required the production of substitute blood, however, the supply has not been sufficient.
The most deplorable result is malnutrition and the deterioration of the physical conditions of children. Statistics tell us that average weight in 1943 has decreased from that in 1941 by two or three kilogrames. Such a deterioration is also seen in height. The bad influence of the difficult times is seen especially among these children above nine who should be well-grown. We have heard that 63 per cent of pupils in a certain national school are suffering from food shortage. These pupils will be easily taken sick as winter continues.
How shall we tide over this crisis? The fundamental need is to distribute more food but we must take some other counter-measure to meet the situation, for the distribution of more foodstuffs is almost hopeless under the present food circumstances. The imperfection of medical treatment requires strong measures by the Government. The authorities should put their plans into practice as soon as possible. However, one must protect one's health by oneself. Now we are about to reach the end of the year, and everyone of the people of the Prefecture should bravely tide over the present unparalleled crisis.
ITEM 2 Who Should Be Excluded in the Coming Election? The Mainichi Shimbun - 28 Dec 45. Translator: K. Gunji.
Full translation:
The Government covered a meeting of prefectural heads before the coming election. Premier SHIDEHARA said in the meeting that a positive attitude should be taken by the authorities for the restoration and development of democracy, that the happiness of the people be promoted on the basis of democracy, and that the epoch-making new Election Law and the dissolution of the Diet would offer a good opportunity for the construction of a new JAPAN.

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EDITORIAL SERIES 182 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Although it is very questionable whether true democracy has ever existed in JAPAN in the 50 years since the promulgation of the Constitution, we appreciate his good intentions. It is well that attempts to control the elections have been prohibited.
In addition, however, we believe there is still another task to be accomplished before the election. We must take measures against those who did much to bring about the decline of constitutional government and left the destiny of our country at the hands of the TOJO cabinet. Unless these old political influences are eliminated, we can not expect good results in the election, considering the remarkable increase of voters which resulted from the lowering of the age limit and the adoption of women suffrage. These persons as was revealed in the last Diet, lack a sense of political responsibility. Therefore, we demand the suspension of their civil rights. What sort of men shall we shut out? The miserable confusion among the Diet members reflects their apprehension. Logically, at the head of the list should come those who invented the unprecedented election control system that is, the recommendation system; there are also those who entered the [illegible]the strength of that system. Secondly, there are those who created the Greater JAPAN Political Association and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association to support the TOJO cabinet. Thirdly, there are those leaders of ex-servicemen's associations, the Imperial Rule Association and the Imperial Rule Assistance Manhood Corps, who were used as pawns in election control. Lastly, there are those politicians who amassed fortunes from the war in collusion with the militarists and Zaibatsu. They include ministers, vice-ministers, and officials of CHOKUNIN rank in the Home Office.
If the local governments are considered, governors, and local police chiefs should be included. The Minister of war, the Vice-minister, and the Chief of the Bureau of Military Affairs also most be included. In the Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association, the chairman, secretaries, and chiefs of the local branches fall into the same category. As for those who have been recommended for election, the whole group, or at least the elected ones, or, to lessen the extent, leaders of Imperial Rule Assistance Manhood Corps and the Greater JAPAN Political Association should be included. The Imperial Rule Assistance Manhood Corps and the ex-servicemen’s associations, the presidents, vice-presidents, and presidents of the boards of directors should also receive their due. As regards the suspension of civil rights, two things are possible, suspension only of the right to hold office or suspension of both the right to be elected and the right to vote. On the other hand, supporters of the TOJO cabinet who have positions in the Upper House should be excluded. In short, those people who have driven our country into its present sad plight must be excluded and replaced by honest people who are willing to devote themselves to the cause of democracy.
ITEM 3 Text Books Which Do Not Make Sense - Asahi Shimbun - 28 December 1945. Translator: Y. Ebiike.
Full translation:
Perhaps no parent, after reading the national school text books in arithmetric and science, can explain them to his children. These text books conclude each chapter saying, "Try this and that, then see what you can make of it.
Now there are an infinite number of answers which we can make of them, but what is it that the authors demand of the pupils? None but the authors themselves can answer. Of course the teachers in national schools can't. Text books of this pattern with their persistent "what do you make out of it" queries were compiled on the principle that the essence of scientific
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EDITORIAL SERIES 182 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
education does not exist in teaching facts Only, but in deliberating, devising, and creating. Such an idea is quite correct, but schoolboys, who do not have preliminary knowledge, can create nothing however hard they may think, nor can they understand anything at all if the text book merely says to the children, "what do you make out of it?" There is a group of leading scholars who boast that theirs is the latest system of Japanese mathematics and at the same time an advance in scientific education.
Along with these text books of the "what do you make of it" series, the middle school text books and also those of the normal schools have been compiled in the same manner. The pupils, who advanced from national schools to middle schools without acquiring adequate knowledge, are again asked “what do you make of this?" Moreover they were away from schools in labor service until the end of the war, and could not practice self-study in their dormitories because the study of such text books requires the help co[illegible]peachers. To make matters worse, teachers' manuals for the text book of the national school are not yet completed and those of middle schools and normal schools are not ready either. Those teachers who have the same knowledge and intentions as the authors may be able to manage, but due to their divergent ideas and understanding, the teachers have, some to adopt their own methods. Even mathematics taught at national schools calls for a knowledge of differential and integral calculu[illegible], analytical geometry, and higher algebra on the part of the teachers. Therefore, the difference between good teaching and bad is so great that those who have little knowledge teach almost nothing. Those teaching at middle schools are in the same plight.
Parents of national schoolboys are eager to get teachers' manuals, while middle school pupils are preoccupied with obtaining key books to mathemathics and natural physics, whenever such books are advertised in newspapers.
It is of course advisable to give pupils a chance to think for themselves, but let the authors give the pupils some knowledge before he asks "What do you make of it?" Otherwise, the pupils will absorb nothing however long they may be allowed to think. Youngmen and boys are thirsting for knowledge. Give them plenty of knowledge and then let them think a little for themselves. It is unreasonable to demand of them a great deal of thinking in return for the little knowledge given at present. I want text books written for self-study with plenty of content and explanations in them. It is from such books inventiveness and the creative impulse arise. (Head of a National School)
ITEM 4 Burglary by en Ex-member of the Special Attack Corps - Tokyo Shimbun - 28 Dec 45. Translator: M. Kato.
Full translation:
An arrest of an ex-member of Special Attack Corps, , who waylaid people at a crossing, was reported. This is no wonder, because a man is subject to his environment, especially in the case of youth. Imagine the atmosphere during the war. The people all devoted themselves to the affairs of the war. Every day war deaths, including relatives, were officially reported. "All officiers and men were killed" was announced. Houses and streets were destroyed before our by bomb raids every day. Leaders encouraged us every day.
In this atmosphere the sensitive blood of the younger generation chose the natural course. They became soldiers, applied for the naval preparatory course for aviators, for the military preparatory school for the nava cadets school or the military college; or became Special Attack Corps
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EDITORIAL SERIES 182 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
members. The only exceptions were those youths who were eccentrics or invalids. War is the eyes of youth is like that throughout the world.
The unexpected result of the war strained the youths' spitits. To this state add the censure and attacks against the militarists and heroes of the war who were looked upon on only yesterday as gods. People at large have no choice in obtaining their livelihood. Into this chaotic atmosphere the youth is easy prey to repeated temptations. In the case of the ex-members of the Special Attack Corps, it is rather more so because of the nature of their past occupation. The construction of a new JAPAN is on their shoulders. Is it right to leave affairs as they stand?
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0182, 1945-12-30.
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