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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0177, 1945-12-29.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0559

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 559 Date: 29 Dec 45


ITEM 1 A. Understand the Special Characteristics of Coal Production, B. Reshuffling of Officials - Provincial Newspaper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (Nagoya) - 21 Dec 45. Translator: K. Sato.
I. The shortage of coal has almost paralyzed the railways in our country. We have hitherto maintained, in vain, the importance of mechanization of the industry along with the replenishment of labor. Foundamental recognition must be attached to the fact that the coal production is conditioned by particular circumstances quite different from any other industry; that a production proportioned to the measure of funds, materials and labor cannot be expected.
For example, a production of one million tons last year does not guarantee the same amount this year. Each ton this year means so much of an increase. Coal mining is an industry which depends upon limited resources under the ground. Without comprehending this peculiarity, no device or theory or plan can ever solve the problem.
The Government decided to discontinue subsidies to essential industries, yet as far as coal is concerned, an investigation should be made to see whether the industry should be excepted in order not to discourage producers. The Government raised the price of coal from 20.13 yen to 85 yen per ton, but this is the amount of estimated production costs per ton in 1949, four years hence. On the other hand, the high cost of living has raised the average day's wage for a digger to 20 yen, a pitman to 14 or 15 yen, an outside worker to six: or eight yen. Generally, an inexperienced Laborer gets 12 or 13 yen a day from the very day he descends into the pit. Thus the 85 yen selling price is by no means so attractive when we consider the expenses for welfare facilities, for freight charges, and for office work.
Since they intend to continue the subsidy till the end of 1948, we heartily hope that the Government, fully grasping the special characteristics of this industry, will first of all take considerate measures on the question of price, materials and labor.
II. The Government resolved to-dismiss 65,000 central and local officials. Although this figure seems enormous, it is little more than 14 per cent of the total. In the Cabinet meeting they decided on a 50 per cent cut in Government employees. How is this great gap to be explained? It is objectively demanded that the number of officials be reduced, to less than 134,500, the figure prior to the Manchurian Incident.
Of course, there might be great difficulty and much trouble in carrying out such dismissals. This is a question of determination and political comprehension. As long as the feudalistic organization continues and as long as official influence cominates administration, the number of the officials will never be sufficient. In addition, complicated

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 177 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
organization and low efficiency await reformation. All these things would be solved only by converting the individual abilities of the Nation into the central administrative power of the country. We deeply regret that the fervor of the Government for reconstruction of the State is so feeble at presents
ITEM 2 Construction of New Strata of Leaders - Provinicial Newspaper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (Nagoya) - 24 Dec 45. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
It is reported that the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers will issue an order to postpone the date of the general election. The reason is supposed to be the necessity of investigating the qualifications of the candidates, especially those who are suspected of war-responsibility as the members of past Diets. This is probably true. Their vague and obscure attitude regarding the Resolution on Self-Accusation for War-Responsibility in the Extraordinary Session of the Diet, invited public criticism at that time, as we frequently pointed out in these columns. Nevertheless, the majority of the members of the Diet did not reflect very much on this subject, but openly strove to become candidates, champions for the construction of new JAPAN.
It is only natural for the General Headquarters to deem that their qualifications should be checked. The Government was accused in the late session of the Diet of its lack of thorough recognition of the present circumstances of JAPAN and of its ignorance in establishing effective policies. The inability of the Government was deemed to have necessitated the issue of the directives from the Allied Headquarters. Now the case is quite reversed. The members of the Diet who accused the Government were ordered to consider their records. Now their situation is even more ridiculous from a certain point of view. If both the Government and the members of the Diet had contemplated the real aspects of our situation, the way to proceed should have been self-evident. Nevertheless, a directive from the Allied Headquarters was necessary on every problems. This must be attributed to a Lack of serious self-reflection.
Yet this may be said also to the Nation. The present food problem may be illustrated as an example. According to the statement by Colonel SAMS, Chief of Public Health and Welfare Section, JAPAN has a reserve of food sufficient to furnish more than 1500 calories per person per day till April or May next year." Moreover, in view of the fact that black market commodities are flooding the country, it is obvious that the amount of food is not so short as is generally thought. It may be true that "the question lies in the lack of efficient distribution,” as asserted by Colonel SAMS. Then, what hinders efficient distribution? It must be attributed to the lack of sympathy and fraternization among the Nation, which was caused by the lack of thorough recognition of the present real situation by both the Government and the people.
Thus considered, we know that the most urgent need at present is to grasp the real aspects of our situation. Allied Headquarters stated that education and guidance would be the main items in its future policy for JAPAN. This must be understood as requiring full recognition and serious self-reflection by the Nation. The member of the Diet or the candidates for election should be the leaders of the Nation. It is but natural that they were requested seriously to review their past in the first place. The drastic mental transformation of the [illegible]by the revision of the educational system, and the construction of a new leader strata will stimulate the movement for a peaceful and cultural JAPAN. It seems that these are the aims of the Allied Headquarters.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 177 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Decrease of the Farmer's Desire to Deliver Rice - Mainichi Shimbun - 27 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full Translation:
Agriculture Minister MATSUMURA stated that the actual results of the delivery of rice for sale to the Government, are improving daily. His manner of speaking, however, seemed strained because of the serious view he took of the situation.
Evidently the Minister is considering the enforcement of Government control of staple foods. He is now avoiding any discussion concerning the system of control or whether the system of control is or is not monopolistic. He is taking steps for the delivery of rice for sale to the Government at present, but at the time, making preparations to submit the bill for Government control to the forthcoming special session of the Diet. His attitude, however, convoys the impression that he pretends not to be aware of the serious situation.
If the social, barriers between the townsmen and the farmers is left to its own course, it will become more and more acute, as the Minister himself said. This may be so, but all the goods which are desired by the farmers cannot be poured into villages from cities and, even if they could, it still would, not solve the problem. It can be presumed that a decrease in the farmers' willingness to deliver rice for sale to the Government has some connection with their pecuniary position and standard of living. That is to say, the financial relation of farm villages and the cities has changed so much that the farmers no longer need to sell rice in haste.
The volume of rice produced in 1930 was 65,3000,000 koku, of which the producers' own consumption amounted to 38,790,000 koku. 26,510,000 koku was brought to the market. Of this 68.3 per cent was from landowners and 31.7 per cent, or more than 830,000 koku, from tenant-farmers.
In 1930 the Japanese Government's debts amounted to about 5,000,000,000 yen and a terrible depression prevailed all over the country. The farm villages were in extreme destitution. In one year alone, an amount greater than our present production was consumed in farm-villages. This Year's [illegible]rice crop amounts to 42,970,000 koku, and the allotted amount [illegible]offered for sale to the government is 26,590,000 koku. The farmers’ willingness to deliver rice can be inspired only by figures which show the amount necessary to starve off starvation.
Both the price for the producers and that for the landowners has been raised, but the farm-villages are already overflowing with money. The savings of the farmers' associations in the country amounted to 1,825,000,000 yen in 1938, and 16,812,000,000 yen in June of this year.
Formerly tenant-farmers had to sell rice to pay their debts, even if the rice for their consumption ran short. Now, they feel reassured when they look at the heaps of rice, in bags, and try to decide whether to sell at black market prices. Therefore, if idea of "delivering rice for sale to the Government is not changed, the principle of rice delivery for sale to the Government cannot be put in practice. However, the idea cannot be changed immediately. Drastic measures may be needed. This should put to test the Government's politica1 power.
ITEM 4 The Mission of Administration - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Dec 45. Transaltor: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
In view of the general election, the opening of the Profectural Governors' [illegible]. With the pressing need for food,
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 177 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
fuel, and increased production, it is a matter of concern to the whole Nation from the standpoint of the solidification of connections between national daily life and state administration.
When the public election of governors has taken place, the mission to report the local state of affairs to the Central Government will be fulfilled. But even now we cannot accomplish the opposite - informing the public of Government affairs. Now, not, only has the area of our counter been reduced, but also the authority of the Allied Powers reigns over us. This is no time to adhere to such trifles as maintaining independence from the Central Government. The local authorities and the middle, the upper, and the lower classes must be united to increase food and coal production. It may prove effective if each school senior goes to his native prefecture and solicits the farmers to fulfill their rice quotes.
As we have feared, a burglary has been committed by a member of the former Special Attach (Air) Corps. We must urge men of intelligence to consider this seriously. As long as the adjustment from military life to civil life is not made, such incidents will continue.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0177, 1945-12-29.
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